This paper focuses on the performance of Iwan as one of the significant spaces in the traditional architecture of Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of Iwan in sustainability enhancement of traditional houses of different climatic regions of Iran. Iwan is considered as a semi-open space, which its form and location in the building highly depends to the climatic situation of that region. For that reason, Iwan is recognized as one of the sustainable elements in the traditional houses of Iran, which can provide more comfort with less use of energy. In this study, the history and emergence of Iwan in the traditional architecture of Iran as well as the concept of sustainability in architecture are explained briefly. Then, the change of performance or form of Iwan is analysed in different climatic regions of Iran in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. Results of this paper verify that studying the sustainability solutions in the traditional architecture of Iran, would be a valuable source of inspiration for the current designers to create an environmental and sustainable architecture for the future.
The aim of sustainable architecture is to design buildings with the least adverse effects on the environment and provide better conditions for people. What building forms make the best use of land? This question was addressed in the late 1960s at the center of Land Use and Built Form Studies in Cambridge. This led to a number of influential papers which had a great influence on the practice of urban design. This paper concentrates on the results of sustainability caused by climatic conditions in Iranian traditional architecture in hot-arid regions. As people spent a significant amount of their time in houses, it was very important to have such houses to fulfill their needs physically and spiritually as well as satisfying their cultural and religious aspects of their lifestyles. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones, traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. These solutions have been able to response to the environmental problems for a long period of time. As a result, by considering the experience in traditional architecture of hot–arid climate in Iran, it is possible to attain sustainable architecture.
In order to respond the human needs, all regional, social, and economical factors are available to gain residents’ comfort and ideal architecture. There is no doubt the thermal comfort has to satisfy people not only for daily and physical activities but also creating pleasant area for mental activities and relaxing. It costs energy and increases greenhouse gas emissions.
Reducing energy use in buildings is a critical component of meeting carbon reduction commitments. Hence housing design represents a major opportunity to cut energy use and CO2 emissions.
In terms of energy efficiency, it is vital to propose and research modern design methods for buildings however vernacular architecture techniques are proven empirical existing practices which have to be considered. This research tries to compare two architectural solution were proposed by Persian vernacular architecture, to achieve energy efficiency in hot areas.
The aim of this research is to analyze two forms of traditional Persian architecture in different locations in order to develop a systematic research and sustainable technologies on adaptation to contemporary living standards.
Sustainable architecture is an approach which accepts the climatic and tomographic data as a necessary preliminary data package by favoring the relationship between human and nature and which strives to use the sources economically. The reflection of sustainable architecture approach to preservation - restoration discipline is including the architectural inheritance to daily life with its unique or new function by restoring it.
The restoration decisions of Yılan Kırkan Fountain in Isparta province of Turkey is a good example of the works of sustainable architecture and the preservation of architectural inheritance. It is aimed that Yılan Kırkan Fountain, which is desolate nowadays with no function, to be restored by the local authorities and university, included in the daily life and continue its function.
Human always tried to create a suitable situation for their life according to environmental conditions. In fact, geography has an important role in the shape of our living area. Iran also as a four-season country has different climate type: hot and humid, hot and dry, mid and humid, and cold; therefore, we can find different architecture styles in Iran. Gilan-s traditional architecture is a suitable sample of sustainable construction in Iran. Because the main factors of every dwelling are the climatic, social, economic and cultural effects which demonstrate the interaction between environment and people settlement. This paper was determined the interaction between environmental factors and the rural dwellings in the Gilan province. Also, traditional village (city) of Masouleh as a rare sample of rural and sustainable architecture was introduced.
Stairway Ushtobin Village is one of the five villages with original and sustainable architecture in Northwest of Iran along the border of Armenia, which has been able to maintain its environment and sustainable ecosystem. Studying circulation, function and scale (grand, medium and minor) of space, ratio of full and empty spaces, number and height of stairs, ratio of compound volume to luxury spaces, openings, type of local masonry (stone, mud, wood) and form of covering elements have been carried out in four houses of this village comparatively as some samples in this article, and furthermore, this article analyzes that the architectural shapes and organic texture of the village meet the needs of cold and dry climate. Finally, some efficient plans are offered suiting the present needs of the village to have a sustainable architecture.
Social ideology, cultural values and principles shaping environment are inferred by environment and structural characteristics of construction site. In other words, this inference manifestation also indicates ideology and culture of its foundation and also applies its principles and values and somehow plays an important role in Cultural Revolution. All human behaviors and artifacts are affected and being influenced by culture. Culture is not abstract concept, it is a spiritual domain that an individual and society grow and develop in it. Social behaviors are affected by environmental comprehension, so the architecture work influences on its audience and it is the environment that fosters social behaviors. Indeed, sustainable architecture should be considered as background of culture for establishing optimal sustainable culture. Since unidentified architecture roots in cultural non identity and abnormalities, so the society possesses identity characteristics and life and as a consequence, the society and architecture are changed by transformation of life style. This article aims to investigate the interaction of architecture, society, environment and sustainable architecture formation in its cultural basis and analyzes the results approaching behavior and sustainable culture in recent era.
Built environments have a large impact on environmental sustainability and if it is not considered properly can negatively affect our planet. The application of transformable intelligent building systems that automatically respond to environmental conditions is one of the best ways that can intelligently assist us to create sustainable environment. The significance of this issue is evident as energy crisis and environmental changes has made the sustainability the main concerns in many societies. The aim of this research is to review and evaluate the importance and influence of transformable intelligent structure on the creation of sustainable architecture. Intelligent systems in current buildings provide convenience through automatically responding to changes in environmental conditions, reducing energy dissipation and increase of the lifecycle of buildings. This paper by analyzing significant intelligent building systems will evaluate the potentials of transformable intelligent systems in the creation of sustainable architecture and environment.
wind catchers have been served as a cooling system, used to provide acceptable ventilation by means of renewable energy of wind. In the present study, the city of Yazd in arid climate is selected as case study. From the architecture point of view, learning about wind catchers in this study is done by means of field surveys. Research method for selection of the case is based on random form, and analytical method. Wind catcher typology and knowledge of relationship governing the wind catcher's architecture were those measures that are taken for the first time. 53 wind catchers were analyzed. The typology of the wind-catchers is done by the physical analyzing, patterns and common concepts as incorporated in them. How the architecture of wind catcher can influence their operations by analyzing thermal behavior are the archetypes of selected wind catchers. Calculating fluids dynamics science, fluent software and numerical analysis are used in this study as the most accurate analytical approach. The results obtained from these analyses show the formal specifications of wind catchers with optimum operation in Yazd. The knowledge obtained from the optimum model could be used for design and construction of wind catchers with more improved operation