International Science Index

17
10008685
Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts
Abstract:

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Paper Detail
116
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16
10006088
Web-Based Tools to Increase Public Understanding of Nuclear Technology and Food Irradiation
Abstract:

Food irradiation is a processing and preservation technique to eliminate insects and parasites and reduce disease-causing microorganisms. Moreover, the process helps to inhibit sprouting and delay ripening, extending fresh fruits and vegetables shelf-life. Nevertheless, most Brazilian consumers seem to misunderstand the difference between irradiated food and radioactive food and the general public has major concerns about the negative health effects and environmental contamination. Society´s judgment and decision making are directly linked to perceived benefits and risks. The web-based project entitled ‘Scientific information about food irradiation: Internet as a tool to approach science and society’ was created by the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), in order to offer an interdisciplinary approach to science education, integrating economic, ethical, social and political aspects of food irradiation. This project takes into account that, misinformation and unfounded preconceived ideas impact heavily on the acceptance of irradiated food and purchase intention by the Brazilian consumer. Taking advantage of the potential value of the Internet to enhance communication and education among general public, a research study was carried out regarding the possibilities and trends of Information and Communication Technologies among the Brazilian population. The content includes concepts, definitions and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about processes, safety, advantages, limitations and the possibilities of food irradiation, including health issues, as well as its impacts on the environment. The project counts on eight self-instructional interactive web courses, situating scientific content in relevant social contexts in order to encourage self-learning and further reflections. Communication is a must to improve public understanding of science. The use of information technology for quality scientific divulgation shall contribute greatly to provide information throughout the country, spreading information to as many people as possible, minimizing geographic distances and stimulating communication and development.

Paper Detail
822
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15
10004136
Inductions of CaC2 on Sperm Morphology and Viability of the Albino Mice (Mus musculus)
Abstract:

This work investigated possible inductions of CaC2, often misused by fruit vendors to stimulate artificial ripening, on mammalian sperm morphology and viability. Thirty isogenic strains of male albino mice, Mus musculus (age≈ 8weeks; weight= 32.52.0g) were acclimatized (ambient temperature 28.0±1.0°C) for 2 weeks and fed standard growers mash and water ad libutum. They were later exposed to graded toxicant concentrations (w/w) of 2.5000, 1.2500, 0.6250, and 0.3125% in 4 cages. A control cage was also established. After 5 weeks, 3 animals from each cage were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the cauda epididymis excised. Sperm morphology and viability were determined by microscopic procedures. The ANOVA, means plots, Student’s t-test and variation plots were used to analyze data. The common abnormalities observed included Double Head, Pin Head, Knobbed Head, No Tail and With Hook. The higher toxicant concentrations induced significantly lower body weights [F(829.899) ˃ Fcrit(4.19)] and more abnormalities [F(26.52) ˃ Fcrit(4.00)] at P˂0.05. Sperm cells in the control setup were significantly more viable than those in the 0.625% (t=0.005) and 2.500% toxicant doses (t=0.018) at the 95% confidence limit. CaC2 appeared to induced morphological abnormalities and reduced viability in sperm cells of M. musculus.

Paper Detail
633
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14
10003911
Computational Feasibility Study of a Torsional Wave Transducer for Tissue Stiffness Monitoring
Abstract:
A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer design is proposed to measure shear moduli in soft tissue with direct access availability, using shear wave elastography technique. The measurement of shear moduli of tissues is a challenging problem, mainly derived from a) the difficulty of isolating a pure shear wave, given the interference of multiple waves of different types (P, S, even guided) emitted by the transducers and reflected in geometric boundaries, and b) the highly attenuating nature of soft tissular materials. An immediate application, overcoming these drawbacks, is the measurement of changes in cervix stiffness to estimate the gestational age at delivery. The design has been optimized using a finite element model (FEM) and a semi-analytical estimator of the probability of detection (POD) to determine a suitable geometry, materials and generated waves. The technique is based on the time of flight measurement between emitter and receiver, to infer shear wave velocity. Current research is centered in prototype testing and validation. The geometric optimization of the transducer was able to annihilate the compressional wave emission, generating a quite pure shear torsional wave. Currently, mechanical and electromagnetic coupling between emitter and receiver signals are being the research focus. Conclusions: the design overcomes the main described problems. The almost pure shear torsional wave along with the short time of flight avoids the possibility of multiple wave interference. This short propagation distance reduce the effect of attenuation, and allow the emission of very low energies assuring a good biological security for human use.
Paper Detail
731
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13
10003454
Hyperspectral Imaging and Nonlinear Fukunaga-Koontz Transform Based Food Inspection
Abstract:
Nowadays, food safety is a great public concern; therefore, robust and effective techniques are required for detecting the safety situation of goods. Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is an attractive material for researchers to inspect food quality and safety estimation such as meat quality assessment, automated poultry carcass inspection, quality evaluation of fish, bruise detection of apples, quality analysis and grading of citrus fruits, bruise detection of strawberry, visualization of sugar distribution of melons, measuring ripening of tomatoes, defect detection of pickling cucumber, and classification of wheat kernels. HSI can be used to concurrently collect large amounts of spatial and spectral data on the objects being observed. This technique yields with exceptional detection skills, which otherwise cannot be achieved with either imaging or spectroscopy alone. This paper presents a nonlinear technique based on kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform (KFKT) for detection of fat content in ground meat using HSI. The KFKT which is the nonlinear version of FKT is one of the most effective techniques for solving problems involving two-pattern nature. The conventional FKT method has been improved with kernel machines for increasing the nonlinear discrimination ability and capturing higher order of statistics of data. The proposed approach in this paper aims to segment the fat content of the ground meat by regarding the fat as target class which is tried to be separated from the remaining classes (as clutter). We have applied the KFKT on visible and nearinfrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images of ground meat to determine fat percentage. The experimental studies indicate that the proposed technique produces high detection performance for fat ratio in ground meat.
Paper Detail
874
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12
9999910
Effects of Cultivars, Growing and Storage Environments on Quality of Tomato
Abstract:

The postharvest quality management of tomatoes is important to limit the amount of losses that occur due to deterioration between harvest and consumption. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of pre- and postharvest integrated agrotechnologies, involving greenhouse microclimate and postharvest storage conditions, on the postharvest quality attributes of four tomato cultivars. Tomato fruit firmness, colour (hue angle (h°) and L* value), pH and total soluble solids for the cultivars Bona, Star 9037, Star 9009 and Zeal, grown in a fan-pad evaporativelycooled and an open-ended naturally-ventilated tunnel, were harvested at the mature-green stage. The tomatoes were stored for 28 days under cold storage conditions, with a temperature of 13°C and RH of 85%, and under ambient air conditions, with a temperature of 23± 2°C and RH of 52± 4%. This study has provided information on the effect of integrated pre-harvest and postharvest agro-technologies, involving greenhouse microclimate and postharvest storage environment on the postharvest quality attributes of four of the tomato cultivars in South Africa. NVT-grown tomatoes retained better textural qualities, but ripened faster by changing from green to red faster, although these were reduced under cold storage conditions. FPVT-grown tomatoes had lower firmness, but ripened slowly with higher colour attributes. With cold storage conditions, the firmness of FPVT-grown tomatoes was maintained. Cultivar Bona firmness and colour qualities depreciated the fastest, but it had higher TSS content and lower pH values. Star 9009 and Star 9037 presented better quality, by retaining higher firmness and ripening slowly, but they had the lowest TSS contents and high pH values, especially Star 9037. Cold storage improved the firmness of tomato cultivars with poor textural quality and faster colour changes.

Paper Detail
1903
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11
9999360
Proteolysis in Serbian Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage Petrovská klobása as Influenced by Different Ripening Processes
Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine how different ripening processes (traditional vs. industrial) influenced the proteolysis in traditional Serbian dry-fermented sausage Petrovská klobása. The obtained results indicated more intensive pH decline (0.7 units after 9 days) in industrially ripened products (I), what had a positive impact on drying process and proteolytic changes in these samples. Thus, moisture content in I sausages was lower at each sampling time, amounting 24.7% at the end of production period (90 days). Likewise, the process of proteolysis was more pronounced in I samples, resulting in higher contents of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and free amino acids nitrogen (FAAN), as well as in faster and more intensive degradation of myosin (≈220 kDa), actin (≈45 kDa) and other polypeptides during processing. Consequently, the appearance and accumulation of several protein fragments were registered.

Paper Detail
3758
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10
9998086
Effect of Ripening Conditions and Storage Time on Oxidative and Sensory Stability of Petrovská Klobása Sausage
Abstract:

The influence of ripening conditions (traditional and industrial) on oxidative and sensory stability of dry fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása), during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period the content of free fatty acids was significantly higher (P<0.05), while the content of malondialdehyde was significantly lower in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying. At the end of the storage period, content of hexanal in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of ripening (1.67μg/g) was significantly lower (P<0.05) in comparison with this content in the sausage subjected to industrial conditions of ripening (4.94µg/g). Traditional conditions of ripening at lower temperatures have led to better sensory properties of odor and taste of traditional dry fermented sausage, Petrovská klobása after 2 and 7 months of storage.

Paper Detail
3423
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9
9998091
Formation of Vasoactive Amines in Dry Fermented Sausage Petrovská Klobása during Drying and Ripening in Traditional and Industrial Conditions
Abstract:

Formation of histamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and tyramine (vasoactive amines) in dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during drying and ripening in traditional room (B1) and industrial ripening chamber (B3) were investigated. Dansyl chloride derivatized vasoactive amines were determined using HPLC-DAD on Eclipse XDB-C18 column.

Histamine, the most important amine from food safety point of view, was not detected in any analyzed sample. Unlike most of the other fermented sausages, where tyramine is reported as the most abundant amine, in Petrovská klobása tryptamine was the most abundant vasoactive amine in both groups of sausages even though concentrations of tryptamine and tyramine in B3 sausages at the end of ripening were nearly the same (39.8 versus 39.6mg/kg). Sum of vasoactive amines in samples varied from not detected ND (B3) to 176 mg/kg (B1), with concentration of 36.1 (B3) and 73.6 (B1) mg/kg at the end of drying and 96 (B3) and 176 (B1) mg/kg at the end of ripening period. Although the sum of vasoactive amines has increased from the end of drying (45. and 90. day) to the end of ripening period (120. day), during whole production period these values did not exceed 200 mg/kg proposed as possible indicator of hygienic conditions and GMP in the sausage production.

Paper Detail
3400
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8
9997337
Response of Yield and Morphological Characteristic of Rice Cultivars to Heat Stress at Different Growth Stages
Abstract:

The high temperatures during sensitive growth phases are changing rice morphology as well as influencing yield. In the glass house study, the treatments were growing conditions [normal growing (32oC+2) and heat stress (38oC+2) day time and 22oC+2 night time], growth stages (booting, flowering and ripening) and four cultivars (Hovaze, Hashemi, Fajr, as exotic and MR219 as indigenous). The heat chamber was prepared covered with plastic, and automatic heater was adjusted for two weeks in every growth stages. Rice morphological and yield under the influence of heat stress during various growth stages showed taller plants in Hashemi due to its tall character. The total tillers per hill were significantly higher in Fajr. In all growing conditions, Hashemi recorded higher panicle exertion. The flag leaf width in all situations was found higher in Hovaze. The total tillers per hill were more in Fajr, although heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering stages. The indigenous MR219 in all situations of growing conditions, growth stages recorded higher grain yield. However, its grain yield decreased when heat stress was imposed during booting and flowering. However, plants had no effect on heat stress during ripening stage.

Paper Detail
2468
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7
9997466
Tomato Fruit Color Changes During Ripening On Vine
Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached – 0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a*, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached – 0.9592.

Paper Detail
3333
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6
16696
Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand
Abstract:

The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to 29% of the total soil respiration before harvesting. The root to soil respiration ratio increased rapidly during the young seedling stage, i.e. first five months, then declined and finally got stabilized during yield formation and ripening stages, respectively. In addition, the results from the measurements confirmed that soil respiration was positively correlated with soil moisture content.

Paper Detail
1341
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5
10621
Tomato Ripeness Influence on Fruit Quality
Abstract:

Tomato nutrition value, color, flavor of their fruits and products depends mainly on lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, sugars and their ratio. The two most important carotenoids in fruits of tomato are lycopene, which determined fruits red color, and β- carotene, which accounts for approximately 7% of the tomato carotenoids. Therefore, tomato products and their quality can be well characterized by the content of these elements.Maturity at harvest is very important to composition and quality of tomatoes. This is especially a problem with tomatoes picked green since it is difficult to differentiate between mature and immature-green fruits. Typical and advanced mature-green tomatoes will usually attain a much better flavor than those picked at the immature or partially mature stages.To better understand the synthesis of biochemical compounds, their concentration should be compared not only at the last stage of maturity, but also during all fruit ripening period in different varieties.

Paper Detail
2136
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4
13047
Study of Effect Different of Ozone Doses on Sugars Content in Tomatoes at Different Stages of Ripening
Abstract:
The determination of sugars in foods is very significant. Their relation in fact, can affect the chemical and sensorial quality of the matrix (e.g., sweetness, pH, total acidity, microbial stability, global acceptability) and can provide information on food to optimize several selected technological processes. Three stages of ripeness (green, yellow and red) of tomatoes (Lycopersicon Esculentum cv. Elegance) at different harvest dates were evaluated. Fruit from all harvests were exposed to different of ozone doses (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes) and clean air for 5 day at 15 °C±2 and 90-95 % relative humidity. Then, fruits were submitted for extraction and analysis after a day from the finish of exposure of each stage. The concentrations of the glucose and fructose increased in the tomatoes which were subjected to ozone treatments.
Paper Detail
1250
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3
13686
Effect of Anoxia on Root Growth and Grain Yield of Wheat Cultivars
Abstract:
Waterlogging reduces shoot and root growth and final yield of wheat. Waterlogged sites have a combination of low slope, high rainfall, heavy texture and low permeability. This study was aimed the importance of waterlogging on root growth and wheat yield. In order to study the effects of different waterlogging duration (0, 10, 20 and 30 days) at growth stages (1-leaf stage, tillering stage and stem elongation stage) on root growth of wheat cultivars (Chamran, Vee/Nac and Yavaroos), one pot experiment was carried out. The experiment was a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that root dry weight and total root length in the anthesis and grain ripening stages and biological and grain yields were significantly different between cultivars, growth stages and waterlogging durations. Vee/Nac was found superior with respect to other cultivars. Susceptibility to waterlogging at different growth stages for cultivars was 1-leaf stage > tillering stage > stem elongation stage. Under waterlogging treatments, grain and biological yields, were decreased 44.5 and 39.8%, respectively. Root length and root dry weight were reduced 55.1 and 45.2%, respectively, too. In this experiment, decrease at root growth because of waterlogging reduced grain and biological yields. Based on the results, even short period (10 days) of waterlogging had unrecoverable effects on the root growth and grain yield of wheat.
Paper Detail
1170
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2
11029
Influence of Proteolysis and Soluble Calcium Levels on Textural Changes in the Interior and Exterior of Iranian UF White Cheese during Ripening
Abstract:
The relationships between Proteolysis and soluble calcium levels with hardness of cheese texture were investigated in Iranian UF white cheese during 90 d ripening. Cheeses were sampled in interior and exterior. Results showed that levels of proteolysis, soluble calcium and hardness of cheese texture changed significantly (p< 0.05) over ripening. Levels of proteolysis and hardness were significantly (p< 0.05) different in interior and exterior zones of cheeses. External zones of cheeses became softer and had higher levels of proteolysis compared to internal zones during ripening. The highest correlation coefficient (r2= 0.979; p
Paper Detail
1700
downloads
1
14947
Inclusion of Enterococcus Faecalis and Enterococcus Faecium to UF White Cheese
Abstract:
Lighvan cheese is basically made from sheep milk in the area of Sahand mountainside which is located in the North West of Iran. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of enterococci isolated from traditional Lighvan cheese on the quality of Iranian UF white during ripening. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete blocks, main plots were four types of starters and subplots were different ripening durations. Addition of Enterococcus spp. did not significantly (P
Paper Detail
1611
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