International Science Index

16
10005845
Organisational Effectiveness and Its Implications for Seaports
Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to explore the role of organisational effectiveness (OE) in seaports. OE is an important managerial concept, one that is necessary for leaders and directors in any organisation to understand the output of their work. OE has been applied in many organisations; however, it is a vital concept in the port business. This paper examines various approaches and applications of the OE concept to business management, and describes benefits that are important and applicable to seaport management. This research reviews and classifies articles published in relevant journals and books between 1950 and 2016; from the general literature on OE to the narrower field of OE in seaports. Based on the extensive literature review, this study identifies and discusses several issues relevant to both practices and theories of this concept. The review concludes by presenting a gap in the literature, as it found only a limited amount of research that endeavours to clarify OE in the seaport sector. As a result of this gap, seaports suffer from a lack of empirical study and are largely neglected in this subject area. The implementation of OE in this research has led to the maritime sector interfacing with different disciplines in order to acquire the advantage of enhancing managerial knowledge and competing successfully in the international marketplace.

Paper Detail
286
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15
10001868
Traffic Density Measurement by Automatic Detection of Vehicles Using Gradient Vectors from Aerial Images
Abstract:
This paper presents a new automatic vehicle detection method from very high resolution aerial images to measure traffic density. The proposed method starts by extracting road regions from image using road vector data. Then, the road image is divided into equal sections considering resolution of the images. Gradient vectors of the road image are computed from edge map of the corresponding image. Gradient vectors on the each boundary of the sections are divided where the gradient vectors significantly change their directions. Finally, number of vehicles in each section is carried out by calculating the standard deviation of the gradient vectors in each group and accepting the group as vehicle that has standard deviation above predefined threshold value. The proposed method was tested in four very high resolution aerial images acquired from Istanbul, Turkey which illustrate roads and vehicles with diverse characteristics. The results show the reliability of the proposed method in detecting vehicles by producing 86% overall F1 accuracy value.
Paper Detail
1634
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14
10000027
Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Paper Detail
2108
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13
14093
Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine
Authors:
Abstract:
A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.
Paper Detail
1330
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12
14046
Using the Combined Model of PROMETHEE and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process for Determining Question Weights in Scientific Exams through Data Mining Approach
Abstract:
Need for an appropriate system of evaluating students- educational developments is a key problem to achieve the predefined educational goals. Intensity of the related papers in the last years; that tries to proof or disproof the necessity and adequacy of the students assessment; is the corroborator of this matter. Some of these studies tried to increase the precision of determining question weights in scientific examinations. But in all of them there has been an attempt to adjust the initial question weights while the accuracy and precision of those initial question weights are still under question. Thus In order to increase the precision of the assessment process of students- educational development, the present study tries to propose a new method for determining the initial question weights by considering the factors of questions like: difficulty, importance and complexity; and implementing a combined method of PROMETHEE and fuzzy analytic network process using a data mining approach to improve the model-s inputs. The result of the implemented case study proves the development of performance and precision of the proposed model.
Paper Detail
873
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11
3619
Combination of Different Classifiers for Cardiac Arrhythmia Recognition
Abstract:
This paper describes a new supervised fusion (hybrid) electrocardiogram (ECG) classification solution consisting of a new QRS complex geometrical feature extraction as well as a new version of the learning vector quantization (LVQ) classification algorithm aimed for overcoming the stability-plasticity dilemma. Toward this objective, after detection and delineation of the major events of ECG signal via an appropriate algorithm, each QRS region and also its corresponding discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are supposed as virtual images and each of them is divided into eight polar sectors. Then, the curve length of each excerpted segment is calculated and is used as the element of the feature space. To increase the robustness of the proposed classification algorithm versus noise, artifacts and arrhythmic outliers, a fusion structure consisting of five different classifiers namely as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Modified Learning Vector Quantization (MLVQ) and three Multi Layer Perceptron-Back Propagation (MLP–BP) neural networks with different topologies were designed and implemented. The new proposed algorithm was applied to all 48 MIT–BIH Arrhythmia Database records (within–record analysis) and the discrimination power of the classifier in isolation of different beat types of each record was assessed and as the result, the average accuracy value Acc=98.51% was obtained. Also, the proposed method was applied to 6 number of arrhythmias (Normal, LBBB, RBBB, PVC, APB, PB) belonging to 20 different records of the aforementioned database (between– record analysis) and the average value of Acc=95.6% was achieved. To evaluate performance quality of the new proposed hybrid learning machine, the obtained results were compared with similar peer– reviewed studies in this area.
Paper Detail
1546
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10
6521
Investigation of Increasing the Heat Transfer from Flat Surfaces Using Boundary Layer Excitation
Authors:
Abstract:
The present study is concerned with effect of exciting boundary layer on increase in heat transfer from flat surfaces. As any increase in heat transfer between a fluid inside a face and another one outside of it can cause an increase in some equipment's efficiency, so at this present we have tried to increase the wall's heat transfer coefficient by exciting the fluid boundary layer. By a collision between flow and the placed block at the fluid way, the flow pattern and the boundary layer stability will change. The flow way inside the channel is simulated as a 2&3-dimensional channel by Gambit TM software. With studying the achieved results by this simulation for the flow way inside the channel with a block coordinating with Fluent TM software, it's determined that the figure and dimensions of the exciter are too important for exciting the boundary layer so that any increase in block dimensions in vertical side against the flow and any reduction in its dimensions at the flow side can increase the average heat transfer coefficient from flat surface and increase the flow pressure loss. Using 2&3-dimensional analysis on exciting the flow at the flow way inside a channel by cylindrical block at the same time with the external flow, we came to this conclusion that the heat flux transferred from the surface, is increased considerably in terms of the condition without excitation. Also, the k-e turbulence model is used.
Paper Detail
670
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9
1452
A Study of the Role of Perceived Risk and User Characteristics in Internet Purchase Intention
Abstract:
This study aims at investigating the empirical relationships between risk preference, internet preference, and internet knowledge which are known as user characteristics, in addition to perceived risk of the customers on the internet purchase intention. In order to test the relationships between the variables of model 174, a questionnaire was collected from the students with previous online experience. For the purpose of data analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) was used. Test results show that the perceived risk affects the internet purchase intention, and increase or decrease of perceived risk influences the purchase intention when the customer does the internet shopping. Other factors such as internet preference, knowledge of the internet, and risk preference affect the internet purchase intention.
Paper Detail
1355
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8
7153
Industrial Development, Environment And Occupational Problems: The Case Of Iran
Abstract:
There are three distinct stages in the evolution of economic thought, namely: 1. in the first stage, the major concern was to accelerate economic growth with increased availability of material goods, especially in developing economies with very low living standards, because poverty eradication meant faster economic growth. 2. in the second stage, economists made distinction between growth and development. Development was seen as going beyond economic growth, and bringing certain changes in the structure of the economy with more equitable distribution of the benefits of growth, with the growth coming automatic and sustained. 3. the third stage is now reached. Our concern is now with “sustainable development", that is, development not only for the present but also of the future. Thus the focus changed from “sustained growth" to “sustained development". Sustained development brings to the fore the long term relationship between the ecology and economic development. Since the creation of UNEP in 1972 it has worked for development without destruction for environmentally sound and sustained development. It was realised that the environment cannot be viewed in a vaccum, it is not separate from development, nor is it competing. It suggested for the integration of the environment with development whereby ecological factors enter development planning, socio-economic policies, cost-benefit analysis, trade, technology transfer, waste management, educational and other specific areas. Industrialisation has contributed to the growth of economy of several countries. It has improved the standards of living of its people and provided benefits to the society. It has also created in the process great environmental problems like climate change, forest destruction and denudation, soil erosion and desertification etc. On the other hand, industry has provided jobs and improved the prospects of wealth for the industrialists. The working class communities had to simply put up with the high levels of pollution in order to keep up their jobs and also to save their income. There are many roots of the environmental problem. They may be political, economic, cultural and technological conditions of the modern society. The experts concede that industrial growth lies somewhere close to the heart of the matter. Therefore, the objective of this paper is not to document all roots of an environmental crisis but rather to discuss the effects of industrial growth and development. We have come to the conclusion that although public intervention is often unnecessary to ensure that perfectly competitive markets will function in society-s best interests, such intervention is necessary when firms or consumers pollute.
Paper Detail
1030
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7
962
Removal of Arsenic (III) from Contaminated Waterby Synthetic Nano Size Zerovalent Iron
Abstract:
The present work was conducted for Arsenic (III) removal, which one of the most poisonous groundwater pollutants, by synthetic nano size zerovalent iron (nZVI). Batch experiments were performed to investigate the influence of As (III), nZVI concentration, pH of solution and contact time on the efficiency of As (III) removal. nZVI was synthesized by reduction of ferric chloride by sodium borohydrid. SEM and XRD were used to determine particle size and characterization of produced nanoparticles. Up to 99.9% removal efficiency for arsenic (III) was obtained by nZVI dosage of 1 g/L at time equal to 10 min. and pH=7. It could be concluded that the removal efficiency were enhanced with increasing of ZVI dosage and reaction time, but decreased with increasing of arsenic concentration and pH for nano sized ZVI. nZVI presented an outstanding ability to remove As (III) due to not only a high surface area and low particle size but also to high inherent activity.
Paper Detail
1670
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6
1898
A New Correlation for Overall Sherwood Number in Packed Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column
Abstract:
Using plug flow model in conjunction with experimental solute concentration profiles, overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient based on continuous phase (Koca), in a packed liquid-liquid extraction column has been optimized. Number of 12 experiments has been done using standard system of water/acid acetic/toluene in a 6 cm diameter, 120 cm height column. Thorough consideration of influencing parameters we intended to correlate dimensionless parameters in term of overall Sherwood number which has an acceptable average error of about 15.8%.
Paper Detail
1357
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5
10447
Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Air-Fuel Ratio of Automobile Spark Ignition Engine
Abstract:
In order to meet the limits imposed on automotive emissions, engine control systems are required to constrain air/fuel ratio (AFR) in a narrow band around the stoichiometric value, due to the strong decay of catalyst efficiency in case of rich or lean mixture. This paper presents a model of a sample spark ignition engine and demonstrates Simulink-s capabilities to model an internal combustion engine from the throttle to the crankshaft output. We used welldefined physical principles supplemented, where appropriate, with empirical relationships that describe the system-s dynamic behavior without introducing unnecessary complexity. We also presents a PID tuning method that uses an adaptive fuzzy system to model the relationship between the controller gains and the target output response, with the response specification set by desired percent overshoot and settling time. The adaptive fuzzy based input-output model is then used to tune on-line the PID gains for different response specifications. Experimental results demonstrate that better performance can be achieved with adaptive fuzzy tuning relative to similar alternative control strategies. The actual response specifications with adaptive fuzzy matched the desired response specifications.
Paper Detail
1633
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4
10912
Tipover Stability Enhancement of Wheeled Mobile Manipulators Using an Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference Controller System
Abstract:
In this paper an algorithm based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller is provided to enhance the tipover stability of mobile manipulators when they are subjected to predefined trajectories for the end-effector and the vehicle. The controller creates proper configurations for the manipulator to prevent the robot from being overturned. The optimal configuration and thus the most favorable control are obtained through soft computing approaches including a combination of genetic algorithm, neural networks, and fuzzy logic. The proposed algorithm, in this paper, is that a look-up table is designed by employing the obtained values from the genetic algorithm in order to minimize the performance index and by using this data base, rule bases are designed for the ANFIS controller and will be exerted on the actuators to enhance the tipover stability of the mobile manipulator. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Paper Detail
1276
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3
11829
Parameters Identification of Mathematical Model of the Fission Yeast Cell Cycle Control Using Evolutionary Strategy
Abstract:
Complex assemblies of interacting proteins carry out most of the interesting jobs in a cell, such as metabolism, DNA synthesis, mitosis and cell division. These physiological properties play out as a subtle molecular dance, choreographed by underlying regulatory networks that control the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). The network can be modeled by a set of nonlinear differential equations and its behavior predicted by numerical simulation. In this paper, an innovative approach has been proposed that uses genetic algorithms to mine a set of behavior data output by a biological system in order to determine the kinetic parameters of the system. In our approach, the machine learning method is integrated with the framework of existent biological information in a wiring diagram so that its findings are expressed in a form of system dynamic behavior. By numerical simulations it has been illustrated that the model is consistent with experiments and successfully shown that such application of genetic algorithms will highly improve the performance of mathematical model of the cell division cycle to simulate such a complicated bio-system.
Paper Detail
869
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2
14828
Turbine Follower Control Strategy Design Based on Developed FFPP Model
Abstract:
In this paper a comprehensive model of a fossil fueled power plant (FFPP) is developed in order to evaluate the performance of a newly designed turbine follower controller. Considering the drawbacks of previous works, an overall model is developed to minimize the error between each subsystem model output and the experimental data obtained at the actual power plant. The developed model is organized in two main subsystems namely; Boiler and Turbine. Considering each FFPP subsystem characteristics, different modeling approaches are developed. For economizer, evaporator, superheater and reheater, first order models are determined based on principles of mass and energy conservation. Simulations verify the accuracy of the developed models. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of attemperator, a new model, based on a genetic-fuzzy systems utilizing Pittsburgh approach is developed showing a promising performance vis-à-vis those derived with other methods like ANFIS. The optimization constraints are handled utilizing penalty functions. The effect of increasing the number of rules and membership functions on the performance of the proposed model is also studied and evaluated. The turbine model is developed based on the equation of adiabatic expansion. Parameters of all evaluated models are tuned by means of evolutionary algorithms. Based on the developed model a fuzzy PI controller is developed. It is then successfully implemented in the turbine follower control strategy of the plant. In this control strategy instead of keeping control parameters constant, they are adjusted on-line with regard to the error and the error rate. It is shown that the response of the system improves significantly. It is also shown that fuel consumption decreases considerably.
Paper Detail
1122
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1
11874
A New Intelligent Strategy to Integrated Control of AFS/DYC Based on Fuzzy Logic
Abstract:

An integrated vehicle dynamics control system is developed in this paper by a combination of active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) based on fuzzy logic control. The control system has a hierarchical structure consisting of two layers. A fuzzy logic controller is used in the upper layer (yaw rate controller) to keep the yaw rate in its desired value. The yaw rate error and its rate of change are applied to the upper controlling layer as inputs, where the direct yaw moment control signal and the steering angle correction of the front wheels are the outputs. In the lower layer (fuzzy integrator), a fuzzy logic controller is designed based on the working region of the lateral tire forces. Depending on the directions of the lateral forces at the front wheels, a switching function is activated to adjust the scaling factor of the fuzzy logic controller. Using a nonlinear seven degrees of freedom vehicle model, the simulation results illustrate considerable improvements which are achieved in vehicle handling through the integrated AFS/DYC control system in comparison with the individual AFS or DYC controllers.

Paper Detail
1520
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