International Science Index

27
10006423
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Partitioned Solution Approach and an Exponential Model
Abstract:

The solution of the nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations of base-isolated structures adopting a conventional monolithic solution approach, i.e. an implicit single-step time integration method employed with an iteration procedure, and the use of existing nonlinear analytical models, such as differential equation models, to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolators can require a significant computational effort. In order to reduce numerical computations, a partitioned solution method and a one dimensional nonlinear analytical model are presented in this paper. A partitioned solution approach can be easily applied to base-isolated structures in which the base isolation system is much more flexible than the superstructure. Thus, in this work, the explicit conditionally stable central difference method is used to evaluate the base isolation system nonlinear response and the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant average acceleration method is adopted to predict the superstructure linear response with the benefit in avoiding iterations in each time step of a nonlinear dynamic analysis. The proposed mathematical model is able to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolators without requiring the solution of a nonlinear differential equation, as in the case of widely used differential equation model. The proposed mixed explicit-implicit time integration method and nonlinear exponential model are adopted to analyze a three dimensional seismically isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to earthquake excitation. The numerical results show the good accuracy and the significant computational efficiency of the proposed solution approach and analytical model compared to the conventional solution method and mathematical model adopted in this work. Furthermore, the low stiffness value of the base isolation system with lead rubber bearings allows to have a critical time step considerably larger than the imposed ground acceleration time step, thus avoiding stability problems in the proposed mixed method.

Paper Detail
13
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26
10006427
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Mixed Integration Method: Stability Aspects and Computational Efficiency
Abstract:
In order to reduce numerical computations in the nonlinear dynamic analysis of seismically base-isolated structures, a Mixed Explicit-Implicit time integration Method (MEIM) has been proposed. Adopting the explicit conditionally stable central difference method to compute the nonlinear response of the base isolation system, and the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant average acceleration method to determine the superstructure linear response, the proposed MEIM, which is conditionally stable due to the use of the central difference method, allows to avoid the iterative procedure generally required by conventional monolithic solution approaches within each time step of the analysis. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the stability and computational efficiency of the MEIM when employed to perform the nonlinear time history analysis of base-isolated structures with sliding bearings. Indeed, in this case, the critical time step could become smaller than the one used to define accurately the earthquake excitation due to the very high initial stiffness values of such devices. The numerical results obtained from nonlinear dynamic analyses of a base-isolated structure with a friction pendulum bearing system, performed by using the proposed MEIM, are compared to those obtained adopting a conventional monolithic solution approach, i.e. the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant acceleration method employed in conjunction with the iterative pseudo-force procedure. According to the numerical results, in the presented numerical application, the MEIM does not have stability problems being the critical time step larger than the ground acceleration one despite of the high initial stiffness of the friction pendulum bearings. In addition, compared to the conventional monolithic solution approach, the proposed algorithm preserves its computational efficiency even when it is adopted to perform the nonlinear dynamic analysis using a smaller time step.
Paper Detail
9
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25
10006442
Speeding up Nonlinear Time History Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Nonlinear Exponential Model
Abstract:

The nonlinear time history analysis of seismically base-isolated structures can require a significant computational effort when the behavior of each seismic isolator is predicted by adopting the widely used differential equation Bouc-Wen model. In this paper, a nonlinear exponential model, able to simulate the response of seismic isolation bearings within a relatively large displacements range, is described and adopted in order to reduce the numerical computations and speed up the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Compared to the Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one does not require the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for each time step of the analysis. The seismic response of a 3d base-isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to harmonic earthquake excitation is simulated by modeling each isolator using the proposed analytical model. The comparison of the numerical results and computational time with those obtained by modeling the lead rubber bearings using the Bouc-Wen model demonstrates the good accuracy of the proposed model and its capability to reduce significantly the computational effort of the analysis.

Paper Detail
7
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24
10003660
2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.
Paper Detail
796
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23
9998683
A New Concept for Deriving the Expected Value of Fuzzy Random Variables
Abstract:

Fuzzy random variables have been introduced as an imprecise concept of numeric values for characterizing the imprecise knowledge. The descriptive parameters can be used to describe the primary features of a set of fuzzy random observations. In fuzzy environments, the expected values are usually represented as fuzzy-valued, interval-valued or numeric-valued descriptive parameters using various metrics. Instead of the concept of area metric that is usually adopted in the relevant studies, the numeric expected value is proposed by the concept of distance metric in this study based on two characters (fuzziness and randomness) of FRVs. Comparing with the existing measures, although the results show that the proposed numeric expected value is same with those using the different metric, if only triangular membership functions are used. However, the proposed approach has the advantages of intuitiveness and computational efficiency, when the membership functions are not triangular types. An example with three datasets is provided for verifying the proposed approach.

Paper Detail
1197
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22
10003642
Elitist Self-Adaptive Step-Size Search in Optimum Sizing of Steel Structures
Abstract:
This paper covers application of an elitist selfadaptive step-size search (ESASS) to optimum design of steel skeletal structures. In the ESASS two approaches are considered for improving the convergence accuracy as well as the computational efficiency of the original technique namely the so called selfadaptive step-size search (SASS). Firstly, an additional randomness is incorporated into the sampling step of the technique to preserve exploration capability of the algorithm during the optimization. Moreover, an adaptive sampling scheme is introduced to improve the quality of final solutions. Secondly, computational efficiency of the technique is accelerated via avoiding unnecessary analyses during the optimization process using an upper bound strategy. The numerical results demonstrate the usefulness of the ESASS in the sizing optimization problems of steel truss and frame structures.
Paper Detail
603
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21
16932
A Hybrid Mesh Free Local RBF- Cartesian FD Scheme for Incompressible Flow around Solid Bodies
Abstract:

A method for simulating flow around the solid bodies has been presented using hybrid meshfree and mesh-based schemes. The presented scheme optimizes the computational efficiency by combining the advantages of both meshfree and mesh-based methods. In this approach, a cloud of meshfree nodes has been used in the domain around the solid body. These meshfree nodes have the ability to efficiently adapt to complex geometrical shapes. In the rest of the domain, conventional Cartesian grid has been used beyond the meshfree cloud. Complex geometrical shapes can therefore be dealt efficiently by using meshfree nodal cloud and computational efficiency is maintained through the use of conventional mesh-based scheme on Cartesian grid in the larger part of the domain. Spatial discretization of meshfree nodes has been achieved through local radial basis functions in finite difference mode (RBF-FD). Conventional finite difference scheme has been used in the Cartesian ‘meshed’ domain. Accuracy tests of the hybrid scheme have been conducted to establish the order of accuracy. Numerical tests have been performed by simulating two dimensional steady and unsteady incompressible flows around cylindrical object. Steady flow cases have been run at Reynolds numbers of 10, 20 and 40 and unsteady flow problems have been studied at Reynolds numbers of 100 and 200. Flow Parameters including lift, drag, vortex shedding, and vorticity contours are calculated. Numerical results have been found to be in good agreement with computational and experimental results available in the literature.

Paper Detail
1885
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20
16447
Efficient Web-Learning Collision Detection Tool on Five-Axis Machine
Abstract:

As networking has become popular, Web-learning tends to be a trend while designing a tool. Moreover, five-axis machining has been widely used in industry recently; however, it has potential axial table colliding problems. Thus this paper aims at proposing an efficient web-learning collision detection tool on five-axis machining. However, collision detection consumes heavy resource that few devices can support, thus this research uses a systematic approach based on web knowledge to detect collision. The methodologies include the kinematics analyses for five-axis motions, separating axis method for collision detection, and computer simulation for verification. The machine structure is modeled as STL format in CAD software. The input to the detection system is the g-code part program, which describes the tool motions to produce the part surface. This research produced a simulation program with C programming language and demonstrated a five-axis machining example with collision detection on web site. The system simulates the five-axis CNC motion for tool trajectory and detects for any collisions according to the input g-codes and also supports high-performance web service benefiting from C. The result shows that our method improves 4.5 time of computational efficiency, comparing to the conventional detection method.

Paper Detail
1354
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19
2465
Distribution Sampling of Vector Variance without Duplications
Abstract:
In recent years, the use of vector variance as a measure of multivariate variability has received much attention in wide range of statistics. This paper deals with a more economic measure of multivariate variability, defined as vector variance minus all duplication elements. For high dimensional data, this will increase the computational efficiency almost 50 % compared to the original vector variance. Its sampling distribution will be investigated to make its applications possible.
Paper Detail
803
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18
11224
FSM-based Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures via Gesture Summarization Using Key Video Object Planes
Authors:
Abstract:

The use of human hand as a natural interface for humancomputer interaction (HCI) serves as the motivation for research in hand gesture recognition. Vision-based hand gesture recognition involves visual analysis of hand shape, position and/or movement. In this paper, we use the concept of object-based video abstraction for segmenting the frames into video object planes (VOPs), as used in MPEG-4, with each VOP corresponding to one semantically meaningful hand position. Next, the key VOPs are selected on the basis of the amount of change in hand shape – for a given key frame in the sequence the next key frame is the one in which the hand changes its shape significantly. Thus, an entire video clip is transformed into a small number of representative frames that are sufficient to represent a gesture sequence. Subsequently, we model a particular gesture as a sequence of key frames each bearing information about its duration. These constitute a finite state machine. For recognition, the states of the incoming gesture sequence are matched with the states of all different FSMs contained in the database of gesture vocabulary. The core idea of our proposed representation is that redundant frames of the gesture video sequence bear only the temporal information of a gesture and hence discarded for computational efficiency. Experimental results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for key frame extraction, subsequent gesture summarization and finally gesture recognition.

Paper Detail
1150
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17
11769
Energy Map Construction using Adaptive Alpha Grey Prediction Model in WSNs
Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Networks can be used to monitor the physical phenomenon in such areas where human approach is nearly impossible. Hence the limited power supply is the major constraint of the WSNs due to the use of non-rechargeable batteries in sensor nodes. A lot of researches are going on to reduce the energy consumption of sensor nodes. Energy map can be used with clustering, data dissemination and routing techniques to reduce the power consumption of WSNs. Energy map can also be used to know which part of the network is going to fail in near future. In this paper, Energy map is constructed using the prediction based approach. Adaptive alpha GM(1,1) model is used as the prediction model. GM(1,1) is being used worldwide in many applications for predicting future values of time series using some past values due to its high computational efficiency and accuracy.
Paper Detail
1074
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16
310
A Robust TVD-WENO Scheme for Conservation Laws
Abstract:

The ultimate goal of this article is to develop a robust and accurate numerical method for solving hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. A hybrid numerical method, coupling a cheap fourth order total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme [1] for smooth region and a Robust seventh-order weighted non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme [2] near discontinuities, is considered. High order multi-resolution analysis is used to detect the high gradients regions of the numerical solution in order to capture the shocks with the WENO scheme, while the smooth regions are computed with fourth order total variation diminishing (TVD). For time integration, we use the third order TVD Runge-Kutta scheme. The accuracy of the resulting hybrid high order scheme is comparable with these of WENO, but with significant decrease of the CPU cost. Numerical demonstrates that the proposed scheme is comparable to the high order WENO scheme and superior to the fourth order TVD scheme. Our scheme has the added advantage of simplicity and computational efficiency. Numerical tests are presented which show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Paper Detail
1097
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15
13476
Performance Comparison and Analysis of Different Schemes and Limiters
Abstract:

Eight difference schemes and five limiters are applied to numerical computation of Riemann problem. The resolution of discontinuities of each scheme produced is compared. Numerical dissipation and its estimation are discussed. The result shows that the numerical dissipation of each scheme is vital to improve scheme-s accuracy and stability. MUSCL methodology is an effective approach to increase computational efficiency and resolution. Limiter should be selected appropriately by balancing compressive and diffusive performance.

Paper Detail
1179
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14
2818
Re-Handling Operations in Small Container Terminal Operated by Reach Stackers
Abstract:
In this paper an average number of re-handlings analysis is proposed to solve the problem of finding bays configuration in small container terminal in Gliwice, Poland. Rehandlings in this terminal can be performed only by reachstackers. The goal of the heuristic is to plan the reachstacter moves in the terminal, assuming that the target containers are reached and the number of re-handings is minimized. The real situation requires also to take into account the model of the problem environment uncertainty caused by the fact that many containers are not delivered to the terminal on time, or can not be sent on scheduled time. To enable this, the heuristic uses some assumptions to simplify problem analysis.
Paper Detail
1455
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13
7101
Modeling and Visualizing Seismic Wave Propagation in Elastic Medium Using Multi-Dimension Wave Digital Filtering Approach
Abstract:
A novel PDE solver using the multidimensional wave digital filtering (MDWDF) technique to achieve the solution of a 2D seismic wave system is presented. In essence, the continuous physical system served by a linear Kirchhoff circuit is transformed to an equivalent discrete dynamic system implemented by a MD wave digital filtering (MDWDF) circuit. This amounts to numerically approximating the differential equations used to describe elements of a MD passive electronic circuit by a grid-based difference equations implemented by the so-called state quantities within the passive MDWDF circuit. So the digital model can track the wave field on a dense 3D grid of points. Details about how to transform the continuous system into a desired discrete passive system are addressed. In addition, initial and boundary conditions are properly embedded into the MDWDF circuit in terms of state quantities. Graphic results have clearly demonstrated some physical effects of seismic wave (P-wave and S–wave) propagation including radiation, reflection, and refraction from and across the hard boundaries. Comparison between the MDWDF technique and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) approach is also made in terms of the computational efficiency.
Paper Detail
766
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12
14094
Solver for a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit and Modeling the Inrush Current of a 3-Phase Transformer
Abstract:

Knowledge about the magnetic quantities in a magnetic circuit is always of great interest. On the one hand, this information is needed for the simulation of a transformer. On the other hand, parameter studies are more reliable, if the magnetic quantities are derived from a well established model. One possibility to model the 3-phase transformer is by using a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC). Though this is a well known system, it is often not an easy task to set up such a model for a large number of lumped elements which additionally includes the nonlinear characteristic of the magnetic material. Here we show the setup of a solver for a MEC and the results of the calculation in comparison to measurements taken. The equations of the MEC are based on a rearranged system of the nodal analysis. Thus it is possible to achieve a minimum number of equations, and a clear and simple structure. Hence, it is uncomplicated in its handling and it supports the iteration process. Additional helpful tasks are implemented within the solver to enhance the performance. The electric circuit is described by an electric equivalent circuit (EEC). Our results for the 3-phase transformer demonstrate the computational efficiency of the solver, and show the benefit of the application of a MEC.

Paper Detail
1290
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11
9238
A Signal Driven Adaptive Resolution Short-Time Fourier Transform
Abstract:
The frequency contents of the non-stationary signals vary with time. For proper characterization of such signals, a smart time-frequency representation is necessary. Classically, the STFT (short-time Fourier transform) is employed for this purpose. Its limitation is the fixed timefrequency resolution. To overcome this drawback an enhanced STFT version is devised. It is based on the signal driven sampling scheme, which is named as the cross-level sampling. It can adapt the sampling frequency and the window function (length plus shape) by following the input signal local variations. This adaptation results into the proposed technique appealing features, which are the adaptive time-frequency resolution and the computational efficiency.
Paper Detail
824
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10
9819
Receding Horizon Filtering for Mobile Robot Systems with Cross-Correlated Sensor Noises
Abstract:
This paper reports on a receding horizon filtering for mobile robot systems with cross-correlated sensor noises and uncertainties. Also, the effect of uncertain parameters in the state of the tracking error model performance is considered. A distributed fusion receding horizon filter is proposed. The distributed fusion filtering algorithm represents the optimal linear combination of the local filters under the minimum mean square error criterion. The derivation of the error cross-covariances between the local receding horizon filters is the key of this paper. Simulation results of the tracking mobile robot-s motion demonstrate high accuracy and computational efficiency of the distributed fusion receding horizon filter.
Paper Detail
578
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9
2630
Optimization of Distribution Network Configuration for Loss Reduction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Abstract:

Network reconfiguration in distribution system is realized by changing the status of sectionalizing switches to reduce the power loss in the system. This paper presents a new method which applies an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for determining the sectionalizing switch to be operated in order to solve the distribution system loss minimization problem. The ABC algorithm is a new population based metaheuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 14, 33, and 119-bus systems and compared with different approaches available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational efficiency.

Paper Detail
2140
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8
11519
Reduced Order Modeling of Natural Gas Transient Flow in Pipelines
Abstract:
A reduced order modeling approach for natural gas transient flow in pipelines is presented. The Euler equations are considered as the governing equations and solved numerically using the implicit Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method. Next, the linearized form of the equations is derived and the corresponding eigensystem is obtained. Then, a few dominant flow eigenmodes are used to construct an efficient reduced-order model. A well-known test case is presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed method. The results obtained are in good agreement with those of the direct numerical method and field data. Moreover, it is shown that the present reduced-order model is more efficient than the conventional numerical techniques for transient flow analysis of natural gas in pipelines.
Paper Detail
970
downloads
7
10550
A MATLAB Simulink Library for Transient Flow Simulation of Gas Networks
Abstract:
An efficient transient flow simulation for gas pipelines and networks is presented. The proposed transient flow simulation is based on the transfer function models and MATLABSimulink. The equivalent transfer functions of the nonlinear governing equations are derived for different types of the boundary conditions. Next, a MATLAB-Simulink library is developed and proposed considering any boundary condition type. To verify the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed simulation, the results obtained are compared with those of the conventional finite difference schemes (such as TVD, method of lines, and other finite difference implicit and explicit schemes). The effects of the flow inertia and the pipeline inclination are incorporated in this simulation. It is shown that the proposed simulation has a sufficient accuracy and it is computationally more efficient than the other methods.
Paper Detail
3699
downloads
6
342
Laser Surface Hardening Considering Coupled Thermoelasticity using an Eulerian Formulations
Abstract:
Thermoelastic temperature, displacement, and stress in heat transfer during laser surface hardening are solved in Eulerian formulation. In Eulerian formulations the heat flux is fixed in space and the workpiece is moved through a control volume. In the case of uniform velocity and uniform heat flux distribution, the Eulerian formulations leads to a steady-state problem, while the Lagrangian formulations remains transient. In Eulerian formulations the reduction to a steady-state problem increases the computational efficiency. In this study also an analytical solution is developed for an uncoupled transient heat conduction equation in which a plane slab is heated by a laser beam. The thermal result of the numerical model is compared with the result of this analytical model. Comparing the results shows numerical solution for uncoupled equations are in good agreement with the analytical solution.
Paper Detail
926
downloads
5
10722
An Improved Conjugate Gradient Based Learning Algorithm for Back Propagation Neural Networks
Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm to yield a computationally efficient algorithm for training multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks (CGFR/AG). The computational efficiency is enhanced by adaptively modifying initial search direction as described in the following steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing a gain variation term in the activation function, (2) Calculation of the gradient descent of error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of a new search direction by using information calculated in step (2). The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing accuracy and computation time with the conjugate gradient algorithm used in MATLAB neural network toolbox. The results show that the computational efficiency of the proposed method was better than the standard conjugate gradient algorithm.

Paper Detail
753
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4
14089
An Improved Quality Adaptive Rate Filtering Technique Based on the Level Crossing Sampling
Abstract:
Mostly the systems are dealing with time varying signals. The Power efficiency can be achieved by adapting the system activity according to the input signal variations. In this context an adaptive rate filtering technique, based on the level crossing sampling is devised. It adapts the sampling frequency and the filter order by following the input signal local variations. Thus, it correlates the processing activity with the signal variations. Interpolation is required in the proposed technique. A drastic reduction in the interpolation error is achieved by employing the symmetry during the interpolation process. Processing error of the proposed technique is calculated. The computational complexity of the proposed filtering technique is deduced and compared to the classical one. Results promise a significant gain of the computational efficiency and hence of the power consumption.
Paper Detail
770
downloads
3
12095
Computationally Efficient Adaptive Rate Sampling and Adaptive Resolution Analysis
Abstract:

Mostly the real life signals are time varying in nature. For proper characterization of such signals, time-frequency representation is required. The STFT (short-time Fourier transform) is a classical tool used for this purpose. The limitation of the STFT is its fixed time-frequency resolution. Thus, an enhanced version of the STFT, which is based on the cross-level sampling, is devised. It can adapt the sampling frequency and the window function length by following the input signal local variations. Therefore, it provides an adaptive resolution time-frequency representation of the input. The computational complexity of the proposed STFT is deduced and compared to the classical one. The results show a significant gain of the computational efficiency and hence of the processing power. The processing error of the proposed technique is also discussed.

Paper Detail
632
downloads
2
12936
Decoupled, Reduced Order Model for Double Output Induction Generator Using Integral Manifolds and Iterative Separation Theory
Abstract:
In this paper presents a technique for developing the computational efficiency in simulating double output induction generators (DOIG) with two rotor circuits where stator transients are to be included. Iterative decomposition is used to separate the flux– Linkage equations into decoupled fast and slow subsystems, after which the model order of the fast subsystems is reduced by neglecting the heavily damped fast transients caused by the second rotor circuit using integral manifolds theory. The two decoupled subsystems along with the equation for the very slowly changing slip constitute a three time-scale model for the machine which resulted in increasing computational speed. Finally, the proposed method of reduced order in this paper is compared with the other conventional methods in linear and nonlinear modes and it is shown that this method is better than the other methods regarding simulation accuracy and speed.
Paper Detail
679
downloads
1
10876
A PSO-Based Optimum Design of PID Controller for a Linear Brushless DC Motor
Abstract:

This Paper presents a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for determining the optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters, for speed control of a linear brushless DC motor. The proposed approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency. The brushless DC motor is modelled in Simulink and the PSO algorithm is implemented in MATLAB. Comparing with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) method, the proposed method was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics such as, reducing the steady-states error; rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot in speed control of a linear brushless DC motor.

Paper Detail
3156
downloads