International Science Index
A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method
Two-phase and multi-phase flows are common flow types in fluid mechanics engineering. Among the basic and applied problems of these flow types, two-phase parallel flow is the one that two immiscible fluids flow in the vicinity of each other. In this type of flow, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, and temperature) are different at the two sides of the interface of the two fluids. The most challenging part of the numerical simulation of two-phase flow is to determine the location of interface accurately. In the present work, a coupled interface tracking algorithm is developed based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach using a cell-centered, pressure-based, coupled solver. To validate this algorithm, an analytical solution for fully developed two-phase flow in presence of gravity is derived, and then, the results of the numerical simulation of this flow are compared with analytical solution at various flow conditions. The results of the simulations show good accuracy of the algorithm despite using a nearly coarse and uniform grid. Temporal variations of interface profile toward the steady-state solution show that a greater difference between fluids properties (especially dynamic viscosity) will result in larger traveling waves. Gravity effect studies also show that favorable gravity will result in a reduction of heavier fluid thickness and adverse gravity leads to increasing it with respect to the zero gravity condition. However, the magnitude of variation in favorable gravity is much more than adverse gravity.
Parametric and Analysis Study of the Melting in Slabs Heated by a Laminar Heat Transfer Fluid in Downward and Upward Flows
The present work aims to investigate numerically the thermal and flow characteristics of a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) during the melting process of a phase change material (PCM). The LHSU consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of PCM separated by rectangular channels. The melting process is initiated when the LHSU is heated by a heat transfer fluid (HTF: water) flowing in channels in a downward or upward direction. The proposed study is motivated by the need to optimize the thermal performance of the LHSU by accelerating the charging process. A mathematical model is developed and a fixed-grid enthalpy formulation is adopted for modeling the melting process coupling with convection-conduction heat transfer. The finite volume method was used for discretization. The obtained numerical results are compared with experimental, analytical and numerical ones found in the literature and reasonable agreement is obtained. Thereafter, the numerical investigations were carried out to highlight the effects of the HTF flow direction and the aspect ratio of the PCM slabs on the heat transfer characteristics and thermal performance enhancement of the LHSU.
Development of an Implicit Physical Influence Upwind Scheme for Cell-Centered Finite Volume Method
An essential component of a finite volume method (FVM) is the advection scheme that estimates values on the cell faces based on the calculated values on the nodes or cell centers. The most widely used advection schemes are upwind schemes. These schemes have been developed in FVM on different kinds of structured and unstructured grids. In this research, the physical influence scheme (PIS) is developed for a cell-centered FVM that uses an implicit coupled solver. Results are compared with the exponential differencing scheme (EDS) and the skew upwind differencing scheme (SUDS). Accuracy of these schemes is evaluated for a lid-driven cavity flow at Re = 1000, 3200, and 5000 and a backward-facing step flow at Re = 800. Simulations show considerable differences between the results of EDS scheme with benchmarks, especially for the lid-driven cavity flow at high Reynolds numbers. These differences occur due to false diffusion. Comparing SUDS and PIS schemes shows relatively close results for the backward-facing step flow and different results in lid-driven cavity flow. The poor results of SUDS in the lid-driven cavity flow can be related to its lack of sensitivity to the pressure difference between cell face and upwind points, which is critical for the prediction of such vortex dominant flows.
Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on the Flow at the Outlet of a Propellant Nozzle
The purpose of this work is to simulate the flow at the exit of Vulcan 1 engine of European launcher Ariane 5. The geometry of the propellant nozzle is already determined using the characteristics method. The pressure in the outlet section of the nozzle is less than atmospheric pressure on the ground, causing the existence of oblique and normal shock waves at the exit. During the rise of the launcher, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the shock wave disappears. The code allows the capture of shock wave at exit of nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer to ensure convergence and avoid the calculation instabilities. The Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy coefficient (CFL) and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence. The nonlinear partial derivative equations system which governs this flow is solved by an explicit unsteady numerical scheme by the finite volume method. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of the mesh and also the step of time used in the discretized equations. We have chosen in this study the mesh that gives us a stationary solution with good accuracy.
Human Intraocular Thermal Field in Action with Different Boundary Conditions Considering Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow
In this study, a validated 3D finite volume model of human eye is developed to study the fluid flow and heat transfer in the human eye at steady state conditions. For this purpose, discretized bio-heat transfer equation coupled with Boussinesq equation is analyzed with different anatomical, environmental, and physiological conditions. It is demonstrated that the fluid circulation is formed as a result of thermal gradients in various regions of eye. It is also shown that posterior region of the human eye is less affected by the ambient conditions compared to the anterior segment which is sensitive to the ambient conditions and also to the way the gravitational field is defined compared to the geometry of the eye making the circulations and the thermal field complicated in transient states. The effect of variation in material and boundary conditions guides us to the conclusion that thermal field of a healthy and non-healthy eye can be distinguished via computer simulations.
Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow
In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.
Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.
Transport of Analytes under Mixed Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow of Power Law Fluid
In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes
under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law
fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model
based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is
considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic
(EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing
equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We
have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow
behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential,
imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on
the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study
the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution
across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on
general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also
presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte
concentration and flow behavior index.
Performance Study of Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger with Helical Ribbons
In this work, numerical simulations were carried out using a specific CFD code in order to study the performance of an innovative Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE) with helical ribbons for Bingham fluids (threshold fluids). The resolution of three-dimensional form of the conservation equations (continuity, momentum and energy equations) was carried out basing on the finite volume method (FVM). After studying the effect of dimensionless numbers (axial Reynolds, rotational Reynolds and Oldroyd numbers) on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors within SSHE, a parametric study was developed, by varying the width of the helical ribbon, the clearance between the stator wall and the tip of the ribbon and the number of turns of the helical ribbon, in order to improve the heat transfer inside the exchanger. The effect of these geometrical numbers on the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors was discussed.
Analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics for a Three-Dimensional Flexible Tube
Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube under uniform turbulent flow are calculated when Reynolds number is 1.35×104. In order to achieve the vortex-induced vibration, the three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, the tube is discretized according to the finite element theory, and its dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark method. The fluid-tube interaction is realized by utilizing the diffusion-based smooth dynamic mesh method. Considering the vortex-induced vibration system, the variety trends of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, displacement, vertex shedding frequency, phase difference angle of tube are analyzed under different frequency ratios. The nonlinear phenomena of locked-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle and bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed by using trajectory, phase portrait, and Poincaré sections. The results reveal that: when drag coefficient reaches its minimum value, the transverse amplitude reaches its maximum, and the “lock-in” begins simultaneously. In the range of lock-in, amplitude decreases gradually with increasing of frequency ratio. When lift coefficient reaches its minimum value, the phase difference undergoes a suddenly change from the “out-of-phase” to the “in-phase” mode.
Investigation of Flame and Soot Propagation in Non-Air Conditioned Railway Locomotives
Propagation of fire through a non-air conditioned
railway compartment is studied by virtue of numerical simulations.
Simultaneous computational fire dynamics equations, such as
Navier-Stokes, lumped species continuity, overall mass and energy
conservation, and heat transfer are solved using finite volume based
(for radiation) and finite difference based (for all other equations)
solver, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). A single coupe with an eight
berth occupancy is used to establish the numerical model, followed
by the selection of a three coupe system as the fundamental unit
of the locomotive compartment. Heat Release Rate Per Unit Area
(HRRPUA) of the initial fire is varied to consider a wide range of
compartmental fires. Parameters, such as air inlet velocity relative
to the locomotive at the windows, the level of interaction with the
ambiance and closure of middle berth are studied through a wide
range of numerical simulations. Almost all the loss of lives and
properties due to fire breakout can be attributed to the direct or
indirect exposure to flames or to the inhalation of toxic gases and
resultant suffocation due to smoke and soot. Therefore, the temporal
stature of fire and smoke are reported for each of the considered
cases which can be used in the present or extended form to develop
guidelines to be followed in case of a fire breakout.
Effect of Loop Diameter, Height and Insulation on a High Temperature CO2 Based Natural Circulation Loop
Natural circulation loops (NCLs) are buoyancy driven flow systems without any moving components. NCLs have vast applications in geothermal, solar and nuclear power industry where reliability and safety are of foremost concern. Due to certain favorable thermophysical properties, especially near supercritical regions, carbon dioxide can be considered as an ideal loop fluid in many applications. In the present work, a high temperature NCL that uses supercritical carbon dioxide as loop fluid is analysed. The effects of relevant design and operating variables on loop performance are studied. The system operating under steady state is modelled taking into account the axial conduction through loop fluid and loop wall, and heat transfer with surroundings. The heat source is considered to be a heater with controlled heat flux and heat sink is modelled as an end heat exchanger with water as the external cold fluid. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation are normalized and are solved numerically using finite volume method. Results are obtained for a loop pressure of 90 bar with the power input varying from 0.5 kW to 6.0 kW. The numerical results are validated against the experimental results reported in the literature in terms of the modified Grashof number (Grm) and Reynolds number (Re). Based on the results, buoyancy and friction dominated regions are identified for a given loop. Parametric analysis has been done to show the effect of loop diameter, loop height, ambient temperature and insulation. The results show that for the high temperature loop, heat loss to surroundings affects the loop performance significantly. Hence this conjugate heat transfer between the loop and surroundings has to be considered in the analysis of high temperature NCLs.
Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit
Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.
Influence of Kinematic, Physical and Mechanical Structure Parameters on Aeroelastic GTU Shaft Vibrations in Magnetic Bearings
At present, vibrations of rotors of gas transmittal unit evade sustainable forecasting. This paper describes elastic oscillation modes in resilient supports and rotor impellers modeled during computational experiments with regard to interference in the system of gas-dynamic flow and compressor rotor. Verification of aeroelastic approach was done on model problem of interaction between supersonic jet in shock tube with deformed plate. ANSYS 15.0 engineering analysis system was used as a modeling tool of numerical simulation in this paper. Finite volume method for gas dynamics and finite elements method for assessment of the strain stress state (SSS) components were used as research methods. Rotation speed and material’s elasticity modulus varied during calculations, and SSS components and gas-dynamic parameters in the dynamic system of gas-dynamic flow and compressor rotor were evaluated. The analysis of time dependence demonstrated that gas-dynamic parameters near the rotor blades oscillate at 200 Hz, and SSS parameters at the upper blade edge oscillate four times higher, i.e. with blade frequency. It has been detected that vibration amplitudes correction in the test points at magnetic bearings by aeroelasticity may correspond up to 50%, and about -π/4 for phases.
Finite Volume Method for Flow Prediction Using Unstructured Meshes
In designing a low-energy-consuming buildings, the heat transfer through a large glass or wall becomes critical. Multiple layers of the window glasses and walls are employed for the high insulation. The gravity driven air flow between window glasses or wall layers is a natural heat convection phenomenon being a key of the heat transfer. For the first step of the natural heat transfer analysis, in this study the development and application of a finite volume method for the numerical computation of viscous incompressible flows is presented. It will become a part of the natural convection analysis with high-order scheme, multi-grid method, and dual-time step in the future. A finite volume method based on a fully-implicit second-order is used to discretize and solve the fluid flow on unstructured grids composed of arbitrary-shaped cells. The integrations of the governing equation are discretised in the finite volume manner using a collocated arrangement of variables. The convergence of the SIMPLE segregated algorithm for the solution of the coupled nonlinear algebraic equations is accelerated by using a sparse matrix solver such as BiCGSTAB. The method used in the present study is verified by applying it to some flows for which either the numerical solution is known or the solution can be obtained using another numerical technique available in the other researches. The accuracy of the method is assessed through the grid refinement.
One-Dimensional Performance Improvement of a Single-Stage Transonic Compressor
This paper presents an innovative one-dimensional optimization of a transonic compressor based on the radial equilibrium theory by means of increasing blade loading. Firstly, the rotor blade of the transonic compressor is redesigned based on the constant span-wise deHaller number and diffusion. The code is applied to extract compressor meridional plane and blade to blade geometry containing rotor and stator in order to design blade three-dimensional view. A structured grid is generated for the numerical domain of fluid. Finer grids are used for regions near walls to capture boundary layer effects and behavior. RANS equations are solved by finite volume method for rotating zones (rotor) and stationary zones (stator). The experimental data, available for the performance map of NASA Rotor67, is used to validate the results of simulations. Then, the capability of the design method is validated by CFD that is capable of predicting the performance map. The numerical results of new geometry show about 19% increase in pressure ratio and 11% improvement in overall efficiency of the transonic stage; however, the design point mass flow rate of the new compressor is 5.7% less than that of the original compressor.
Large Eddy Simulation of Hydrogen Deflagration in Open Space and Vented Enclosure
This paper discusses the applicability of the numerical model for a damage prediction method of the accidental hydrogen explosion occurring in a hydrogen facility. The numerical model was based on an unstructured finite volume method (FVM) code “NuFD/FrontFlowRed”. For simulating unsteady turbulent combustion of leaked hydrogen gas, a combination of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a combustion model were used. The combustion model was based on a two scalar flamelet approach, where a G-equation model and a conserved scalar model expressed a propagation of premixed flame surface and a diffusion combustion process, respectively. For validation of this numerical model, we have simulated the previous two types of hydrogen explosion tests. One is open-space explosion test, and the source was a prismatic 5.27 m3 volume with 30% of hydrogen-air mixture. A reinforced concrete wall was set 4 m away from the front surface of the source. The source was ignited at the bottom center by a spark. The other is vented enclosure explosion test, and the chamber was 4.6 m × 4.6 m × 3.0 m with a vent opening on one side. Vent area of 5.4 m2 was used. Test was performed with ignition at the center of the wall opposite the vent. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen concentrations close to 18% vol. were used in the tests. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with the previous experimental data for the accuracy of the numerical model, and we have verified that the simulated overpressures and flame time-of-arrival data were in good agreement with the results of the previous two explosion tests.
Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System
A solar receiver is designed for operation under
extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud
transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and
even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity
on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local
Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This
study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling
using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and
economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary
receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when
oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is
negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that
when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient
increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a
reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition,
the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows
toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect
on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.
Unsteady Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid from Circular Tube in Cross-Flow
Unsteady flow and heat transfer from a circular
cylinder in cross-flow is studied numerically. The governing
equations are solved by using finite volume method. Reynolds
number varies in range of 50 to 200; in this range flow is considered
to be laminar and unsteady. Al2O3 nanoparticle with volume fraction
in range of 5% to 20% is added to pure water. Effects of adding
nanoparticle to pure water on lift and drag coefficient and Nusselt
number is presented. Addition of Al2O3 has inconsiderable effect on
the value of drags and lift coefficient. However, it has significant
effect on heat transfer; results show that heat transfer of Al2O3
nanofluid is about 9% to 36% higher than pure water.
MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel
This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed
convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical
channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the
Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are
solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and
buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson
numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by
Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined.
The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the
decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule
heating is neglected.
Heat and Mass Transfer of an Oscillating Flow in a Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction
A numerical study is made in a parallel-plate porous
channel subjected to an oscillating flow and an exothermic chemical
reaction on its walls. The flow field in the porous region is modeled
by the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model and the finite volume
method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of the
modified Frank-Kamenetskii (FKm) and Damköhler (Dm) numbers,
the amplitude of oscillation (A), and the Strouhal number (St) are
examined. The main results show an increase of heat and mass
transfer rates with A and St, and their decrease with FKm and Dm.
A Coupled Model for Two-Phase Simulation of a Heavy Water Pressure Vessel Reactor
A Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) two-phase model was developed with the aim to simulate
the in-core coolant circuit of a pressurized heavy water reactor
(PHWR) of a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP). Due to the
fact that this PHWR is a Reactor Pressure Vessel type (RPV),
three-dimensional (3D) detailed modelling of the large reservoirs of
the RPV (the upper and lower plenums and the downcomer) were
coupled with an in-house finite volume one-dimensional (1D) code
in order to model the 451 coolant channels housing the nuclear fuel.
Regarding the 1D code, suitable empirical correlations for taking into
account the in-channel distributed (friction losses) and concentrated
(spacer grids, inlet and outlet throttles) pressure losses were used.
A local power distribution at each one of the coolant channels
was also taken into account. The heat transfer between the coolant
and the surrounding moderator was accurately calculated using a
two-dimensional theoretical model. The implementation of subcooled
boiling and condensation models in the 1D code along with the use
of functions for representing the thermal and dynamic properties of
the coolant and moderator (heavy water) allow to have estimations
of the in-core steam generation under nominal flow conditions for a
generic fission power distribution. The in-core mass flow distribution
results for steady state nominal conditions are in agreement with the
expected from design, thus getting a first assessment of the coupled
1/3D model. Results for nominal condition were compared with
those obtained with a previous 1/3D single-phase model getting more
realistic temperature patterns, also allowing visualize low values of
void fraction inside the upper plenum. It must be mentioned that the
current results were obtained by imposing prescribed fission power
functions from literature. Therefore, results are showed with the aim
of point out the potentiality of the developed model.
Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven
In this study, we investigated numerically heat
transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity;
the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to
see the influence of the emissivity ε and the varying of the
Richardson number Ri on the variation of average Nusselt number
Nu. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left
wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right
wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume
method is used for solving the dimensionless Governing Equations.
Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the
Richardson number in the range 0.1 to 10. The Rayleigh number is
fixed to Ra=104 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant
Pr=0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt
number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results
of this study show that the Richardson number Ri and emissivity ε
affect the average Nusselt number.
Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Cavitating Turbulent Flow in Francis Turbines with ANSYS
In this study, the three-dimensional cavitating
turbulent flow in a complete Francis turbine is simulated using
mixture model for cavity/liquid two-phase flows. Numerical analysis
is carried out using ANSYS CFX software release 12, and standard k-ε
turbulence model is adopted for this analysis. The computational
fluid domain consist of spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner
and draft tube. The computational domain is discretized with a threedimensional
mesh system of unstructured tetrahedron mesh. The
finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the governing equations
of the mixture model. Results of cavitation on the runner’s blades
under three different boundary conditions are presented and
discussed. From the numerical results it has been found that the
numerical method was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating
two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine, and also
cavitation is clearly predicted in the form of water vapor formation
inside the turbine. By comparison the numerical prediction results
with a real runner; it’s shown that the region of higher volume
fraction obtained by simulation is consistent with the region of runner
Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium
This work consists of a numerical simulation of
convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat
generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal
equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and
the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the
Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy
equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for
performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups
such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio
and the volumetric heat generation, q '''. The governing equations are
solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of
results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous
channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.
Numerical Analysis of Laminar Flow around Square Cylinders with EHD Phenomenon
In this research, a numerical simulation of an Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) actuator’s effects on the flow around a square cylinder by using a finite volume method has been investigated. This is one of the newest ways for controlling the fluid flows. Two plate electrodes are flush-mounted on the surface of the cylinder and one wire electrode is placed on the line with zero angle of attack relative to the stagnation point and excited with DC power supply. The discharge produces an electric force and changes the local momentum behaviors in the fluid layers. For this purpose, after selecting proper domain and boundary conditions, the electric field relating to the problem has been analyzed and then the results in the form of electrical body force have been entered in the governing equations of fluid field (Navier-Stokes equations). The effect of ionic wind resulted from the Electrohydrodynamic actuator, on the velocity, pressure and the wake behind cylinder has been considered. According to the results, it is observed that the fluid flow accelerates in the nearest wall of the frontal half of the cylinder and the pressure difference between frontal and hinder cylinder is increased.
Prediction of Unsteady Forced Convection over Square Cylinder in the Presence of Nanofluid by Using ANN
Heat transfer due to forced convection of copper water
based nanofluid has been predicted by Artificial Neural network
(ANN). The present nanofluid is formed by mixing copper
nanoparticles in water and the volume fractions are considered here
are 0% to 15% and the Reynolds number are kept constant at 100.
The back propagation algorithm is used to train the network. The
present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been
obtained from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume
based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial software
Ansys Fluent. The numerical simulation based results are compared
with the back propagation based ANN results. It is found that the
forced convection heat transfer of water based nanofluid can be
predicted correctly by ANN. It is also observed that the back
propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of
nanofluid very quickly compared to standard CFD method.
A Computational Study of Very High Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Circular Duct with Hemispherical Inline Baffles
This paper presents a computational study of steady
state three dimensional very high turbulent flow and heat transfer
characteristics in a constant temperature-surfaced circular duct fitted
with 900 hemispherical inline baffles. The computations are based on
realizable k-ɛ model with standard wall function considering the
finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been
implemented. Computational Study are carried out for Reynolds
number, Re ranging from 80000 to 120000, Prandtl Number, Pr of
0.73, Pitch Ratios, PR of 1,2,3,4,5 based on the hydraulic diameter of
the channel, hydrodynamic entry length, thermal entry length and the
test section. Ansys Fluent 15.0 software has been used to solve the
flow field. Study reveals that circular pipe having baffles has a higher
Nusselt number and friction factor compared to the smooth circular
pipe without baffles. Maximum Nusselt number and friction factor
are obtained for the PR=5 and PR=1 respectively. Nusselt number
increases while pitch ratio increases in the range of study; however,
friction factor also decreases up to PR 3 and after which it becomes
almost constant up to PR 5. Thermal enhancement factor increases
with increasing pitch ratio but with slightly decreasing Reynolds
number in the range of study and becomes almost constant at higher
Reynolds number. The computational results reveal that optimum
thermal enhancement factor of 900 inline hemispherical baffle is
about 1.23 for pitch ratio 5 at Reynolds number 120000.It also shows
that the optimum pitch ratio for which the baffles can be installed in
such very high turbulent flows should be 5. Results show that pitch
ratio and Reynolds number play an important role on both fluid flow
and heat transfer characteristics.
Numerical Analysis of Laminar Reflux Condensation from Gas-Vapour Mixtures in Vertical Parallel Plate Channels
Reflux condensation occurs in vertical channels and tubes when there is an upward core flow of vapour (or gas-vapour mixture) and a downward flow of the liquid film. The understanding of this condensation configuration is crucial in the design of reflux condensers, distillation columns, and in loss-of-coolant safety analyses in nuclear power plant steam generators. The unique feature of this flow is the upward flow of the vapour-gas mixture (or pure vapour) that retards the liquid flow via shear at the liquid-mixture interface. The present model solves the full, elliptic governing equations in both the film and the gas-vapour core flow. The computational mesh is non-orthogonal and adapts dynamically the phase interface, thus produces a sharp and accurate interface. Shear forces and heat and mass transfer at the interface are accounted for fundamentally. This modeling is a big step ahead of current capabilities by removing the limitations of previous reflux condensation models which inherently cannot account for the detailed local balances of shear, mass, and heat transfer at the interface. Discretisation has been done based on finite volume method and co-located variable storage scheme. An in-house computer code was developed to implement the numerical solution scheme. Detailed results are presented for laminar reflux condensation from steam-air mixtures flowing in vertical parallel plate channels. The results include velocity and gas mass fraction profiles, as well as axial variations of film thickness.
Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body
Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.