International Science Index

49
10733
Determinants of Aggression among Young Adolescents
Authors:
Abstract:
Aggression is a multi- factorial concept and multilevel in nature. The Young Adolescent is being influenced by family, school and community. This paper is aimed to determine the following: aggression level among young adolescents, difference of level of aggression on school and year levels and to determine the correlates of aggression. There were 142 high school students from two different national highs schools (Region 3 and National Capital Region).Convenience sampling was use in this study. The following measures were used namely: Aggression Scale, Parental Support Fighting Scale, Positive Behavior Scale and Exposure to Violence and Trauma questionnaire. There was no significant difference in aggression level among different year level and schools. The findings of the study suggested that high level of community violence and having low parental support for non-aggressive behavior contribute to the prediction of aggression.
Paper Detail
3193
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48
5589
Negative Emotions and Ways of Overcoming them in Prison
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is description of the notion of the death for prisoners and the ways of deal with. They express indifference, coldness, inability to accept the blame, they have no shame and no empathy. Is it enough to perform acts verging on the death. In this paper we described mechanisms and regularities of selfdestructive behaviour in the view of the relevant literature? The explanation of the phenomenon is of a biological and sociopsychological nature. It must be clearly stated that all forms of selfdestructive behaviour result from various impulses, conflicts and deficits. That is why they should be treated differently in terms of motivation and functions which they perform in a given group of people. Behind self-destruction there seems to be a motivational mechanism which forces prisoners to rebel and fight against the hated law and penitentiary systems. The imprisoned believe that pain and suffering inflicted on them by themselves are better than passive acceptance of repression. The variety of self-destruction acts is wide, and some of them take strange forms. We assume that a life-death barrier is a kind of game for them. If they cannot change the degrading situation, their life loses sense.
Paper Detail
922
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47
5872
Main Elements of Soft Cost in Green Buildings
Abstract:
Green buildings have been commonly cited to be more expensive than conventional buildings. However, limited research has been conducted to clearly identify elements that contribute to this cost differential. The construction cost of buildings can be typically divided into “hard" costs and “soft" cost elements. Using a review analysis of existing literature, the study identified six main elements in green buildings that contribute to the general cost elements that are “soft" in nature. The six elements found are insurance, developer-s experience, design cost, certification, commissioning and energy modeling. Out of the six elements, most literatures have highlighted the increase in design cost for green design as compared to conventional design due to additional architectural and engineering costs, eco-charettes, extra design time, and the further need for a green consultant. The study concluded that these elements of soft cost contribute to the green premium or cost differential of green buildings.
Paper Detail
1315
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46
332
A Fuzzy Tumor Volume Estimation Approach Based On Fuzzy Segmentation of MR Images
Abstract:

Quantitative measurements of tumor in general and tumor volume in particular, become more realistic with the use of Magnetic Resonance imaging, especially when the tumor morphological changes become irregular and difficult to assess by clinical examination. However, tumor volume estimation strongly depends on the image segmentation, which is fuzzy by nature. In this paper a fuzzy approach is presented for tumor volume segmentation based on the fuzzy connectedness algorithm. The fuzzy affinity matrix resulting from segmentation is then used to estimate a fuzzy volume based on a certainty parameter, an Alpha Cut, defined by the user. The proposed method was shown to highly affect treatment decisions. A statistical analysis was performed in this study to validate the results based on a manual method for volume estimation and the importance of using the Alpha Cut is further explained.

Paper Detail
1513
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45
4445
The Emission Spectra Due to Exciton-Exciton Collisions in GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well System
Abstract:

Optical emission based on excitonic scattering processes becomes important in dense exciton systems in which the average distance between excitons is of the order of a few Bohr radii but still below the exciton screening threshold. The phenomena due to interactions among excited states play significant role in the emission near band edge of the material. The theory of two-exciton collisions for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well systems is a mild attempt to understand the physics associated with the optical spectra due to excitonic scattering processes in these novel systems. The four typical processes considered give different spectral shape, peak position and temperature dependence of the emission spectra. We have used the theory of scattering together with the second order perturbation theory to derive the radiative power spontaneously emitted at an energy ħω by these processes. The results arrived at are purely qualitative in nature. The intensity of emitted light in quantum well systems varies inversely to the square of temperature, whereas in case of bulk materials it simply decreases with the  temperature.

Paper Detail
837
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44
2643
Study of the Glucidic Fraction of Celtis Australis L, Crataegus Azarolus L, Crataegus Monogyna Jacq., Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. and Zizyphus Lotus L. Fruits
Abstract:

In Algeria, some fruit trees produce fruits in free nature. Such trees are Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna and Zizyphus lotus. In spite of their appreciable consumption, their nutritional value remains unknown. The objective of this study is the determination of sugars in the pulpe and almond of the above fruits. The biochemical analysis shows that these fruits present interesting contents of soluble sugars which confers significant caloric intakes to them. As well as significant fibres which give them therapeutic and industrial benefits? The analysis of the almonds shows that it contains considerable contents of sugars which enable them to be an energetic food.

Paper Detail
1342
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43
283
Gene Expression Signature for Classification of Metastasis Positive and Negative Oral Cancer in Homosapiens
Abstract:

Cancer classification to their corresponding cohorts has been key area of research in bioinformatics aiming better prognosis of the disease. High dimensionality of gene data has been makes it a complex task and requires significance data identification technique in order to reducing the dimensionality and identification of significant information. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach for classification of oral cancer into metastasis positive and negative patients. We have used significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) for identifying significant genes which constitutes gene signature. 3 different gene signatures were identified using SAM from 3 different combination of training datasets and their classification accuracy was calculated on corresponding testing datasets using k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN), Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (FCM), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN). A final gene signature of only 9 genes was obtained from above 3 individual gene signatures. 9 gene signature-s classification capability was compared using same classifiers on same testing datasets. Results obtained from experimentation shows that 9 gene signature classified all samples in testing dataset accurately while individual genes could not classify all accurately.

Paper Detail
1438
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42
4542
Advantages of Combining Solar Greenhouse System and Trombe Wall in Hot and Dry Climate and Housing Design: The Case of Isfahan
Abstract:
Nowadays over-consumption of fossil energy in buildings especially in residential buildings and also considering the increase in populations, the crisis of energy shortage in a near future is predictable. The recent performance of developed countries in construction with the aim of decreasing fossil energies shows that these countries have understood the incoming crisis and has taken reasonable and basic actions in this regard. However, Iranian architecture, with several thousands years of history, has acquired and executed invaluable experiences in designing, adapting and coordinating with the nature. Architectural studies during the recent decades show that imitating modern western architecture results in high energy wastage beside the fact that it not reasonably adaptable and corresponded with the habits and customs of people unlike the architecture in the past which was compatible and adaptable with the climatic conditions and this necessitates optimal using of renewable energies more than ever. This paper studies problems of design, execution and living in today's houses and reviews the characteristics of climatic elements paying special attention to the performance of trombe wall and solar greenhouse in traditional houses and offers some suggestions for combining these two elements and a climatic strategy.
Paper Detail
1604
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41
2079
Removal of Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3G-P Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Coffee Husks as Non-Conventional Low-Cost Sorbent
Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3G-P dye (CBY) from aqueous solutions by sorption onto coffee husks as a low-cost sorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g. initial CBY dye concentration, sorbent mass, pH, temperature) were examined and the optimal experimental conditions were determined. The results indicated that the removal of the dye was pH dependent and at initial pH of 2, the dye was removed effectively. The CBY dye sorption data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equilibrium models. The maximum sorption capacity of CBY dye ions onto coffee husks increased from 24.04 to 35.04 mg g-1 when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K. The calculated sorption thermodynamic parameters including ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° indicated that the CBY dye sorption onto coffee husks is a spontaneous, endothermic and mainly physical in nature.

Paper Detail
1497
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40
15141
A Novel Approach to Handle Uncertainty in Health System Variables for Hospital Admissions
Abstract:
Hospital staff and managers are under pressure and concerned for effective use and management of scarce resources. The hospital admissions require many decisions that have complex and uncertain consequences for hospital resource utilization and patient flow. It is challenging to predict risk of admissions and length of stay of a patient due to their vague nature. There is no method to capture the vague definition of admission of a patient. Also, current methods and tools used to predict patients at risk of admission fail to deal with uncertainty in unplanned admission, LOS, patients- characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to deal with uncertainty in health system variables, and handles uncertain relationship among variables. An introduction of machine learning techniques along with statistical methods like Regression methods can be a proposed solution approach to handle uncertainty in health system variables. A model that adapts fuzzy methods to handle uncertain data and uncertain relationships can be an efficient solution to capture the vague definition of admission of a patient.
Paper Detail
764
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39
8327
Screening and Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro Generated Insulin Plant (Vernonia divergens) for Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities
Abstract:
Vernonia divergens Benth., commonly known as “Insulin Plant” (Fam: Asteraceae) is a potent sugar killer. Locally the leaves of the plant, boiled in water are successfully administered to a large number of diabetic patients. The present study evaluates the putative anti-diabetic ingredients, isolated from the in vivo and in vitro grown plantlets of V. divergens for their antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Sterilized explants of nodal segments were cultured on MS (Musashige and Skoog, 1962) medium in presence of different combinations of hormones. Multiple shoots along with bunch of roots were regenerated at 1mg l-1 BAP and 0.5 mg l-1 NAA. Micro-plantlets were separated and sub-cultured on the double strength (2X) of the above combination of hormones leading to increased length of roots and shoots. These plantlets were successfully transferred to soil and survived well in nature. The ethanol extract of plantlets from both in vivo & in vitro sources were prepared in soxhlet extractor and then concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure in rotary evaporator. Thus obtainedconcentrated extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but no inhibition was found against gram positive bacteria. Further, these ethanol extracts were screened for in vitro percentage cytotoxicity at different time periods (24 h, 48 h and 72 h) of different dilutions. The in vivo plant extract inhibited the growth of EAC mouse cell lines in the range of 65, 66, 78, and 88% at 100, 50, 25 & 12.5μg mL-1 but at 72 h of treatment. In case of the extract of in vitro origin, the inhibition was found against EAC cell lines even at 48h. During spectrophotometric scanning, the extracts exhibited different maxima (ʎ) - four peaks in in vitro extracts as against single in in vivo preparation suggesting the possible change in the nature of ingredients during micropropagation through tissue culture techniques.
Paper Detail
1534
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38
424
The New Approach to Sustainability in the Design of Urban and Architectural Interiors – Elements of Composition Revised
Abstract:
Today we tend to go back to the past to our root relation to nature. Therefore in search of friendly spaces there are elements of natural environment introduced as elements of spatial composition. Though reinvented through the use of the new substance such as greenery, water etc. made possible by state of the art technologies, still, in principal, they remain the same. As a result, sustainable design, based upon the recognized means of composition in addition to the relation of architecture and urbanism vs. nature introduces a new aesthetical values into architectural and urban space.
Paper Detail
1305
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37
11867
Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth
Abstract:

Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature. 

Paper Detail
1079
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36
13422
Time-Domain Stator Current Condition Monitoring: Analyzing Point Failures Detection by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) Test
Abstract:

This paper deals with condition monitoring of electric switch machine for railway points. Point machine, as a complex electro-mechanical device, switch the track between two alternative routes. There has been an increasing interest in railway safety and the optimal management of railway equipments maintenance, e.g. point machine, in order to enhance railway service quality and reduce system failure. This paper explores the development of Kolmogorov- Smirnov (K-S) test to detect some point failures (external to the machine, slide chairs, fixing, stretchers, etc), while the point machine (inside the machine) is in its proper condition. Time-domain stator Current signatures of normal (healthy) and faulty points are taken by 3 Hall Effect sensors and are analyzed by K-S test. The test is simulated by creating three types of such failures, namely putting a hard stone and a soft stone between stock rail and switch blades as obstacles and also slide chairs- friction. The test has been applied for those three faults which the results show that K-S test can effectively be developed for the aim of other point failures detection, which their current signatures deviate parametrically from the healthy current signature. K-S test as an analysis technique, assuming that any defect has a specific probability distribution. Empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF) are used to differentiate these probability distributions. This test works based on the null hypothesis that ECDF of target distribution is statistically similar to ECDF of reference distribution. Therefore by comparing a given current signature (as target signal) from unknown switch state to a number of template signatures (as reference signal) from known switch states, it is possible to identify which is the most likely state of the point machine under analysis.

Paper Detail
1101
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35
3986
Surveying the Environmental Biology Effects of Esfahan Factories on Zayandehrood Pollution
Abstract:

Water is the key of national development. Wherever a spring has been dried out or a river has changed its course, the area-s people have migrated and have been scattered and the area-s civilization has lost its brilliance. Today, air pollution, global warming and ozone layer damage are as the problems of countries, but certainly in the next decade the shortage and pollution of waters will be important issues of the world. The polluted waters are more dangerous in when they are used in agriculture. Because they infect plants and these plants are used in human and livestock consumption in food chain. With the increasing population growth and after that, the increase need to facilities and raw materials, human beings has started to do haste actions and wanted or unwanted destroyed his life basin. They try to overuse and capture his environment extremely, instead of having futurism approach in sustainable use of nature. This process includes Zayanderood recession, and caused its pollution after the transition from industrial and urban areas. Zayandehrood River in Isfahan is a vital artery of a living ecosystem. Now is the location of disposal waste water of many cities, villages and existing industries. The central area of the province is an important industrial place, and its environmental situation has reached a critical stage. Not only a large number of pollution-generating industries are active in the city limits, but outside of the city and adjacent districts Zayandehrood River, heavy industries like steel, Mobarakeh Steel and other tens great units pollute wild life. This article tries to study contaminant sources of Zayanderood and their severity, and determine and discuss the share of each of these resources by major industrial centers located in areas. At the end, we represent suitable strategy.

Paper Detail
1153
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34
13302
Face Recognition using a Kernelization of Graph Embedding
Abstract:
Linearization of graph embedding has been emerged as an effective dimensionality reduction technique in pattern recognition. However, it may not be optimal for nonlinearly distributed real world data, such as face, due to its linear nature. So, a kernelization of graph embedding is proposed as a dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. In order to further boost the recognition capability of the proposed technique, the Fisher-s criterion is opted in the objective function for better data discrimination. The proposed technique is able to characterize the underlying intra-class structure as well as the inter-class separability. Experimental results on FRGC database validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique as a feature descriptor.
Paper Detail
1064
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33
6517
Offline Signature Recognition using Radon Transform
Abstract:
In this work a new offline signature recognition system based on Radon Transform, Fractal Dimension (FD) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented. In the first step, projections of original signatures along four specified directions have been performed using radon transform. Then, FDs of four obtained vectors are calculated to construct a feature vector for each signature. These vectors are then fed into SVM classifier for recognition of signatures. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the system several experiments are carried out. Offline signature database from signature verification competition (SVC) 2004 is used during all of the tests. Experimental result indicates that the proposed method achieved high accuracy rate in signature recognition.
Paper Detail
1838
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32
3261
Electrical Properties of n-CdO/p-Si Heterojunction Diode Fabricated by Sol Gel
Abstract:
n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diode was fabricated using sol-gel spin coating technique which is a low cost and easily scalable method for preparing of semiconductor films. The structural and morphological properties of CdO film were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated that the film was of polycrystalline nature. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the surface morphology CdO film consists of the clusters formed with the coming together of the nanoparticles. The electrical characterization of Au/n-CdO/p–Si/Al heterojunction diode was investigated by current-voltage. The ideality factor of the diode was found to be 3.02 for room temperature. The reverse current of the diode strongly increased with illumination intensity of 100 mWcm-2 and the diode gave a maximum open circuit voltage Voc of 0.04 V and short-circuits current Isc of 9.92×10-9 A.
Paper Detail
1503
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31
11794
Optical Analysis of Variable Aperture Mechanism for a Solar Reactor
Abstract:
Solar energy is not only sustainable but also a clean alternative to be used as source of high temperature heat for many processes and power generation. However, the major drawback of solar energy is its transient nature. Especially in solar thermochemical processing, it is crucial to maintain constant or semiconstant temperatures inside the solar reactor. In our laboratory, we have developed a mechanism allowing us to achieve semi-constant temperature inside the solar reactor. In this paper, we introduce the concept along with some updated designs and provide the optical analysis of the concept under various incoming flux.
Paper Detail
751
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30
8716
Robust Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor with DTFC and Fuzzy Speed Regulator
Abstract:
Recent developments in Soft computing techniques, power electronic switches and low-cost computational hardware have made it possible to design and implement sophisticated control strategies for sensorless speed control of AC motor drives. Such an attempt has been made in this work, for Sensorless Speed Control of Induction Motor (IM) by means of Direct Torque Fuzzy Control (DTFC), PI-type fuzzy speed regulator and MRAS speed estimator strategy, which is absolutely nonlinear in its nature. Direct torque control is known to produce quick and robust response in AC drive system. However, during steady state, torque, flux and current ripple occurs. So, the performance of conventional DTC with PI speed regulator can be improved by implementing fuzzy logic techniques. Certain important issues in design including the space vector modulated (SVM) 3-Ф voltage source inverter, DTFC design, generation of reference torque using PI-type fuzzy speed regulator and sensor less speed estimator have been resolved. The proposed scheme is validated through extensive numerical simulations on MATLAB. The simulated results indicate the sensor less speed control of IM with DTFC and PI-type fuzzy speed regulator provides satisfactory high dynamic and static performance compare to conventional DTC with PI speed regulator.
Paper Detail
1673
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29
1406
Nonlinear Optimal Line-Of-Sight Stabilization with Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling
Abstract:
A nonlinear optimal controller with a fuzzy gain scheduler has been designed and applied to a Line-Of-Sight (LOS) stabilization system. Use of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory is an optimal and simple manner of solving many control engineering problems. However, this method cannot be utilized directly for multigimbal LOS systems since they are nonlinear in nature. To adapt LQ controllers to nonlinear systems at least a linearization of the model plant is required. When the linearized model is only valid within the vicinity of an operating point a gain scheduler is required. Therefore, a Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Inference System gain scheduler has been implemented, which keeps the asymptotic stability performance provided by the optimal feedback gain approach. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller is capable of overcoming disturbances and maintaining a satisfactory tracking performance.
Paper Detail
1550
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28
10059
A Microstrip Antenna Design and Performance Analysis for RFID High Bit Rate Applications
Abstract:
Lately, an interest has grown greatly in the usages of RFID in an un-presidential applications. It is shown in the adaptation of major software companies such as Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle the RFID capabilities in their major software products. For example Microsoft SharePoints 2010 workflow is now fully compatible with RFID platform. In addition, Microsoft BizTalk server is also capable of all RFID sensors data acquisition. This will lead to applications that required high bit rate, long range and a multimedia content in nature. Higher frequencies of operation have been designated for RFID tags, among them are the 2.45 and 5.8 GHz. The higher the frequency means higher range, and higher bit rate, but the drawback is the greater cost. In this paper we present a single layer, low profile patch antenna operates at 5.8 GHz with pure resistive input impedance of 50 and close to directive radiation. Also, we propose a modification to the design in order to improve the operation band width from 8.7 to 13.8
Paper Detail
1340
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27
14963
Antioxidant Components of Fumaria Species(Papaveraceae)
Abstract:
The genus Fumaria L. (Papaveraceae) in Iran comprises 8 species with a vast medicinal use in Asian folk medicine. These herbs are considered to be useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disease and skin disorders. Antioxidant activities of alkaloids and phenolic extracts of these species had been studied previously. These species are: F. officinalis, F. parviflora, F. asepala, F. densiflora, F. schleicheri, F. vaillantii and F. indica. More than 50 populations of Fumaria species were sampled from nature. In this study different fatty acids are extracted. Their picks were recorded by GC technique. This species contain some kind of fatty acids with antioxidant effects. A part of these lipids are phospholipids. As these are unsaturated fatty acids they may have industrial use as natural additive to cosmetics, dermal and oral medicines. The presences of different materials are discussed. Our studies for antioxidant effects of these substances are continued.
Paper Detail
1347
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26
6869
Performance Analysis of Certificateless Signature for IKE Authentication
Abstract:
Elliptic curve-based certificateless signature is slowly gaining attention due to its ability to retain the efficiency of identity-based signature to eliminate the need of certificate management while it does not suffer from inherent private key escrow problem. Generally, cryptosystem based on elliptic curve offers equivalent security strength at smaller key sizes compared to conventional cryptosystem such as RSA which results in faster computations and efficient use of computing power, bandwidth, and storage. This paper proposes to implement certificateless signature based on bilinear pairing to structure the framework of IKE authentication. In this paper, we perform a comparative analysis of certificateless signature scheme with a well-known RSA scheme and also present the experimental results in the context of signing and verification execution times. By generalizing our observations, we discuss the different trade-offs involved in implementing IKE authentication by using certificateless signature.
Paper Detail
1087
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25
13311
A Comprehensive Survey on RAT Selection Algorithms for Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
Due to the coexistence of different Radio Access Technologies (RATs), Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN) are predicted to be heterogeneous in nature. The coexistence of different RATs requires a need for Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM) to support the provision of Quality of Service (QoS) and the efficient utilization of radio resources. RAT selection algorithms are part of the CRRM algorithms. Simply, their role is to verify if an incoming call will be suitable to fit into a heterogeneous wireless network, and to decide which of the available RATs is most suitable to fit the need of the incoming call and admit it. Guaranteeing the requirements of QoS for all accepted calls and at the same time being able to provide the most efficient utilization of the available radio resources is the goal of RAT selection algorithm. The normal call admission control algorithms are designed for homogeneous wireless networks and they do not provide a solution to fit a heterogeneous wireless network which represents the NGWN. Therefore, there is a need to develop RAT selection algorithm for heterogeneous wireless network. In this paper, we propose an approach for RAT selection which includes receiving different criteria, assessing and making decisions, then selecting the most suitable RAT for incoming calls. A comprehensive survey of different RAT selection algorithms for a heterogeneous wireless network is studied.
Paper Detail
1274
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24
8237
An Information Theoretic Approach to Rescoring Peptides Produced by De Novo Peptide Sequencing
Abstract:
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the engine driving high-throughput protein identification. Protein mixtures possibly representing thousands of proteins from multiple species are treated with proteolytic enzymes, cutting the proteins into smaller peptides that are then analyzed generating MS/MS spectra. The task of determining the identity of the peptide from its spectrum is currently the weak point in the process. Current approaches to de novo sequencing are able to compute candidate peptides efficiently. The problem lies in the limitations of current scoring functions. In this paper we introduce the concept of proteome signature. By examining proteins and compiling proteome signatures (amino acid usage) it is possible to characterize likely combinations of amino acids and better distinguish between candidate peptides. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that a scoring function that considers amino acid usage patterns is better able to distinguish between candidate peptides. This in turn leads to higher accuracy in peptide prediction.
Paper Detail
1056
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23
2633
Characterization of Acetogenic and Methanogenic Leachates Generated from a Sanitary Landfill Site
Abstract:
Decomposition processes take place in landfill generate leachates that can be categorized mainly of acetogenic and methanogenic in nature. BOD:COD ratio computed in this study for a landfill site over a 3 years duration revealed as a good indicator to identify acetogenic leachate from methanogenic leachate. Correlation relationships to predict pollutant level taking into consideration of climatic condition are derived.
Paper Detail
1287
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22
4218
Optimal Water Conservation in a Mechanical Cooling Tower Operations
Abstract:

Water recycling represents an important challenge for many countries, in particular in countries where this natural resource is rare. On the other hand, in many operations, water is used as a cooling medium, as a high proportion of water consumed in industry is used for cooling purposes. Generally this water is rejected directly to the nature. This reject will cause serious environment damages as well as an important waste of this precious element.. On way to solve these problems is to reuse and recycle this warm water, through the use of natural cooling medium, such as air in a heat exchanger unit, known as a cooling tower. A poor performance, design or reliability of cooling towers will result in lower flow rate of cooling water an increase in the evaporation of water, an hence losses of water and energy. This paper which presents an experimental investigate of thermal and hydraulic performances of a mechanical cooling tower, enables to show that the water evaporation rate, Mev, increases with an increase in the air and water flow rates, as well as inlet water temperature and for fixed air flow rates, the pressure drop (ΔPw/Z) increases with increasing , L, due to the hydrodynamic behavior of the air/water flow.

Paper Detail
1758
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21
11710
A Reliable FPGA-based Real-time Optical-flow Estimation
Abstract:
Optical flow is a research topic of interest for many years. It has, until recently, been largely inapplicable to real-time applications due to its computationally expensive nature. This paper presents a new reliable flow technique which is combined with a motion detection algorithm, from stationary camera image streams, to allow flow-based analyses of moving entities, such as rigidity, in real-time. The combination of the optical flow analysis with motion detection technique greatly reduces the expensive computation of flow vectors as compared with standard approaches, rendering the method to be applicable in real-time implementation. This paper describes also the hardware implementation of a proposed pipelined system to estimate the flow vectors from image sequences in real time. This design can process 768 x 576 images at a very high frame rate that reaches to 156 fps in a single low cost FPGA chip, which is adequate for most real-time vision applications.
Paper Detail
1095
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20
8114
Trade-off Between NOX, Soot and EGR Rates for an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled with JB5
Abstract:

Nowadays, the focus on renewable energy and alternative fuels has increased due to increasing oil prices, environment pollution, and also concern on preserving the nature. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, high lubricant ability, highly renewable, and its use therefore produces real reduction in petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although biodiesel has many advantages, but it still has several properties need to improve, such as lower calorific value, lower effective engine power, higher emission of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and greater sensitivity to low temperature. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective technique to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines because it enables lower flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce the NOX emission from biodiesel by EGR but they observed increasing soot emission. The aim of this study was to investigate the engine performance and soot emission by using blended Jatropha biodiesel with different EGR rates. A CI engine that is water-cooled, turbocharged, using indirect injection system was used for the investigation. Soot emission, NOX, CO2, carbon monoxide (CO) were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated.

Paper Detail
2050
downloads