International Science Index
Simulation of Ammonia-Water Two Phase Flow in Bubble Pump
The diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle consists of a generator bubble pump, an absorber, an evaporator and a condenser, and usually operates with ammonia/water/ hydrogen or helium as the working fluid. The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem a bubble pump. In fact instability can caused a reduction of bubble pump efficiency. To achieve this goal, we have simulated the behaviour of two-phase flow in a bubble pump by using a drift flow model. Equations of a drift flow model are formulated in the transitional regime, non-adiabatic condition and thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. Equations resolution allowed to define void fraction, and liquid and vapour velocities, as well as pressure and mixing enthalpy. Ammonia-water mixing is used as working fluid, where ammonia mass fraction in the inlet is 0.6. Present simulation is conducted out for a heating flux of 2 kW/m² to 5 kW/m² and bubble pump tube length of 1 m and 2.5 mm of inner diameter. Simulation results reveal oscillations of vapour and liquid velocities along time. Oscillations decrease with time and with heat flux. For sufficient time the steady state is established, it is characterised by constant liquid velocity and void fraction values. However, vapour velocity does not have the same behaviour, it increases for steady state too. On the other hand, pressure drop oscillations are studied.
CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil
The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.
Influence of Channel Depth on the Performance of Wavy Fin Absorber Solar Air Heater
Channel depth is an important design parameter to be fixed in designing a solar air heater. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed to study the influence of channel duct on the thermal performance of solar air heaters. The channel depth has been varied from 1.5 cm to 3.5 cm for the mass flow range 0.01 to 0.11 kg/s. Based on first law of thermodynamics, the channel depth of 1.5 cm shows better thermal performance for all the mass flow range. Also, better thermohydraulic performance has been found up to 0.05 kg/s, and beyond this, thermohydraulic efficiency starts decreasing. It has been seen that, with the increase in the mass flow rate, the difference between thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency increases because of the increase in pressure drop. At lower mass flow rate, 0.01 kg/s, the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies for respective channel depth remain the same.
Experimental Investigation of Plane Jets Exiting Five Parallel Channels with Large Aspect Ratio
The paper aims to extend the knowledge about jet behavior and jet interaction between five plane unventilated jets with large aspect ratio (AR). The distance between the single plane jets is two times the channel height. The experimental investigation applies 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and static pressure measurements. Our study focuses on the influence of two different outlet nozzle geometries (triangular shape with 2 x 7.5° and blunt geometry) with respect to variation of Reynolds number from 5500 - 12000. It is shown that the outlet geometry has a major influence on the jet formation in terms of uniformity of velocity profiles downstream of the sudden expansion. Furthermore, we describe characteristic regions like converging region, merging region and combined region. The triangular outlet geometry generates most uniform velocity distributions in comparison to a blunt outlet nozzle geometry. The blunt outlet geometry shows an unstable behavior where the jets tend to attach to one side of the walls (ceiling) generating a large recirculation region on the opposite side. Static pressure measurements confirm the observation and indicate that the recirculation region is connected to larger pressure drop.
Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.
Experimental Study on the Effects of Water-in-Oil Emulsions to the Pressure Drop in Pipeline Flow
Emulsion formation is unavoidable and can be detrimental to an oil field production. The presence of stable emulsions also reduces the quality of crude oil and causes more problems in the downstream refinery operations, such as corrosion and pipeline pressure drop. Hence, it is important to know the effects of emulsions in the pipeline. Light crude oil was used for the continuous phase in the W/O emulsions where the emulsions pass through a flow loop to test the pressure drop across the pipeline. The results obtained shows that pressure drop increases as water cut is increased until it peaks at the phase inversion of the W/O emulsion between 30% to 40% water cut. Emulsions produced by gradual constrictions show a lower stability as compared to sudden constrictions. Lower stability of emulsions in gradual constriction has the higher influence of pressure drop compared to a sudden sharp decrease in diameter in sudden constriction. Generally, sudden constriction experiences pressure drop of 0.013% to 0.067% higher than gradual constriction of the same ratio. Lower constriction ratio cases cause larger pressure drop ranging from 0.061% to 0.241%. Considering the higher profitability in lower emulsion stability and lower pressure drop at the developed flow region of different constrictions, an optimum design of constriction is found to be gradual constriction with a ratio of 0.5.
Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets
Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.
Numerical Investigation of the Performance of a Vorsyl Separator Using a Euler-Lagrange Approach
This paper presents a Euler-Lagrange model of the water-particles multiphase flows in a Vorsyl separator where particles with different densities are separated. A series of particles with their densities ranging from 760 kg/m3 to 1380 kg/m3 were fed into the Vorsyl separator with water by means of tangential inlet. The simulation showed that the feed materials acquired centrifugal force which allows most portion of the particles with a density less than water to move to the center of the separator, enter the vortex finder and leave the separator through the bottom outlet. While the particles heavier than water move to the wall, reach the throat area and leave the separator through the side outlet. The particles were thus separated and particles collected at the bottom outlet are pure and clean. The influence of particle density on separation efficiency was investigated which demonstrated a positive correlation of the separation efficiency with increasing density difference between medium liquid and the particle. In addition, the influence of the split ratio on the performance was studied which showed that the separation efficiency of the Vorsyl separator can be improved by the increase of split ratio. The simulation also suggested that the Vorsyl separator may not function when the feeding velocity is smaller than a certain critical feeding in velocity. In addition, an increasing feeding velocity gives rise to increased pressure drop, however does not necessarily increase the separation efficiency.
Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators
Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.
Numerical Simulations of Electronic Cooling with In-Line and Staggered Pin Fin Heat Sinks
Three-dimensional incompressible turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer of pin fin heat sinks using air as a cooling fluid are numerically studied in this study. Two different kinds of pin fins are compared in the thermal performance, including circular and square cross sections, both are in-line and staggered arrangements. The turbulent governing equations are solved using a control-volume- based finite-difference method. Subsequently, numerical computations are performed with the realizable k - ԑ turbulence for the parameters studied, the fin height H, fin diameter D, and Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 7 ≤ H ≤ 10, 0.75 ≤ D ≤ 2, 2000 ≤ Re ≤ 126000 respectively. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data in the literature and good agreement has been found. It indicates that circular pin fins are streamlined in comparing with the square pin fins, the pressure drop is small than that of square pin fins, and heat transfer is not as good as the square pin fins. The thermal performance of the staggered pin fins is better than that of in-line pin fins because the staggered arrangements produce large disturbance. Both in-line and staggered arrangements show the same behavior for thermal resistance, pressure drop, and the entropy generation.
Development of a Complete Single Jet Common Rail Injection System Gas Dynamic Model for Hydrogen Fueled Engine with Port Injection Feeding System
Modeling of hydrogen fueled engine (H2ICE) injection system is a very important tool that can be used for explaining or predicting the effect of advanced injection strategies on combustion and emissions. In this paper, a common rail injection system (CRIS) is proposed for 4-strokes 4-cylinders hydrogen fueled engine with port injection feeding system (PIH2ICE). For this system, a numerical one-dimensional gas dynamic model is developed considering single injection event for each injector per a cycle. One-dimensional flow equations in conservation form are used to simulate wave propagation phenomenon throughout the CR (accumulator). Using this model, the effect of common rail on the injection system characteristics is clarified. These characteristics include: rail pressure, sound velocity, rail mass flow rate, injected mass flow rate and pressure drop across injectors. The interaction effects of operational conditions (engine speed and rail pressure) and geometrical features (injector hole diameter) are illustrated; and the required compromised solutions are highlighted. The CRIS is shown to be a promising enhancement for PIH2ICE.
The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems
Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.
Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve
Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency
Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.
An Improved Approach for Hybrid Rocket Injection System Design
Hybrid propulsion combines beneficial properties of both solid and liquid rockets, such as multiple restarts, throttability as well as simplicity and reduced costs. A nitrous oxide (N2O)/paraffin-based hybrid rocket engine demonstrator is currently under development at the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) within the national research program HYPROB, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research. Nitrous oxide belongs to the class of self-pressurizing propellants that exhibit a high vapor pressure at standard ambient temperature. This peculiar feature makes those fluids very attractive for space rocket applications because it avoids the use of complex pressurization systems, leading to great benefits in terms of weight savings and reliability. To avoid feed-system-coupled instabilities, the phase change is required to occur through the injectors. In this regard, the oxidizer is stored in liquid condition while target chamber pressures are designed to lie below vapor pressure. The consequent cavitation and flash vaporization constitute a remarkably complex phenomenology that arises great modelling challenges. Thus, it is clear that the design of the injection system is fundamental for the full exploitation of hybrid rocket engine throttability. The Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to select the injection architecture as best compromise among different design criteria such as functionality, technology innovation and cost. The impossibility to use engineering simplified relations for the dimensioning of the injectors led to the needs of applying a numerical approach based on OpenFOAM®. The numerical tool has been validated with selected experimental data from literature. Quantitative, as well as qualitative comparisons are performed in terms of mass flow rate and pressure drop across the injector for several operating conditions. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Modeling assumptions, together with their impact on numerical predictions are discussed in the paper. Once assessed the reliability of the numerical tool, the injection plate has been designed and sized to guarantee the required amount of oxidizer in the combustion chamber and therefore to assure high combustion efficiency. To this purpose, the plate has been designed with multiple injectors whose number and diameter have been selected in order to reach the requested mass flow rate for the two operating conditions of maximum and minimum thrust. The overall design has been finally verified through three-dimensional computations in cavitating non-reacting conditions and it has been verified that the proposed design solution is able to guarantee the requested values of mass flow rates.
Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger
The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an
annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy
optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water
nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were
synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent
functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and
specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data
for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After
validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special
parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop
were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer
parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased
water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input
powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and
friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.
Reducing Pressure Drop in Microscale Channel Using Constructal Theory
The effectiveness of microchannels in enhancing heat
transfer has been demonstrated in the semiconductor industry. In
order to tap the microscale heat transfer effects into macro
geometries, overcoming the cost and technological constraints,
microscale passages were created in macro geometries machined
using conventional fabrication methods. A cylindrical insert was
placed within a pipe, and geometrical profiles were created on the
outer surface of the insert to enhance heat transfer under steady-state
single-phase liquid flow conditions. However, while heat transfer
coefficient values of above 10 kW/m2·K were achieved, the heat
transfer enhancement was accompanied by undesirable pressure drop
increment. Therefore, this study aims to address the high pressure
drop issue using Constructal theory, a universal design law for both
animate and inanimate systems. Two designs based on Constructal theory were developed to study
the effectiveness of Constructal features in reducing the pressure drop
increment as compared to parallel channels, which are commonly
found in microchannel fabrication. The hydrodynamic and heat
transfer performance for the Tree insert and Constructal fin (Cfin)
insert were studied using experimental methods, and the underlying
mechanisms were substantiated by numerical results. In technical
terms, the objective is to achieve at least comparable increment in
both heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop, if not higher
increment in the former parameter. Results show that the Tree insert improved the heat transfer
performance by more than 16 percent at low flow rates, as compared
to the Tree-parallel insert. However, the heat transfer enhancement
reduced to less than 5 percent at high Reynolds numbers. On the
other hand, the pressure drop increment stayed almost constant at 20
percent. This suggests that the Tree insert has better heat transfer
performance in the low Reynolds number region. More importantly,
the Cfin insert displayed improved heat transfer performance along
with favourable hydrodynamic performance, as compared to Cfinparallel
insert, at all flow rates in this study. At 2 L/min, the
enhancement of heat transfer was more than 30 percent, with 20
percent pressure drop increment, as compared to Cfin-parallel insert.
Furthermore, comparable increment in both heat transfer coefficient
and pressure drop was observed at 8 L/min. In other words, the Cfin
insert successfully achieved the objective of this study. Analysis of the results suggests that bifurcation of flows is
effective in reducing the increment in pressure drop relative to heat
transfer enhancement. Optimising the geometries of the Constructal
fins is therefore the potential future study in achieving a bigger stride
in energy efficiency at much lower costs.
Prediction of Air-Water Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop Using Artificial Neural Network
The present paper discusses the prediction of gas-liquid two-phase frictional pressure drop in a 2.12 mm horizontal circular minichannel using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The experimental results are obtained with air as gas phase and water as liquid phase. The superficial gas velocity is kept in the range of 0.0236 m/s to 0.4722 m/s while the values of 0.0944 m/s, 0.1416 m/s and 0.1889 m/s are considered for superficial liquid velocity. The experimental results are predicted using different Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models. Networks used for prediction are radial basis, generalised regression, linear layer, cascade forward back propagation, feed forward back propagation, feed forward distributed time delay, layer recurrent, and Elman back propagation. Transfer functions used for networks are Linear (PURELIN), Logistic sigmoid (LOGSIG), tangent sigmoid (TANSIG) and Gaussian RBF. Combination of networks and transfer functions give different possible neural network models. These models are compared for Mean Absolute Relative Deviation (MARD) and Mean Relative Deviation (MRD) to identify the best predictive model of ANN.
Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler
Operation enhancement in an air cooler depends on
rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper for a given heat
duty, study of the effects of FPI (Fin Per Inch) and fin type (circular
and hexagonal fins) on heat transfer, and pressure drop in an air
cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES
(Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC
and HTFS+ softwares are used for this purpose to solve governing
equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is
compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects
of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio
(Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, and
simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q)
and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI steadily, and the Q/Δp
ratio increases to FPI=12 and then decreased gradually to FPI=15,
and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI=12. The FPI value selection
between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to
pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal
fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of
circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI)
Thermal Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Fluid Flow for Al2O3 Water-Ethylene Glycol Nanofluid in Single PEMFC Mini Channel
Thermal enhancement of a single mini channel in
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cooling plate is
numerically investigated. In this study, low concentration of Al2O3 in
Water - Ethylene Glycol mixtures is used as coolant in single channel
of carbon graphite plate to mimic the mini channels in PEMFC
cooling plate. A steady and incompressible flow with constant heat
flux is assumed in the channel of 1mm x 5mm x 100mm. Nano
particle of Al2O3 used ranges from 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 vol %
concentration and then dispersed in 60:40 (water: Ethylene Glycol)
mixture. The effect of different flow rates to fluid flow and heat
transfer enhancement in Re number range of 20 to 140 was observed.
The result showed that heat transfer coefficient was improved by
18.11%, 9.86% and 5.37% for 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 vol. % Al2O3 in 60:40
(water: EG) as compared to base fluid of 60:40 (water: EG). It is also
showed that the higher vol. % concentration of Al2O3 performed
better in term of thermal enhancement but at the expense of higher
pumping power required due to increase in pressure drop
experienced. Maximum additional pumping power of 0.0012W was
required for 0.5 vol % Al2O3 in 60:40 (water: EG) at Re number 140.
Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel
This paper presents a study on the effect of
second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long
isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully
developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on
the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski
jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in
the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a
negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well
as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower
fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary
to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of
second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen
Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber
Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most
effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble
gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are
many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact
between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing
particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed
towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The
primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles
as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas
temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this
paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new
design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing).
The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon
disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor.
Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150°C was
processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was
used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure
drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental
device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was
observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from
150°C to 40°C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of
a liquid-gas ratio, but no too much as for the common venturi
scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %.
The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to
commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of
amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Built-In Thermoelectric Generator Modules with an Elliptical Pin-Fin Heat Sink
A three-dimensional numerical model of
thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules attached to a large chimney
plate is proposed and solved numerically using a control volume based
finite difference formulation. The TEG module consists of a
thermoelectric generator, an elliptical pin-fin heat sink, and a cold
plate for water cooling. In the chimney, the temperature of flue gases is
450-650K. Although the TEG hot-side temperature and thus the
electric power output can be increased by inserting an elliptical pin-fin
heat sink into the chimney tunnel to increase the heat transfer area, the
pin fin heat sink would cause extra pumping power at the same time.
The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of geometrical
parameters on the electric power output and chimney pressure drop
characteristics. The effects of different operating conditions, including
various inlet velocities (Vin= 1, 3, 5 m/s), inlet temperatures (Tgas = 450,
550, 650K) and different fin height (0 to 150 mm) are discussed in
detail. The predicted numerical data for the power vs. current (P-I)
curve are in good agreement (within 11%) with the experimental data.
Unconventional Composite Inorganic Membrane Fabrication for Carbon Emissions Mitigation
An unconventional composite inorganic ceramic
membrane capable of enhancing carbon dioxide emission decline was
fabricated and tested at laboratory scale in conformism to various
environmental guidelines and also to mitigate the effect of global
warming. A review of the existing membrane technologies for carbon
capture including the relevant gas transport mechanisms is presented.
Single gas permeation experiments using silica modified ceramic
membrane with internal diameter 20mm, outside diameter 25mm and
length of 368mm deposited on a macro porous support was carried
out to investigate individual gas permeation behaviours at different
pressures at room temperature. Membrane fabrication was achieved
using after a dip coating method. Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Argon,
Oxygen and Methane pure gases were used to investigate their
individual permeation rates at various pressures. Results show that
the gas flow rate increases with pressure drop. However above a
pressure of 3bar, CO2 permeability ratio to that of the other gases
indicated control of a more selective surface adsorptive transport
The Pressure Losses in the Model of Human Lungs
For the treatment of acute and chronic lung diseases it is preferred to deliver medicaments by inhalation. The drug is delivered directly to tracheobronchial tree. This way allows the given medicament to get directly into the place of action and it makes rapid onset of action and maximum efficiency. The transport of aerosol particles in the particular part of the lung is influenced by their size, anatomy of the lungs, breathing pattern and airway resistance. This article deals with calculation of airway resistance in the lung model of Horsfield. It solves the problem of determination of the pressure losses in bifurcation and thus defines the pressure drop at a given location in the bronchial tree. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for transport of aerosol particles in a central part of bronchial tree realized by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The results obtained from CFD simulation will allow us to provide information on the required particle size and optimal inhalation technique for particle transport into particular part of the lung.
Analysis of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Performance by Use of Porous Baffles and Nanofluids
The present work is a numerical simulation of
nanofluids flow in a double pipe heat exchanger provided with
porous baffles. The hot nanofluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas
the cold nanofluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy-
Brinkman-Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the
porous regions, and the governing equations with the appropriate
boundary conditions are solved by the finite volume method. The
results reveal that the addition of metallic nanoparticles enhances the
rate of heat transfer in comparison to conventional fluids but this
augmentation is accompanied by an increase in pressure drop. The
highest heat exchanger performances are obtained when
nanoparticles are added only to the cold fluid.
Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel
This paper presents a study on the effect of
second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated
or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow
and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the
second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary
conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity
increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal
creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip
becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary
condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead
to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the
heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall
case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the
Karniadakis slip model.
Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations
The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20o to +20o using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.
A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks
An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.
Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone
Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.