International Science Index

42
10007606
Uranium Adsorption Using a Composite Material Based on Platelet SBA-15 Supported Tin Salt Tungstomolybdophosphoric Acid
Abstract:

In this work, a new composite adsorbent based on a mesoporous silica SBA-15 with platelet morphology and tin salt of tungstomolybdophosphoric (TWMP) acid was synthesized and applied for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infra-red, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and then, effect of various parameters such as concentration of metal ions and contact time on adsorption behavior was examined. The experimental result showed that the adsorption process was explained by the Langmuir isotherm model very well, and predominant reaction mechanism is physisorption. Kinetic data of adsorption suggest that the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model.

Paper Detail
35
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41
10005112
Effect of the Experimental Conditions on the Adsorption Capacities in the Removal of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions by the Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders
Abstract:
In this study, Pb2+ uptake by the hydroxyapatite nanopowders (n-Hap) from aqueous solutions was investigated by using batch adsorption techniques. The adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, and initial Pb2+ concentration. The results showed that the equilibrium time of adsorption was achieved within 60 min, and the effective pH was selected to be 5 (natural pH). The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ on n-Hap was found as 565 mg.g-1. It is believed that the results obtained for adsorption may provide a background for the detailed mechanism investigations and the pilot and industrial scale applications.
Paper Detail
653
downloads
40
10004796
Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures
Abstract:

Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.

Paper Detail
585
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39
10005100
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Textile Dye (Yellow Bemacid) onto Brahea edulis
Abstract:
Environmental contamination is a major problem being faced by the society today. Industrial, agricultural, and domestic wastes, due to the rapid development in the technology, are discharged in the several receivers. Generally, this discharge is directed to the nearest water sources such as rivers, lakes, and seas. While the rates of development and waste production are not likely to diminish, efforts to control and dispose of wastes are appropriately rising. Wastewaters from textile industries represent a serious problem all over the world. They contain different types of synthetic dyes which are known to be a major source of environmental pollution in terms of both the volume of dye discharged and the effluent composition. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption is a promising technique due to the ease of use and low cost compared to other applications in the process of discoloration, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The focus of the present study was to assess the potentiality of Brahea edulis (BE) for the removal of synthetic dye Yellow bemacid (YB) from aqueous solutions. The results obtained here may transfer to other dyes with a similar chemical structure. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The biosorption kinetic data of the material (BE) was tested by the pseudo first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH, and entropy ΔS have revealed that the adsorption of YB on the BE is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin isotherm models. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g: 12 mg/g; 1.5 g: 47.44 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at around pH value of 2 for the YB. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution (Co = 120 mg/l; q = 35.97 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.998) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.97 mg/g for YB.
Paper Detail
370
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38
10005101
Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics
Abstract:
In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.
Paper Detail
343
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37
10003809
Modeling of Bisphenol A (BPA) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Abstract:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound that has many applications in various industries and is known as persistent pollutant. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of bone ash and banana peel as adsorbents for BPA adsorption from aqueous solution by using Response Surface Methodology. The effects of some variables such as sorbent dose, detention time, solution pH, and BPA concentration on the sorption efficiency was examined. All analyses were carried out according to Standard Methods. The sample size was performed using Box-Benken design and also optimization of BPA removal was done using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the BPA adsorption increases with increasing of contact time and BPA concentration. However, it decreases with higher pH. More adsorption efficiency of a banana peel is very smaller than a bone ash so that BPA removal for bone ash and banana peel is 62 and 28 percent, respectively. It is concluded that a bone ash has a good ability for the BPA adsorption.

Paper Detail
610
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36
10002208
Phenols and Manganese Removal from Landfill Leachate and Municipal Wastewater Using the Constructed Wetland
Abstract:
Constructed Wetland (CW) is a reasonable method to treat wastewater. Current study was carried out to co-treat landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a CW system. Typha domingensis was transplanted to CW, which encloses two substrate layers of adsorbents named ZELIAC and zeolite. Response surface methodology and central composite design were employed to evaluate experimental data. Contact time (h) and leachate-towastewater mixing ratio (%; v/v) were selected as independent factors. Phenols and manganese removal were selected as dependent responses. At optimum contact time (48.7 h) and leachate-towastewater mixing ratio (20.0%), removal efficiencies of phenols and manganese removal efficiencies were 90.5%, and 89.4%, respectively.
Paper Detail
1339
downloads
35
10005921
Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric
Abstract:

Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Paper Detail
196
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34
10001188
Validation of an Acuity Measurement Tool for Maternity Services
Authors:
Abstract:

Background - The TrendCare Patient Dependency System is currently used by a large number of maternity Services across Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2012, 2013 and 2014 validation studies were initiated in all three countries to validate the acuity tools used for women in labour, and postnatal mothers and babies. This paper will present the findings of the validation study. Aim - The aim of this study was to; identify if the care hours provided by the TrendCare acuity system was an accurate reflection of the care required by women and babies; obtain evidence of changes required to acuity indicators and/or category timings to ensure the TrendCare acuity system remains reliable and valid across a range of maternity care models in three countries. Method - A non-experimental action research methodology was used across maternity services in four District Health Boards in New Zealand, a large tertiary and a large secondary maternity service in Singapore and a large public maternity service in Australia. Standardised data collection forms and timing devices were used to collect midwife contact times, with women and babies included in the study. Rejection processes excluded samples when care was not completed/rationed, and contact timing forms were incomplete. The variances between actual timed midwife/mother/baby contact and the TrendCare acuity category times were identified and investigated. Results - Thirty two (88.9%) of the 36 TrendCare acuity category timings, fell within the variance tolerance levels when compared to the actual timings recorded for midwifery care. Four (11.1%) TrendCare categories provided less minutes of care than the actual timings and exceeded the variance tolerance level. These were all night shift category timings. Nine postnatal categories were not able to be compared as the sample size for these categories was statistically insignificant. 100% of labour ward TrendCare categories matched actual timings for midwifery care, all falling within the variance tolerance levels. The actual time provided by core midwifery staff to assist lead maternity carer (LMC) midwives in New Zealand labour wards showed a significant deviation to previous studies. The findings of the study demonstrated the need for additional time allocations in TrendCare to accommodate an increased level of assistance given to LMC midwives. Conclusion - The results demonstrated the importance of regularly validating the TrendCare category timings with actual timings of the care hours provided. It was evident from the findings that variances to models of care and length of stay in maternity units have increased midwifery workloads on the night shift. The level of assistance provided by the core labour ward staff to the LMC midwife has increased substantially. Outcomes - As a consequence of this study, changes were made to the night duty TrendCare maternity categories, additional acuity indicators were developed and times for assisting LMC midwives in labour ward increased. The updated TrendCare version was delivered to maternity services in 2014.

Paper Detail
1792
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33
10000516
The Influence of Clayey Pellet Size on Adsorption Efficiency of Metal Ions Removal from Waste Printing Developer
Abstract:

The adsorption efficiency of fired clayey pellets of 5 and 8 mm diameter size for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ion removal from a waste printing developer was studied. In order to investigate the influence of contact time, adsorbent mass and pellet size on the adsorption efficiency the batch mode was carried out. Faster uptake of copper ion was obtained with the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size within 30 minutes. The pellets of 8 mm diameter size showed the higher equilibrium time (60 to 75 minutes) for copper and zinc ion. The results pointed out that adsorption efficiency increases with the increase of adsorbent mass. The maximal efficiency is different for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ion due to the pellet size. Therefore, the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size present an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) ion removal (adsorption efficiency is 63.6%), whereas the fired clay pellets of 8 mm diameter size are the best alternative for Zn(II) ion removal (adsorption efficiency is 92.8%) from a waste printing developer.

Paper Detail
1461
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32
9999715
Banana Peels as an Eco-Sorbent for Manganese Ions
Authors:
Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the manganese removal from aqueous solution using Banana peels activated carbon (BPAC). Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial metal ion concentrations and contact times on the biosorption process. From these investigations, a significant increase in percentage removal of manganese 97.4% is observed at pH value 5.0, biosorbent dose 0.8 g, initial concentration 20 ppm, temperature 25 ± 2°C, stirring rate 200 rpm and contact time 2h. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium of the experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Langmuir isotherm was found to well represent the measured adsorption data implying BPAC had heterogeneous surface. A raw groundwater samples were collected from Baharmos groundwater treatment plant network at Embaba and Manshiet Elkanater City/District-Giza, Egypt, for treatment at the best conditions that reached at first phase by BPAC. The treatment with BPAC could reduce iron and manganese value of raw groundwater by 91.4% and 97.1%, respectively and the effect of the treatment process on the microbiological properties of groundwater sample showed decrease of total bacterial count either at 22°C or at 37°C to 85.7% and 82.4%, respectively. Also, BPAC was characterized using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

Paper Detail
2308
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31
9998649
Valorization of Lignocellulosic Wastes – Evaluation of Its Toxicity When Used in Adsorption Systems
Abstract:

The agriculture lignocellulosic by-products are receiving increased attention, namely in the search for filter materials that retain contaminants from water. These by-products, specifically almond and hazelnut shells are abundant in Portugal once almond and hazelnuts production is a local important activity. Hazelnut and almond shells have as main constituents lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, water soluble extractives and tannins. Along the adsorption of heavy metals from contaminated waters, water soluble compounds can leach from shells and have a negative impact in the environment. Usually, the chemical characterization of treated water by itself may not show environmental impact caused by the discharges when parameters obey to legal quality standards for water. Only biological systems can detect the toxic effects of the water constituents. Therefore, the evaluation of toxicity by biological tests is very important when deciding the suitability for safe water discharge or for irrigation applications.

The main purpose of the present work was to assess the potential impacts of waters after been treated for heavy metal removal by hazelnut and almond shells adsorption systems, with short term acute toxicity tests.

To conduct the study, water at pH 6 with 25 mg.L-1 of lead, was treated with 10 g of shell per litre of wastewater, for 24 hours. This procedure was followed for each bark. Afterwards the water was collected for toxicological assays; namely bacterial resistance, seed germination, Lemna minor L. test and plant grow. The effect in isolated bacteria strains was determined by disc diffusion method and the germination index of seed was evaluated using lettuce, with temperature and humidity germination control for 7 days. For aquatic higher organism, Lemnas were used with 4 days contact time with shell solutions, in controlled light and temperature. For terrestrial higher plants, biomass production was evaluated after 14 days of tomato germination had occurred in soil, with controlled humidity, light and temperature.

Toxicity tests of water treated with shells revealed in some extent effects in the tested organisms, with the test assays showing a close behaviour as the control, leading to the conclusion that its further utilization may not be considered to create a serious risk to the environment.

Paper Detail
1565
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30
9997856
Role of Lemna minor Lin. in Treating the Textile Industry Wastewater
Authors:
Abstract:

Textile industry processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes; because, they produce color wastewater that is heavily polluted the environment. Therefore, textile industry wastewater has to be treated before being discharged into the environment. In this study, experiments were conducted for different process parameters like nutrient dosage and dilution ratio against the pH and contact time to remove COD and color in a textile industrial wastewater using aquatic macrophytes Lemna minor L. The experimental results showed that the maximum percentage reduction of COD and color in a textile industry wastewater by Lemna minor L. was obtained at an optimum nutrient dosage of 50g, dilution ratio of 8, pH of 8 and contact time of 4 days. Similarly, the results of validation experiments showed that the experiments were able to reproduce the obtained optimum process parameters. The maximum removal percentage of color in an aqueous solution (86.35%) is higher than the removal of color in a textile industry wastewater (82.85). Further, the first order kinetic model was fitted well with the experimental data of this present study. Finally, this study concluded that Lemna minor L. may be used for removing all types of parameters in any type of textile industry wastewater.

Paper Detail
1825
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29
9997326
Microbubbles Enhanced Synthetic Phorbol Ester Degradation by Ozonolysis
Abstract:

A phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) is a synthetic analogue of phorbol ester (PE), a natural toxic compound of Euphorbiaceae plant. The oil extracted from plants of this family is useful source for primarily biofuel. However this oil might also be used as a foodstuff due to its significant nutrition content. The limitations for utilizing the oil as a foodstuff are mainly due to a toxicity of PE. Currently, a majority of PE detoxification processes are expensive as include multi steps alcohol extraction sequence.

Ozone is considered as a strong oxidative agent. It reacts with PE by attacking the carbon-carbon double bond of PE. This modification of PE molecular structure yields a non toxic ester with high lipid content.

This report presents data on development of simple and cheap PE detoxification process with water application as a buffer and ozone as reactive component. The core of this new technique is an application for a new microscale plasma unit to ozone production and the technology permits ozone injection to the water-TPA mixture in form of microbubbles.

The efficacy of a heterogeneous process depends on the diffusion coefficient which can be controlled by contact time and interfacial area. The low velocity of rising microbubbles and high surface to volume ratio allow efficient mass transfer to be achieved during the process. Direct injection of ozone is the most efficient way to process with such highly reactive and short lived chemical.

Data on the plasma unit behavior are presented and the influence of gas oscillation technology on the microbubble production mechanism has been discussed. Data on overall process efficacy for TPA degradation is shown.

Paper Detail
1640
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28
9996630
Utilization of Cement Kiln Dust in Adsorption Technology
Abstract:

This paper involves a study of the heavy metal pollution of the soils around one of cement plants in Libya called Suk-Alkhameas and surrounding urban areas caused by cement kiln dust (CKD) emitted. Samples of soil was collected from sites at four directions around the cement factory at distances 250m, 1000m, and 3000m from the factory and at (0-10)cm deep in the soil. These samples are analyzed for Fe (iii), Zn(ii), and Pb (ii) as major pollutants. These values are compared with soils at 25 Km distances from the factory as a reference or control samples. The results show that the concentration of Fe ions in the surface soil was within the acceptable range of 1000ppm. However, for Zn and Pb ions the concentrations at the east and north sides of the factory were found six fold higher than the benchmark level. This high value was attributed to the wind which blows usually from south to north and from west to east. This work includes an investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption efficiency of CKD as adsorbent of heavy metal ions (Fe (iii), Zn(ii), and Pb(ii)) from the polluted soils of Suk-Alkameas city. The investigation was conducted in batch and fixed bed column flow technique. The adsorption efficiency of the studied heavy metals ions removals onto CKD depends on the pH of the solution. The optimum pH values are found to be in the ranges of 8-10 and decreases at lower pH values. The removal efficiency of these heavy metals ions ranged from 93% for Pb, 94% for Zn, and 98% for Fe ions for 10 g.l-1 adsorbent concentration. The maximum removal efficiency of these ions was achieved at 50-60 minutes contact times at which equilibrium is reached. Fixed bed column experimental measurements are also made to evaluate CKD as an adsorbent for the heavy metals. Results obtained are with good agreement with Langmuir and Drachsal assumption of multilayer formation on the adsorbent surface.

Paper Detail
1577
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27
16731
Statistical Optimization of Process Conditions for Disinfection of Water Using Defatted Moringa oleifera Seed Extract
Abstract:

In this study, statistical optimization design was used to study the optimum disinfection parameters using defatted crude Moringa oleifera seed extracts against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The possible optimum range of dosage, contact time and mixing rate from the OFAT study were 25mg/l to 200mg/l, 30minutes to 240 minutes and 100rpm to 160rpm respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization using faced centered central composite design showed that dosage, contact time and mixing rate were highly significant. The optimum disinfection range was 125mg/l, at contact time of 30 minutes with mixing rate of 120 rpm. 

Paper Detail
1649
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26
16205
Investigation on Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles to Bioluminescence Bacteria Vibrio fischeri
Abstract:

Acute toxicity of nano SiO2, ZnO, MCM-41 (Meso pore silica), Cu, Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tube (MWCNT), Single Wall Carbon Nano Tube (SWCNT) , Fe (Coated) to bacteria Vibrio fischeri using a homemade luminometer , was evaluated. The values of the nominal effective concentrations (EC), causing 20% and 50% inhibition of biouminescence, using two mathematical models at two times of 5 and 30 minutes were calculated. Luminometer was designed with Photomultiplier (PMT) detector. Luminol chemiluminescence reaction was carried out for the calibration graph. In the linear calibration range, the correlation coefficients and coefficient of Variation (CV) were 0.988 and 3.21% respectively which demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the instrument that are suitable. The important part of this research depends on how to optimize the best condition for maximum bioluminescence. The culture of Vibrio fischeri with optimal conditions in liquid media, were stirring at 120 rpm at a temperature of 150C to 180C and were incubated for 24 to 72 hours while solid medium was held at 180C and for 48 hours. Suspension of nanoparticles ZnO, after 30 min contact time to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, showed the highest toxicity while SiO2 nanoparticles showed the lowest toxicity. After 5 min exposure time, the toxicity of ZnO was the strongest and MCM-41 was the weakest toxicant component.

Paper Detail
2087
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25
8474
Defluoridation of Water by Schwertmannite
Abstract:
In the present study Schwertmannite (an iron oxide hydroxide) is selected as an adsorbent for defluoridation of water. The adsorbent was prepared by wet chemical process and was characterized by SEM, XRD and BET. The fluoride adsorption efficiency of the prepared adsorbent was determined with respect to contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose and pH of the solution. The batch adsorption data revealed that the fluoride adsorption efficiency was highly influenced by the studied factors. Equilibrium was attained within one hour of contact time indicating fast kinetics and the adsorption data followed pseudo second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models for a concentration range of 5-30 mg/L. The adsorption system followed Langmuir isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacity of 11.3 mg/g. The high adsorption capacity of Schwertmannite points towards the potential of this adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous medium.
Paper Detail
1485
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24
12227
Effect of Bentonite on the Properties of Liquid Insulating Oil
Abstract:

Bentonitic material from South Aswan, Egypt was evaluated in terms of mineral-ogy and chemical composition as bleaching clay in refining of transformer oil before and after acid activation and thermal treatment followed by acid leaching using HCl and H2SO4 for different contact times. Structural modification and refining power of bento-nite were investigated during modification by means of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the activated bentonite could be used for refining of transformer oil. The oil parameters such as; dielectric strength, viscosity and flash point had been improved. The dielectric breakdown strength of used oil increased from 29 kV for used oil treated with unactivated bentonite to 74 kV after treatment with activated bentonite. Kinematic Viscosity changed from 19 to 11 mm2 /s after treatment with activated bentonite. However, flash point achieved 149 ºC.

Paper Detail
1937
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23
15173
Modeling of Co-Cu Elution From Clinoptilolite using Neural Network
Abstract:

The elution process for the removal of Co and Cu from clinoptilolite as an ion-exchanger was investigated using three parameters: bed volume, pH and contact time. The present paper study has shown quantitatively that acid concentration has a significant effect on the elution process. The favorable eluant concentration was found to be 2 M HCl and 2 M H2SO4, respectively. The multi-component equilibrium relationship in the process can be very complex, and perhaps ill-defined. In such circumstances, it is preferable to use a non-parametric technique such as Neural Network to represent such an equilibrium relationship.

Paper Detail
779
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22
11451
Toxicity Study of Two Different Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Bacteria Vibrio Fischeri
Abstract:
A comparative evaluation of acute toxicity of synthesized nano silvers using two different procedures (biological and chemical reduction methods) and silver ions on bacteria Vibrio fischeri was investigated. The bacterial light inhibition test as a toxicological endpoint was used by applying of a homemade luminometer. To compare the toxicity effects as a quantitative parameter, a nominal effective concentrations (EC) of chemicals and a susceptibility constant (Z-value) of bacteria, after 5 min and 30 min exposure times, were calculated. After 5 and 30 min contact times, the EC50 values of two silver nanoparticles and the EC20 values were about similar. It demonstrates that toxicity of silvers was independent of their procedure. The EC values of nanoparticles were larger than those of the silver ions. The susceptibilities(Z- Values) of V.fischeri (L/mg) to the silver ions were greater than those of the nano silvers. According to the EC and Z values, the toxicity of silvers decreased in the following order: Silver ions >> silver nanoparticles from chemical reduction method ~ silver nanoparticles from biological method.
Paper Detail
2068
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21
16906
Adsorption of Ferrous and Ferric Ions in Aqueous and Industrial Effluent onto Pongamia pinnata Tree Bark
Abstract:

One of the causes of water pollution is the presence of heavy metals in water. In the present study, an adsorbent prepared from the raw bark of the Pongamia pinnata tree is used for the removal of ferrous or ferric ions from aqueous and waste water containing heavy metals. Adsorption studies were conducted at different pH, concentration of metal ion, amount of adsorbent, contact time, agitation and temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied for the results. The Langmuir isotherms were best fitted by the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption was found to 146mg/g in waste water at a temperature of 30°C which is in agreement as comparable to the adsorption capacity of different adsorbents reported in literature. Pseudo second order model best fitted the adsorption of both ferrous and ferric ions.

Paper Detail
2328
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20
12145
Impregnation of Cupper into Kanuma Volcanic Ash Soil to Improve Mercury Sorption Capacity
Abstract:
The present study attempted to improve the Mercury (Hg) sorption capacity of kanuma volcanic ash soil (KVAS) by impregnating the cupper (Cu). Impregnation was executed by 1 and 5% Cu powder and sorption characterization of optimum Hg removing Cu impregnated KVAS was performed under different operational conditions, contact time, solution pH, sorbent dosage and Hg concentration using the batch operation studies. The 1% Cu impregnated KVAS pronounced optimum improvement (79%) in removing Hg from water compare to control. The present investigation determined the equilibrium state of maximum Hg adsorption at 6 h contact period. The adsorption revealed a pH dependent response and pH 3.5 showed maximum sorption capacity of Hg. Freundlich isotherm model is well fitted with the experimental data than that of Langmuir isotherm. It can be concluded that the Cu impregnation improves the Hg sorption capacity of KVAS and 1% Cu impregnated KVAS could be employed as cost-effective adsorbent media for treating Hg contaminated water.
Paper Detail
1061
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19
9089
Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from Single Metal Aqueous Solution using Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husk
Abstract:

The abundance and availability of rice husk, an agricultural waste, make them as a good source for precursor of activated carbon. In this work, rice husk-based activated carbons were prepared via base treated chemical activation process prior the carbonization process. The effect of carbonization temperatures (400, 600 and 800oC) on their pore structure was evaluated through morphology analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sample carbonized at 800oC showed better evolution and development of pores as compared to those carbonized at 400 and 600oC. The potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative adsorbent was investigated for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from single metal aqueous solution. The adsorption studies using rice husk-based activated carbon as an adsorbent were carried out as a function of contact time at room temperature and the metal ions were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The ability to remove metal ion from single metal aqueous solution was found to be improved with the increasing of carbonization temperature. Among the three metal ions tested, Pb(II) ion gave the highest adsorption on rice husk-based activated carbon. The results obtained indicate the potential to utilize rice husk as a promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of heavy metals.

Paper Detail
1749
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18
8010
Internal Behavior of Biological Nutrient Removal System for Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Abstract:
The purpose of this research was develop a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system which has low energy consumption, sludge production, and land usage. These indicate that BNR system could be a alternative of future wastewater treatment in ubiquitous city(U-city). Organics and nitrogen compounds could be removed by this system so that secondary or tertiary stages of wastewater treatment satisfy their standards. This system was composed of oxic and anoxic filter filed with PVDC and POM media. Anoxic/oxic filter system operated under empty bed contact time of 4 hours by increasing recirculation ratio from 0 to 100 %. The system removals of total nitrogen and COD were 76.3% and 93%, respectively. To be observed internal behavior in this system SCOD, NH3-N, and NO3-N were conducted and removal shows range of 25~100%, 59~99%, and 70~100%, respectively.
Paper Detail
927
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17
5675
Removal of a Reactive Dye by Adsorption Utilizing Waste Aluminium Hydroxide Sludge as an Adsorbent
Abstract:
Removal of a reactive dye (Reactive blue 4) by adsorption utilizing waste aluminium hydroxide sludge as an adsorbent was investigated. The removal of the dye was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). In the RSM experiments; initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and contact time were critical parameters. RSM experiments were performed at the range of initial dye concentration 31.82-368.18 mg/L, adsorbent concentration 3.18-36.82 g/L, contact time 15.82- 56.18 h. Optimum initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and contact time were obtained as 108.83 mg/L, 29.36 g/L and 33.57 h respectively. At these conditions, maximum removal of the dye was obtained as 95%. The experiments were performed at the optimum conditions to verify these results and the same results were obtained.
Paper Detail
982
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10951
Adsorption of Lead from Synthetic Solution using Luffa Charcoal
Abstract:
This work was to study batch biosorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by Luffa charcoal. The effect of operating parameters such as adsorption contact time, initial pH solution and different initial Pb(II) concentration on the sorption of Pb(II) were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions was initially rapid and the equilibrium time was 10 h. Adsorption kinetics of Pb(II) ions onto Luffa charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second order model. At pH 5.0 was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Pb(II) ions. Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was better fitted for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions than Langmuir and Timkin isotherms, respectively. The highest monolayer adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm model was 51.02 mg/g. This study demonstrated that Luffa charcoal could be used for the removal of Pb(II) ions in water treatment.
Paper Detail
1603
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15
4532
Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Pesticides(Carbofuran) using Activated Carbon from Rice Straw Agricultural Waste
Abstract:
In this study, we used a two-stage process and potassium hydroxide (KOH) to transform waste biomass (rice straw) into activated carbon and then evaluated the adsorption capacity of the waste for removing carbofuran from an aqueous solution. Activated carbon was fast and effective for the removal of carbofuran because of its high surface area. The native and carbofuran-loaded adsorbents were characterized by elemental analysis. Different adsorption parameters, such as the initial carbofuran concentration, contact time, temperature and pH for carbofuran adsorption, were studied using a batch system. This study demonstrates that rice straw can be very effective in the adsorption of carbofuran from bodies of water.
Paper Detail
2763
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14
11550
Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Synthetic Nano Size ZeroValent Iron (nZVI)
Abstract:
The present work was conducted for the synthesis of nano size zerovalent iron (nZVI) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal as a highly toxic pollutant by using this nanoparticles. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Cr(VI), nZVI concentration, pH of solution and contact time variation on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). nZVI was synthesized by reduction of ferric chloride using sodium borohydrid. SEM and XRD examinations applied for determination of particle size and characterization of produced nanoparticles. The results showed that the removal efficiency decreased with Cr(VI) concentration and pH of solution and increased with adsorbent dosage and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for the adsorption equilibrium data and the Langmuir isotherm model was well fitted. Nanoparticle ZVI presented an outstanding ability to remove Cr(VI) due to high surface area, low particle size and high inherent activity.
Paper Detail
1588
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13
15726
Sorption of Nickel by Hypnea Valentiae: Application of Response Surface Methodology
Abstract:

In this work, sorption of nickel from aqueous solution on hypnea valentiae, red macro algae, was investigated. Batch experiments have been carried out to find the effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, sorbent dosage, metal concentration and contact time on the sorption of nickel using hypnea valentiae. Response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to optimize the process parameters. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the process variables to the response. The most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for the sorption of nickel were found to be: pH – 5.1, temperature – 36.8oC, sorbent dosage – 5.1 g/L, metal concentration – 100 mg/L and contact time – 30 min. At these optimized conditions the maximum removal of nickel was found to be 91.97%. A coefficient of determination R2 value 0.9548 shows the fitness of response surface methodology in this work.

Paper Detail
1026
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