International Science Index
Comparative Sulphate Resistance of Pozzolanic Cement Mortars
This is report on experiment out to compare the sulphate resistance of sand mortar made with five different pozzolanic cement. The pozzolanic cement were prepared by blending powered burnt bricks from the Adamawa, Makurdi, Kano, Kaduna and Niger bricks factories with ordinary Portland cement in the ratio 1:4. Sand –pozzolanic cement mortars of mix ratio 1:6 and 1:3 with water-cement ratio of 0.65 and 0.40 respectively were used to prepare cubes and bars specimens. 150 mortar cubes of size 70mm x 70mm x 70mm and 35 mortar bars of 15mm x 15mm x 100mm dimensions were cast and cured for 28 days. The cured specimens then immersed in the solutions of K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 and water for 28 days and then tested. The compressive strengths of cubes in water increased by 34% while those in the sulphate solutions decreased. Strength decreases of the cubes, cracking and warping of bars immersed in K2SO4 were less than those in (NH4)2SO4. Specimens made with Niger and Makurdi pulverized burnt bricks experienced less effect of the sulphates and can therefore be used as pozzolan in mortar and concrete to resist sulphate.
Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams
This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Elaboration and Characterization of Self-Compacting Mortar Based Biopolymer
Lignin is a molecule derived from wood and also generated as waste from the paper industry. With a view to its valorization and protection of the environment, we are interested in its use as a superplasticizer-type adjuvant in mortars and concretes to improve their mechanical strengths. The additives of the concrete have a very strong influence on the properties of the fresh and / or hardened concrete. This study examines the development and use of industrial waste and lignin extracted from a renewable natural source (wood) in cementitious materials. The use of these resources is known at present as a definite resurgence of interest in the development of building materials. Physicomechanical characteristics of mortars are determined by optimization quantity of the natural superplasticizer. The results show that the mechanical strengths of mortars based on natural adjuvant have improved by 20% (64 MPa) for a W/C ratio = 0.4, and the amount of natural adjuvant of dry extract needed is 40 times smaller than commercial adjuvant. This study has a scientific impact (improving the performance of the mortar with an increase in compactness and reduction of the quantity of water), ecological use of the lignin waste generated by the paper industry) and economic reduction of the cost price necessary to elaboration of self-compacting mortars and concretes).
Mechanical Strengths of Self-Compacting Mortars Prepared with the Pozzolanic Cement in Aggressive Environments
The objective of this research is to study the physical and mechanical properties and durability of self-compacting mortars prepared by substituting a part of cement up to a percentage of 30% pozzolan according to different Blaine specific surface area (SSB1=7000 cm2/g and SSB=9000 cm2/g)). Order to evaluate durability, mortars were subjected to chemical attacks in various aggressive environments, a solution of a mixture of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate (HNO3 + NH4NO3) and a magnesium sulfate salt solution (MgSO4)) with a concentration of 10%, for a period of one month. This study is complemented by a comparative study of the durability of mortars elaborated with sulphate resistant cement (SRC). The results show that these mortars develop long-term, mechanical and chemical resistance better than mortars based Portland cement with 5% gypsum (CEM 1) and SRC. We found that the mass losses are lowest in mortars elaborated with pozzolanic cement (30% substitution with SSB2) in both of chemical attack solutions (3.28% in the solution acid and 1.16% in the salt solution) and the compressive strength gains of 14.68% and 8.5% respectively in the two media. This is due to the action of pozzolan which fixes portlandite to form hydrated calcium silicate (CSH) from the hydration of tricalcic silicate (C3S).
The Long-Term Leaching Behaviour of 137Cs, 60Co and 152Eu Radionuclides Incorporated in Mortar Matrices Made from Natural Aggregates and Recycled Aggregates
During the interim storage or final disposal of low level waste, migration/diffusion of radionuclides can occur when the waste comes in contact with water. The long-term leaching behaviour into surrounding fluid (demineralized water) of 137Cs, 60Co and 152Eu radionuclides, artificially incorporated in mortar matrices made from natural aggregates (river sand) and recycled radioactive concrete was studied. Results presented in this work are obtained in two years of mortar testing and will be used for the safety increasing in the storage of low level radioactive waste. The study involved the influence of curing time, type and size distribution of the aggregates on leaching behaviour. The mortar samples were immersed in distilled water for 30 days. The leached activity of the mortar samples was measured on samples from the immersing water and analyzed through a gamma-ray spectrometry method using an HPGe detector with a GESPECOR code for efficiency evaluation. The long-term leaching behaviour of the radionuclides was evaluated from the leaching data calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient.
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Historical Bell Tower
In this paper, a procedure for the evaluation of seismic behavior of slender masonry structures (towers, bell towers, chimneys, minarets, etc.) is presented. The presented procedure is based on a full three-dimensional modal analyses and frequency measurements. As well-known, masonry is a composite material formed by bricks, or stone blocks, and mortar arranged more or less regularly and adopted for many centuries as structural material. Dynamic actions may represent the major risk of collapse of brickworks, and despite the progress achieved so far in science and mechanics; the assessment of their seismic performance remains a challenging task. Then, reliable physical and numerical models are worthy of recommendation. In this paper, attention is paid to the historical bell tower of the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari - usually called Frari - one of the greatest churches in Venice, Italy.
The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites
The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).
Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures
In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.
Recycled Waste Glass Powder as a Partial Cement Replacement in Polymer-Modified Mortars
The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of polymer-modified cement mortars with regard to the use of a pozzolanic admixture. Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) containing various types of waste glass (waste packing glass and fluorescent tube glass) were produced always with 20% of cement substituted with a pozzolanic-active material. Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was used for polymeric modification. The findings confirm the possibility of using the waste glass examined herein as a partial substitute for cement in the production of PMM, which contributes to the preservation of non-renewable raw material resources and to the efficiency of waste glass material reuse.
Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar
There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.
Recycled Cellulosic Fibers and Lignocellulosic Aggregates for Sustainable Building Materials
Sustainability is becoming a priority for developers and the use of environmentally friendly materials is increasing. Nowadays, the application of raw materials from renewable sources to building materials has gained a significant interest in this research area. Lignocellulosic aggregates and cellulosic fibers are coming from many different sources such as wood, plants and waste. They are promising alternative materials to replace synthetic, glass and asbestos fibers as reinforcement in inorganic matrix of composites. Natural fibers are renewable resources so their cost is relatively low in comparison to synthetic fibers. With the consideration of environmental consciousness, natural fibers are biodegradable so their using can reduce CO2 emissions in the building materials production. The use of cellulosic fibers in cementitious matrices have gained importance because they make the composites lighter at high fiber content, they have comparable cost - performance ratios to similar building materials and they could be processed from waste paper, thus expanding the opportunities for waste utilization in cementitious materials. The main objective of this work is to find out the possibility of using different wastes: hemp hurds as waste of hemp stem processing and recycled fibers obtained from waste paper for making cement composite products such as mortars based on cellulose fibers. This material was made of cement mortar containing organic filler based on hemp hurds and recycled waste paper. In addition, the effects of fibers and their contents on some selected physical and mechanical properties of the fiber-cement plaster composites have been investigated. In this research organic material have used to mortars as 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 % replacement of cement weight. Reference sample is made for comparison of physical and mechanical properties of cement composites based on recycled cellulosic fibers and lignocellulosic aggregates. The prepared specimens were tested after 28 days of curing in order to investigate density, compressive strength and water absorbability. Scanning Electron Microscopy examination was also carried out.
Investigation of the Recycling of Geopolymer Cement Wastes as Fine Aggregates in Mortar Mixes
Fly ash-slag based Geopolymer Cement (GPC) is presenting mechanical properties and environmental advantages that make it the predominant “green” alternative to Portland Cement (PC). Although numerous life-cycle analyses praising its environmental advantages, disposal after the end of its life remains as an issue that has been barely explored. The present study is investigating the recyclability of fly ash-slag GPC as aggregate in mortars. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of GPC fine Recycled Aggregates (RA), at replacement levels of 25% and 50%, on the main mechanical properties of PC and GPC mortar mixes. The results were compared with those obtained by corresponding mixes incorporating natural and PC-RA. The main physical properties of GPC-RA were examined and proven to be comparable to those of PC-RA and slightly inferior to those of natural sand. A negligible effect was observed at 28-day compressive and flexural strength of PC mortars with GPC aggregates having a milder effect than PC. As far as GPC mortars are concerned, the influence of GPC aggregates was enhancing for the investigated mechanical properties. Additionally, a screening test showed that recycled geopolymer aggregates are not prone of inducing alkali silica reaction.
Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Dispersion and Mechanical Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Cement Mortar Composites
Due to their remarkable mechanical properties, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered by many researchers to be a highly promising filler and reinforcement agent for enhanced performance cementitious materials. Currently, however, achieving an effective dispersion of MWCNTs remains a major challenge in developing high performance nano-cementitious composites, since carbon nanotubes tend to form large agglomerates and bundles as a consequence of Van der Waals forces. In this study, effective dispersion of low concentrations of MWCNTs at 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% by weight of cement in the composite was achieved by applying different sonication conditions in combination with the use of polycarboxylate ether as a surfactant. UV-Visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the dispersion of MWCNTs in water, while the dispersion states of MWCNTs within the cement composites and their surface interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high sonication intensity applied over a short time period significantly enhanced the dispersion of MWCNTs at initial mixing stages, and 0.025% of MWCNTs wt. of cement, caused 86% and 27% improvement in tensile strength and compressive strength respectively, compared with a plain cement mortar.
Effect of Alkaline Activator, Water, Superplasticiser and Slag Contents on the Compressive Strength and Workability of Slag-Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar Cured under Ambient Temperature
Geopolymer (cement-free) concrete is the most promising green alternative to ordinary Portland cement concrete and other cementitious materials. While a range of different geopolymer concretes have been produced, a common feature of these concretes is heat curing treatment which is essential in order to provide sufficient mechanical properties in the early age. However, there are several practical issues with the application of heat curing in large-scale structures. The purpose of this study is to develop cement-free concrete without heat curing treatment. Experimental investigations were carried out in two phases. In the first phase (Phase A), the optimum content of water, polycarboxylate based superplasticizer contents and potassium silicate activator in the mix was determined. In the second stage (Phase B), the effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) incorporation on the compressive strength of fly ash (FA) and Slag based geopolymer mixtures was evaluated. Setting time and workability were also conducted alongside with compressive tests. The results showed that as the slag content was increased the setting time was reduced while the compressive strength was improved. The obtained compressive strength was in the range of 40-50 MPa for 50% slag replacement mixtures. Furthermore, the results indicated that increment of water and superplasticizer content resulted to retarding of the setting time and slight reduction of the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the examined mixes was considerably increased as potassium silicate content was increased.
Utilising Unground Oil Palm Ash in Producing Foamed Concrete and Its Implementation as an Interlocking Mortar-Less Block
In this study, the possibility of using unground oil palm ash (UOPA) for producing foamed concrete is investigated. The UOPA used in this study is produced by incinerating palm oil biomass at a temperature exceeding 1000ºC. A semi-structural density of 1300kg/m3 was used with filler to binder ratio of 1.5 and preliminary water to binder ratio of 0.45. Cement was replaced by UOPA at replacement levels of 0, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65% by weight of binder. Properties such as density, compressive strength, drying shrinkage and water absorption were investigated to the age of 90 days. The mix with a 35% of UOPA content was chosen to be used as the base material of a newly designed interlocking, mortar-less block system.
Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance
This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.
Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation and Prevention Measures for Arkansas Local Aggregates
The objective of this research is to mitigate and prevent
the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in highway construction projects.
ASR is a deleterious reaction initiated when the silica content of the
aggregate reacts with alkali hydroxides in cement in the presence of
relatively high moisture content. The ASR results in the formation of
an expansive white colored gel-like material which forms the
destructive tensile stresses inside hardened concrete. In this research, different types of local aggregates available in the
State of Arkansas were mixed and mortar bars were poured according
to the ASTM specifications. Mortar bars expansion was measured
versus time and aggregates with potential ASR problems were
detected. Different types of supplementary cementitious materials
(SCMs) were used in remixing mortar bars with highly reactive
aggregates. Length changes for remixed bars proved that different
types of SCMs can be successfully used in reducing the expansive
effect of ASR. SCMs percentage by weight is highly dependent on
the SCM type. The result of this study will help avoiding future
losses due to ASR cracking in construction project and reduce the
maintenance, repair, and replacement budgets required for highways
Influence of Gum Acacia Karroo on Some Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars and Concrete
Natural admixtures provide concrete with enhanced
properties but their processing end up making them very expensive
resulting in increase to cost of concrete. In this study the effect
of Gum from Acacia Karroo (GAK) as set-retarding admixture
in cement pastes was studied. The possibility of using GAK as
water reducing admixture both in cement mortar concrete was
also investigated. Cement pastes with different dosages of GAK
were prepared to measure the setting time using different dosages.
Compressive strength of cement mortars with 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9%
weight of cement and w/c ratio of 0.5 were compared to those with
water cement (w/c) ratio of 0.44 but same dosage of GAK. Concrete
samples were prepared using higher dosages of GAK (1, 2 and 3%
wt of cement) and a water bidder (w/b) of 0.61 were compared to
those with the same GAK dosage but with reduced w/b ratio. There
was increase in compressive strength of 9.3% at 28 days for cement
mortar samples with 0.9% dosage of GAK and reduced w/c ratio.
Application of Micro-Tunneling Technique to Rectify Tilted Structures Constructed on Cohesive Soil
Foundation differential settlement and supported
structure tilting are an occasionally occurred engineering problem.
This may be caused by overloading, changes in ground soil properties
or unsupported nearby excavations. Engineering thinking points
directly toward the logic solution for such problem by uplifting the
settled side. This can be achieved with deep foundation elements
such as micro-piles and macro-piles™, jacked piers, and helical piers,
jet grouted mortar columns, compaction grout columns, cement
grouting or with chemical grouting, or traditional pit underpinning
with concrete and mortar. Although, some of these techniques offer
economic, fast and low noise solutions, many of them are quite the
contrary. For tilted structures, with the limited inclination, it may be much
easier to cause a balancing settlement on the less-settlement side
which shall be done carefully in a proper rate. This principal has been
applied in Leaning Tower of Pisa stabilization with soil extraction
from the ground surface. In this research, the authors attempt to
introduce a new solution with a different point of view. So, the
micro-tunneling technique is presented in here as an intended ground
deformation cause. In general, micro-tunneling is expected to induce
limited ground deformations. Thus, the researchers propose to apply
the technique to form small size ground unsupported holes to produce
the target deformations. This shall be done in four phases: 1.
Application of one or more micro-tunnels, regarding the existing
differential settlement value, under the raised side of the tilted
structure. 2. For each individual tunnel, the lining shall be pulled out
from both sides (from jacking and receiving shafts) in the slow rate.
3. If required, according to calculations and site records, an additional
surface load can be applied on the raised foundation side. 4. Finally, a
strengthening soil grouting shall be applied for stabilization after
adjustment. A finite element based numerical model is presented to simulate
the proposed construction phases for different tunneling positions and
tunnels group. For each case, the surface settlements are calculated
and induced plasticity points are checked. These results show the
impact of the suggested procedure on the tilted structure and its
feasibility. Comparing results also show the importance of the
position selection and tunnels group gradual effect. Thus, a new
engineering solution is presented to one of the structural and
geotechnical engineering challenges.
Mechanical Properties and Chloride Diffusion of Ceramic Waste Aggregate Mortar Containing Ground Granulated Blast–Furnace Slag
Ceramic Waste Aggregates (CWAs) were made from
electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power
company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. In
this study, to develop the CWA mortar as an eco–efficient, ground
granulated blast–furnace slag (GGBS) as a Supplementary
Cementitious Material (SCM) was incorporated. The water–to–binder
ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The
cement of the CWA mortar was replaced by GGBS at 20 and 40% by
volume (at about 18 and 37% by weight). Mechanical properties of
compressive and splitting tensile strengths, and elastic modulus were
evaluated at the age of 7, 28, and 91 days. Moreover, the chloride
ingress test was carried out on the CWA mortars in a 5.0% NaCl
solution for 48 weeks. The chloride diffusion was assessed by using an
electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). To consider the relation of the
apparent chloride diffusion coefficient and the pore size, the pore size
distribution test was also performed using a mercury intrusion
porosimetry at the same time with the EPMA. The compressive
strength of the CWA mortars with the GGBS was higher than that
without the GGBS at the age of 28 and 91 days. The resistance to the
chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the
GGBS replacement level.
Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions
This paper investigates the effectiveness of two
natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica
reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content.
Three aggregates; two natural sands and one crushed stone aggregate
were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated
mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performances of natural
zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali
silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at 10% and
20% replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with
high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing
expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at
20% replacement levels was effective in mitigating expansions.
Characterization of Cement Mortar Based on Fine Quartz
The introduction of siliceous mineral additions in cement production allows, in addition to the ecological and economic gain, improvement of concrete performance. This improvement is mainly due to the fixing of Portlandite, released during the hydration of cement, by fine siliceous, forming denser calcium silicate hydrates and therefore a more compact cementitious matrix. This research is part of the valuation of the Dune Sand (DS) in the cement industry in Algeria. The high silica content of DS motivated us to study its effect, at ground state, on the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state. For this purpose, cement pastes and mortars based on ground dune sand (fine quartz) has been analyzed with a replacement to cement of 15%, 20% and 25%. This substitution has reduced the amount of heat of hydration and avoids any risk of initial cracking. In addition, the grinding of the dune sand provides amorphous thin populations adsorbed at the surface of the crystal particles of quartz. Which gives to ground quartz pozzolanic character. This character results an improvement of mechanical strength of mortar (66 MPa in the presence of 25% of ground quartz).
Deformation Characteristics of Fire Damaged and Rehabilitated Normal Strength Concrete Beams
In recent years, fire accidents have been steadily
increased and the amount of property damage caused by the accidents
has gradually raised. Damaging building structure, fire incidents bring
about not only such property damage but also strength degradation and
member deformation. As a result, the building structure undermines its
structural ability. Examining the degradation and the deformation is
very important because reusing the building is more economical than
reconstruction. Therefore, engineers need to investigate the strength
degradation and member deformation well, and make sure that they
apply right rehabilitation methods. This study aims at evaluating
deformation characteristics of fire damaged and rehabilitated normal
strength concrete beams through both experiments and finite element
analyses. For the experiments, control beams, fire damaged beams and
rehabilitated beams are tested to examine deformation characteristics.
Ten test beam specimens with compressive strength of 21MPa are
fabricated and main test variables are selected as cover thickness of
40mm and 50mm and fire exposure time of 1 hour or 2 hours. After
heating, fire damaged beams are air-recurred for 2 months and
rehabilitated beams are repaired with polymeric cement mortar after
being removed the fire damaged concrete cover. All beam specimens
are tested under four points loading. FE analyses are executed to
investigate the effects of main parameters applied to experimental
study. Test results show that both maximum load and stiffness of the
rehabilitated beams are higher than those of the fire damaged beams.
In addition, predicted structural behaviors from the analyses also show
good rehabilitation effect and the predicted load-deflection curves are
similar to the experimental results. For the further, the proposed
analytical method can be used to predict deformation characteristics of
fire damaged and rehabilitated concrete beams without suffering from
time and cost consuming of experimental process.
Investigation of Rehabilitation Effects on Fire Damaged High Strength Concrete Beams
When high strength reinforced concrete is exposed to
high temperature due to a fire, deteriorations occur such as loss in
strength and elastic modulus, cracking and spalling of the concrete.
Therefore, it is important to understand risk of structural safety in
building structures by studying structural behaviors and rehabilitation
of fire damaged high strength concrete structures. This paper aims at
investigating rehabilitation effect on fire damaged high strength
concrete beams using experimental and analytical methods. In the
experiments, flexural specimens with high strength concrete are
exposed to high temperatures according to ISO 834 standard time
temperature curve. From four-point loading test, results show that
maximum loads of the rehabilitated beams are similar to or higher than
those of the non-fire damaged RC beam. In addition, structural
analyses are performed using ABAQUS 6.10-3 with same conditions
as experiments to provide accurate predictions on structural and
mechanical behaviors of rehabilitated RC beams. The parameters are
the fire cover thickness and strengths of repairing mortar. Analytical
results show good rehabilitation effects, when the results predicted
from the rehabilitated models are compared to structural behaviors of
the non-damaged RC beams. In this study, fire damaged high strength concrete beams are
rehabilitated using polymeric cement mortar. The predictions from the
finite element (FE) models show good agreements with the
experimental results and the modeling approaches can be used to
investigate applicability of various rehabilitation methods for further
Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Sorption Properties of Geopolymers Based On Liquid Glass
Fly ash (FA) thanks to the significant presence of SiO2
and Al2O3 as the main components is a potential raw material for
geopolymers production. Mechanical activation is a method for
improving FA reactivity and also the porosity of final mixture; those
parameters can be analysed through sorption properties. They have
direct impact on the durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortars.
In the paper, effect of FA fineness on sorption properties of
geopolymers based on sodium silicate, as well as relationship
between fly ash fineness and apparent density, compressive and
flexural strength of geopolymers are presented. The best results in the
evaluated area reached the sample H1, which contents the highest
portion of particle under 20μm (100% of GFA). The interdependence
of individual tested properties was confirmed for geopolymer
mixtures corresponding to those in the cement based mixtures: higher
is portion of fine particles < 20μm, higher is strength, density and
lower are sorption properties. The compressive strength as well as
sorption parameters of the geopolymer can be reasonably controlled
by grinding process and also ensured by the higher share of fine
particle (to 20μm) in total mass of the material.
Study of Fly Ash Geopolymer Based Composites with Polyester Waste Addition
In the present work, fly ash geopolymer based
composites including polyester (PES) waste were studied. Specimens
of three compositions were prepared: (a) fly ash geopolymer with 5%
PES waste; (b) fly ash geopolymer mortar with 5% PES waste; (c) fly
ash geopolymer mortar with 6.25% PES waste. Compressive and
bending strength measurements, water absorption test and
determination of thermal conductivity coefficient were performed.
The results showed that the addition of sand in a mixture of
geopolymer with 5% PES content led to higher compressive strength,
while it increased water absorption and reduced thermal conductivity
coefficient. The increase of PES addition in geopolymer mortars
resulted in a more dense structure, indicated by the increase of
strength and thermal conductivity and the decrease of water
Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin
Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various
fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10% of Portland cement CEM I
42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity
metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties.
Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying
system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and
hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures
the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for
coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all
fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference
sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and
adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of
metakaolin used in cement pastes.
The Use of Palm Kernel Shell and Ash for Concrete Production
This work reports the potential of using Palm Kernel
(PK) ash and shell as a partial substitute for Portland Cement (PC)
and coarse aggregate in the development of mortar and concrete. PK
ash and shell are agro-waste materials from palm oil mills, the
disposal of PK ash and shell is an environmental problem of concern.
The PK ash has pozzolanic properties that enables it as a partial
replacement for cement and also plays an important role in the
strength and durability of concrete, its use in concrete will alleviate
the increasing challenges of scarcity and high cost of cement. In order
to investigate the PC replacement potential of PK ash, three types of
PK ash were produced at varying temperature (350-750C) and they
were used to replace up to 50% PC. The PK shell was used to replace
up to 100% coarse aggregate in order to study its aggregate
replacement potential. The testing programme included material
characterisation, the determination of compressive strength, tensile
splitting strength and chemical durability in aggressive sulfatebearing
exposure conditions. The 90 day compressive results showed
a significant strength gain (up to 26.2 N/mm2). The Portland cement
and conventional coarse aggregate has significantly higher influence
in the strength gain compared to the equivalent PK ash and PK shell.
The chemical durability results demonstrated that after a prolonged
period of exposure, significant strength losses in all the concretes
were observed. This phenomenon is explained, due to lower change
in concrete morphology and inhibition of reaction species and the
final disruption of the aggregate cement paste matrix.
Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete
The main objective of this paper is study the influence
of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the
characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete
and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square
section its dimensions (4040 160) mm, divided into four groups.
The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes
(CNTs) fibers with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11%, 0.22%,
and 0.33% by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers
with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by
weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups
studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to
0.0%, 0.11%, and 0.22% by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers
with different percentages were equal to 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% by
weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and
flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of
tested results concluded that the nano-fibers is more effective when
used with cement mortar more than used with concrete because of
increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of
nano-fibers. And also by adding nano-fibers the improvement of
flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than
improvement of compressive strength.
Behavior of Confined Columns under Different Techniques
Since columns are the most important elements of the
structures, failure of one column in a critical location can cause a
progressive collapse. In this respect, the repair and strengthening of
columns is a very important subject to reduce the building failure and
to keep the columns capacity. Twenty columns with different
parameters is tested and analysis. Eleven typical confined reinforced
concrete (RC) columns with different types of techniques are
assessment. And also, four confined concrete columns with plastic
tube (PVC) are tested with and with four paralleling tested of
unconfined plain concrete. The techniques of confined RC columns
are mortar strengthening, Steel rings strengthening, FRP
strengthening. Moreover, the technique of confined plain concrete
(PC) column is used PVC tubes. The columns are tested under
uniaxial compressive loads studied the effect of confinement on the
structural behavior of circular RC columns. Test results for each
column are presented in the form of crack patterns, stress-strain
curves. Test results show that confining of the RC columns using
different techniques of strengthening results significant improvement
of the general behavior of the columns and can used in construction.
And also, tested confined PC columns with PVC tubes results shown
that the confined PC with PVC tubes can be used in economical
building. The theoretical model for predicted column capacity is
founded with experimental factor depends on the confined techniques
used and the strain reduction.