International Science Index
Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation
The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well-known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the presented finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.
Performance Analysis of the Time-Based and Periodogram-Based Energy Detector for Spectrum Sensing
Classically, an energy detector is implemented in time domain (TD). However, frequency domain (FD) based energy detector has demonstrated an improved performance. This paper presents a comparison between the two approaches as to analyze their pros and cons. A detailed performance analysis of the classical TD energy-detector and the periodogram based detector is performed. Exact and approximate mathematical expressions for probability of false alarm (Pf) and probability of detection (Pd) are derived for both approaches. The derived expressions naturally lead to an analytical as well as intuitive reasoning for the improved performance of (Pf) and (Pd) in different scenarios. Our analysis suggests the dependence improvement on buffer sizes. Pf is improved in FD, whereas Pd is enhanced in TD based energy detectors. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations results demonstrate the analysis reached by the derived expressions.
Summing ANFIS PID Control of Passenger Seat Vibrations in Active Quarter Car Model
In this paper, passenger seat vibration control of an active quarter car model under random road excitations is considered. The designed ANFIS and Summing ANFIS PID controllers are assembled in primary suspension system of quarter car model. Simulation work is performed in time and frequency domain to obtain passenger seat acceleration and displacement responses. Simulation results show that Summing ANFIS PID based controller is highly suitable to suppress the road induced vibrations in quarter car model to achieve desired passenger ride comfort and safety compared to ANFIS and passive system.
Electromyography Pattern Classification with Laplacian Eigenmaps in Human Running
Electromyography (EMG) is one of the most important interfaces between humans and robots for rehabilitation. Decoding this signal helps to recognize muscle activation and converts it into smooth motion for the robots. Detecting each muscle’s pattern during walking and running is vital for improving the quality of a patient’s life. In this study, EMG data from 10 muscles in 10 subjects at 4 different speeds were analyzed. EMG signals are nonlinear with high dimensionality. To deal with this challenge, we extracted some features in time-frequency domain and used manifold learning and Laplacian Eigenmaps algorithm to find the intrinsic features that represent data in low-dimensional space. We then used the Bayesian classifier to identify various patterns of EMG signals for different muscles across a range of running speeds. The best result for vastus medialis muscle corresponds to 97.87±0.69 for sensitivity and 88.37±0.79 for specificity with 97.07±0.29 accuracy using Bayesian classifier. The results of this study provide important insight into human movement and its application for robotics research.
Modeling and System Identification of a Variable Excited Linear Direct Drive
Linear actuators are deployed in a wide range of applications. This paper presents the modeling and system identification of a variable excited linear direct drive (LDD). The LDD is designed based on linear hybrid stepper technology exhibiting the characteristic tooth structure of mover and stator. A three-phase topology provides the thrust force caused by alternating strengthening and weakening of the flux of the legs. To achieve best possible synchronous operation, the phases are commutated sinusoidal. Despite the fact that these LDDs provide high dynamics and drive forces, noise emission limits their operation in calm workspaces. To overcome this drawback an additional excitation of the magnetic circuit is introduced to LDD using additional enabling coils instead of permanent magnets. The new degree of freedom can be used to reduce force variations and related noise by varying the excitation flux that is usually generated by permanent magnets. Hence, an identified simulation model is necessary to analyze the effects of this modification. Especially the force variations must be modeled well in order to reduce them sufficiently. The model can be divided into three parts: the current dynamics, the mechanics and the force functions. These subsystems are described with differential equations or nonlinear analytic functions, respectively. Ordinary nonlinear differential equations are derived and transformed into state space representation. Experiments have been carried out on a test rig to identify the system parameters of the complete model. Static and dynamic simulation based optimizations are utilized for identification. The results are verified in time and frequency domain. Finally, the identified model provides a basis for later design of control strategies to reduce existing force variations.
Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison
Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.
Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides
This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.
Frequency Response of Complex Systems with Localized Nonlinearities
Finite Element Models (FEMs) are widely used in order to study and predict the dynamic properties of structures and usually, the prediction can be obtained with much more accuracy in the case of a single component than in the case of assemblies. Especially for structural dynamics studies, in the low and middle frequency range, most complex FEMs can be seen as assemblies made by linear components joined together at interfaces. From a modelling and computational point of view, these types of joints can be seen as localized sources of stiffness and damping and can be modelled as lumped spring/damper elements, most of time, characterized by nonlinear constitutive laws. On the other side, most of FE programs are able to run nonlinear analysis in time-domain. They treat the whole structure as nonlinear, even if there is one nonlinear degree of freedom (DOF) out of thousands of linear ones, making the analysis unnecessarily expensive from a computational point of view. In this work, a methodology in order to obtain the nonlinear frequency response of structures, whose nonlinearities can be considered as localized sources, is presented. The work extends the well-known Structural Dynamic Modification Method (SDMM) to a nonlinear set of modifications, and allows getting the Nonlinear Frequency Response Functions (NLFRFs), through an ‘updating’ process of the Linear Frequency Response Functions (LFRFs). A brief summary of the analytical concepts is given, starting from the linear formulation and understanding what the implications of the nonlinear one, are. The response of the system is formulated in both: time and frequency domain. First the Modal Database is extracted and the linear response is calculated. Secondly the nonlinear response is obtained thru the NL SDMM, by updating the underlying linear behavior of the system. The methodology, implemented in MATLAB, has been successfully applied to estimate the nonlinear frequency response of two systems. The first one is a two DOFs spring-mass-damper system, and the second example takes into account a full aircraft FE Model. In spite of the different levels of complexity, both examples show the reliability and effectiveness of the method. The results highlight a feasible and robust procedure, which allows a quick estimation of the effect of localized nonlinearities on the dynamic behavior. The method is particularly powerful when most of the FE Model can be considered as acting linearly and the nonlinear behavior is restricted to few degrees of freedom. The procedure is very attractive from a computational point of view because the FEM needs to be run just once, which allows faster nonlinear sensitivity analysis and easier implementation of optimization procedures for the calibration of nonlinear models.
Faster Pedestrian Recognition Using Deformable Part Models
Deformable part models achieve high precision in
pedestrian recognition, but all publicly available implementations are
too slow for real-time applications. We implemented a deformable
part model algorithm fast enough for real-time use by exploiting
information about the camera position and orientation. This
implementation is both faster and more precise than alternative
DPM implementations. These results are obtained by computing
convolutions in the frequency domain and using lookup tables to
speed up feature computation. This approach is almost an order of
magnitude faster than the reference DPM implementation, with no
loss in precision. Knowing the position of the camera with respect to
horizon it is also possible prune many hypotheses based on their
size and location. The range of acceptable sizes and positions is
set by looking at the statistical distribution of bounding boxes in
labelled images. With this approach it is not needed to compute the
entire feature pyramid: for example higher resolution features are
only needed near the horizon. This results in an increase in mean
average precision of 5% and an increase in speed by a factor of
two. Furthermore, to reduce misdetections involving small pedestrians
near the horizon, input images are supersampled near the horizon.
Supersampling the image at 1.5 times the original scale, results in
an increase in precision of about 4%. The implementation was tested
against the public KITTI dataset, obtaining an 8% improvement in
mean average precision over the best performing DPM-based method.
By allowing for a small loss in precision computational time can be
easily brought down to our target of 100ms per image, reaching a
solution that is faster and still more precise than all publicly available
Fractional Order Controller Design for Vibration Attenuation in an Airplane Wing
The wing is one of the most important parts of an airplane because it ensures stability, sustenance and maneuverability of the airplane. Because of its shape, the airplane wing can be simplified to a smart beam. Active vibration suppression is realized using piezoelectric actuators that are mounted on the surface of the beam. This work presents a tuning procedure of fractional order controllers based on a graphical approach of the frequency domain representation. The efficacy of the method is proven by practically testing the controller on a laboratory scale experimental stand.
Fractional-Order PI Controller Tuning Rules for Cascade Control System
The fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller tuning rules based on the fractional calculus for the cascade control system are systematically proposed in this paper. Accordingly, the ideal controller is obtained by using internal model control (IMC) approach for both the inner and outer loops, which gives the desired closed-loop responses. On the basis of the fractional calculus, the analytical tuning rules of FOPI controller for the inner loop can be established in the frequency domain. Besides, the outer loop is tuned by using any integer PI/PID controller tuning rules in the literature. The simulation study is considered for the stable process model and the results demonstrate the simplicity, flexibility, and effectiveness of the proposed method for the cascade control system in compared with the other methods.
An Analysis of the Performances of Various Buoys as the Floats of Wave Energy Converters
The power generated by eight point absorber type wave energy converters each having a different buoy are calculated in order to investigate the performances of buoys in this study. The calculations are carried out by modeling three different sea states observed in two different locations in the Black Sea. The floats analyzed in this study have two basic geometries and four different draft/radius (d/r) ratios. The buoys possess the shapes of a semi-ellipsoid and a semi-elliptic paraboloid. Additionally, the draft/radius ratios range from 0.25 to 1 by an increment of 0.25. The radiation forces acting on the buoys due to the oscillatory motions of these bodies are evaluated by employing a 3D panel method along with a distribution of 3D pulsating sources in frequency domain. On the other hand, the wave forces acting on the buoys which are taken as the sum of Froude-Krylov forces and diffraction forces are calculated by using linear wave theory. Furthermore, the wave energy converters are assumed to be taut-moored to the seabed so that the secondary body which houses a power take-off system oscillates with much smaller amplitudes compared to the buoy. As a result, it is assumed that there is not any significant contribution to the power generation from the motions of the housing body and the only contribution to power generation comes from the buoy. The power take-off systems of the wave energy converters are high pressure oil hydraulic systems which are identical in terms of their characteristic parameters. The results show that the power generated by wave energy converters which have semi-ellipsoid floats is higher than that of those which have semi elliptic paraboloid floats in both locations and in all sea states. It is also determined that the power generated by the wave energy converters follow an unsteady pattern such that they do not decrease or increase with changing draft/radius ratios of the floats. Although the highest power level is obtained with a semi-ellipsoid float which has a draft/radius ratio equal to 1, other floats of which the draft/radius ratio is 0.25 delivered higher power that the floats with a draft/radius ratio equal to 1 in some cases.
Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death
In present scenario, cardiovascular problems are growing challenge for researchers and physiologists. As heart disease have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic specific reasons; detecting cardiac irregularities at early stage followed by quick and correct treatment is very important. Electrocardiogram is the finest tool for continuous monitoring of heart activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is used to measure naturally occurring oscillations between consecutive cardiac cycles. Analysis of this variability is carried out using time domain, frequency domain and non-linear parameters. This paper presents HRV analysis of the online dataset for normal sinus rhythm (taken as healthy subject) and sudden cardiac death (SCD subject) using all three methods computing values for parameters like standard deviation of node to node intervals (SDNN), square root of mean of the sequences of difference between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), mean of R to R intervals (mean RR) in time domain, very low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) in frequency domain and Poincare plot for non linear analysis. To differentiate HRV of healthy subject from subject died with SCD, k –nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been used because of its high accuracy. Results show highly reduced values for all stated parameters for SCD subjects as compared to healthy ones. As the dataset used for SCD patients is recording of their ECG signal one hour prior to their death, it is therefore, verified with an accuracy of 95% that proposed algorithm can identify mortality risk of a patient one hour before its death. The identification of a patient’s mortality risk at such an early stage may prevent him/her meeting sudden death if in-time and right treatment is given by the doctor.
A Survey on Positive Real and Strictly Positive Real Scalar Transfer Functions
Positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions are important concepts in the control theory. In this paper, the results of researches in these areas are summarized. Definitions together with their graphical interpretations are mentioned. The equivalent conditions in the frequency domain and state space representations are reviewed. Their equivalent electrical networks are explained. Also, a comprehensive discussion about a difference between behavior of real part of positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions in high frequencies is presented. Furthermore, several illustrative examples are given.
Improving Human Hand Localization in Indoor Environment by Using Frequency Domain Analysis
A human’s hand localization is revised by using radar cross section (RCS) measurements with a minimum root mean square (RMS) error matching algorithm on a touchless keypad mock-up model. RCS and frequency transfer function measurements are carried out in an indoor environment on the frequency ranged from 3.0 to 11.0 GHz to cover federal communications commission (FCC) standards. The touchless keypad model is tested in two different distances between the hand and the keypad. The initial distance of 19.50 cm is identical to the heights of transmitting (Tx) and receiving (Rx) antennas, while the second distance is 29.50 cm from the keypad. Moreover, the effects of Rx angles relative to the hand of human factor are considered. The RCS input parameters are compared with power loss parameters at each frequency. From the results, the performance of the RCS input parameters with the second distance, 29.50 cm at 3 GHz is better than the others.
An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains
In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.
Optimal Image Representation for Linear Canonical Transform Multiplexing
Digital images are widely used in computer
applications. To store or transmit the uncompressed images
requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth.
Image compression is a means to perform transmission or storage of
visual data in the most economical way. This paper explains about
how images can be encoded to be transmitted in a multiplexing
time-frequency domain channel. Multiplexing involves packing
signals together whose representations are compact in the working
domain. In order to optimize transmission resources each 4 × 4
pixel block of the image is transformed by a suitable polynomial
approximation, into a minimal number of coefficients. Less than
4 × 4 coefficients in one block spares a significant amount of
transmitted information, but some information is lost. Different
approximations for image transformation have been evaluated as
polynomial representation (Vandermonde matrix), least squares +
gradient descent, 1-D Chebyshev polynomials, 2-D Chebyshev
polynomials or singular value decomposition (SVD). Results have
been compared in terms of nominal compression rate (NCR),
compression ratio (CR) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)
in order to minimize the error function defined as the difference
between the original pixel gray levels and the approximated
polynomial output. Polynomial coefficients have been later encoded
and handled for generating chirps in a target rate of about two
chirps per 4 × 4 pixel block and then submitted to a transmission
multiplexing operation in the time-frequency domain.
Hydrodynamic Performance of a Moored Barge in Irregular Wave
Motion response of floating structures is of great
concern in marine engineering. Nonlinearity is an inherent property
of any floating bodies subjected to irregular waves. These floating
structures are continuously subjected to environmental loadings from
wave, current, wind etc. This can result in undesirable motions of the
vessel which may challenge the operability. For a floating body to
remain in its position, it should be able to induce a restoring force
when displaced. Mooring is provided to enable this restoring force.
This paper discusses the hydrodynamic performance and motion
characteristics of an 8 point spread mooring system applied to a pipe
laying barge operating in the West African sea. The modelling of the
barge is done using a computer aided-design (CAD) software
RHINOCEROS. Irregular waves are generated using a suitable wave
spectrum. Both frequency domain and time domain analysis is done.
Numerical simulations based on potential theory are carried out to
find the responses and hydrodynamic performance of the barge in
both free floating as well as moored conditions. Initially, potential
flow frequency domain analysis is done to obtain the Response
Amplitude Operator (RAO) which gives an idea about the structural
motion in free floating state. RAOs for different wave headings are
analyzed. In the following step, a time domain analysis is carried out
to obtain the responses of the structure in the moored condition. In
this study, wave induced motions are only taken into consideration.
Wind and current loads are ruled out and shall be included in further
studies. For the current study, 2000 seconds simulation is taken. The
results represent wave induced motion responses, mooring line
tensions and identify critical mooring lines.
Development of a Serial Signal Monitoring Program for Educational Purposes
This paper introduces a signal monitoring program
developed with a view to helping electrical engineering students get
familiar with sensors with digital output. Because the output of digital
sensors cannot be simply monitored by a measuring instrument such as
an oscilloscope, students tend to have a hard time dealing with digital
sensors. The monitoring program runs on a PC and communicates with
an MCU that reads the output of digital sensors via an asynchronous
communication interface. Receiving the sensor data from the MCU,
the monitoring program shows time and/or frequency domain plots of
the data in real time. In addition, the monitoring program provides a
serial terminal that enables the user to exchange text information with
the MCU while the received data is plotted. The user can easily
observe the output of digital sensors and configure the digital sensors
in real time, which helps students who do not have enough experiences
with digital sensors. Though the monitoring program was programmed
in the Matlab programming language, it runs without the Matlab since
it was compiled as a standalone executable.
Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Metric for Pixel Factor Mapping and Extended Pixel Mapping Method
In this paper, an approach is presented to investigate the performance of Pixel Factor Mapping (PFM) and Extended PMM (Pixel Mapping Method) through the qualitative and quantitative approach. These methods are tested against a number of well-known image similarity metrics and statistical distribution techniques. The PFM has been performed in spatial domain as well as frequency domain and the Extended PMM has also been performed in spatial domain through large set of images available in the internet.
Application of Artificial Neural Network in the Investigation of Bearing Defects
Maintenance and design engineers have great concern
for the functioning of rotating machineries due to the vibration
phenomenon. Improper functioning in rotating machinery originates
from the damage to rolling element bearings. The status of rolling
element bearings require advanced technologies to monitor their
health status efficiently and effectively. Avoiding vibration during
machine running conditions is a complicated process. Vibration
simulation should be carried out using suitable sensors/ transducers to
recognize the level of damage on bearing during machine operating
conditions. Various issues arising in rotating systems are interlinked
with bearing faults. This paper presents an approach for fault
diagnosis of bearings using neural networks and time/frequencydomain
Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence of Ten Asian Countries
This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over
the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between
governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have
different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and
“Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no
Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in
“Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of
Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan,
there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic
growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South
Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve
their predictions of the future economic growth.
Circuit Models for Conducted Susceptibility Analyses of Multiconductor Shielded Cables
This paper presents circuit models to analyze the
conducted susceptibility of multiconductor shielded cables in
frequency domains using Branin’s method, which is referred to as the
method of characteristics. These models, which can be used directly
in the time and frequency domains, take into account the presence of
both the transfer impedance and admittance. The conducted
susceptibility is studied by using an injection current on the cable
shield as the source. Two examples are studied; a coaxial shielded
cable and shielded cables with two parallel wires (i.e., twinax cables).
This shield has an asymmetry (one slot on the side). Results obtained
by these models are in good agreement with those obtained by other
Frequency Domain Analysis for Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed Competitive Web-site Model
In this paper, applying frequency domain approach, a
delayed competitive web-site system is investigated. By choosing
the parameter α as a bifurcation parameter, it is found that Hopf
bifurcation occurs as the bifurcation parameter α passes a critical
values. That is, a family of periodic solutions bifurcate from the
equilibrium when the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value.
Some numerical simulations are included to justify the theoretical
analysis results. Finally, main conclusions are given.
Probabilistic Wavelet Neural Network Based Vibration Analysis of Induction Motor Drive
In this paper proposed the effective fault detection of industrial drives by using Biorthogonal Posterior Vibration Signal-Data Probabilistic Wavelet Neural Network (BPPVS-WNN) system. This system was focused to reducing the current flow and to identify faults with lesser execution time with harmonic values obtained through fifth derivative. Initially, the construction of Biorthogonal vibration signal-data based wavelet transform in BPPVS-WNN system localizes the time and frequency domain. The Biorthogonal wavelet approximates the broken bearing using double scaling and factor, identifies the transient disturbance due to fault on induction motor through approximate coefficients and detailed coefficient. Posterior Probabilistic Neural Network detects the final level of faults using the detailed coefficient till fifth derivative and the results obtained through it at a faster rate at constant frequency signal on the industrial drive. Experiment through the Simulink tool detects the healthy and unhealthy motor on measuring parametric factors such as fault detection rate based on time, current flow rate, and execution time.
Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition
This paper presents two techniques, local feature
extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum
modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical
information to improve the performance of face recognition
system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub
block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this
block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using
DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high
frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the
spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non-
Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several
Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best
feature representation can be modelled using probability density
function. The recognition process is performed using maximum
likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components.
The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved
92% recognition rates.
On The Design of Robust Governors of Steam Power Systems Using Polynomial and State-Space Based H∞ Techniques: A Comparative Study
This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.
Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients
Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.
Robust Stabilization against Unknown Consensus Network
This paper studies a robust stabilization problem of a
single agent in a multi-agent consensus system composed of identical
agents, when the network topology of the system is completely
unknown. It is shown that the transfer function of an agent in a
consensus system can be described as a multiplicative perturbation
of the isolated agent transfer function in frequency domain. From an
existing robust stabilization result, we present sufficient conditions for
a robust stabilization of an agent against unknown network topology.
Effect of Carbon Amount of Dual-Phase Steels on Deformation Behavior Using Acoustic Emission
In this study acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained during deformation and fracture of two types of ferrite-martensite dual phase steels (DPS) specimens have been analyzed in frequency domain. For this reason two low carbon steels with various amounts of carbon were chosen, and intercritically heat treated. In the introduced method, identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various phases of DPS is done. For this aim, AE monitoring has been used during tensile test of several DPS with various volume fraction of the martensite (VM) and attempted to relate the AE signals and failure mechanisms in these steels. Different signals, which referred to 2-3 micro-mechanisms of failure due to amount of carbon and also VM have been seen. By Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of signals in distinct locations, an excellent relationship between peak frequencies in these areas and micro-mechanisms of failure were seen. The results were verified by microscopic observations (SEM).