International Science Index
Discrepant Views of Social Competence and Links with Social Phobia
Adolescents’ biased perceptions about their social competence (SC), whether negatively or positively, serve to influence their socioemotional adjustment such as early feelings of social phobia (nowadays referred to as Social Anxiety Disorder-SAD). Despite the importance of biased self-perceptions in adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment, the extent to which discrepancies between self- and others’ evaluations of one’s SC are linked to social phobic symptoms remains unclear in the literature. This study examined the perceptual discrepancy profiles between self- and peers’ as well as between self- and teachers’ evaluations of adolescents’ SC and the interrelations of these profiles with self-reported social phobic symptoms. The participants were 390 3rd graders (15 years old) of Finnish lower secondary school (50.8% boys, 49.2% girls). In contrast with variable-centered approaches that have mainly been used by previous studies when focusing on this subject, this study used latent profile analysis (LPA), a person-centered approach which can provide information regarding risk profiles by capturing the heterogeneity within a population and classifying individuals into groups. LPA revealed the following five classes of discrepancy profiles: i) extremely negatively biased perceptions of SC, ii) negatively biased perceptions of SC, iii) quite realistic perceptions of SC, iv) positively biased perceptions of SC, and v) extremely positively biased perceptions of SC. Adolescents with extremely negatively biased perceptions and negatively biased perceptions of their own SC reported the highest number of social phobic symptoms. Adolescents with quite realistic, positively biased and extremely positively biased perceptions reported the lowest number of socio-phobic symptoms. The results point out the negatively and the extremely negatively biased perceptions as possible contributors to social phobic symptoms. Moreover, the association of quite realistic perceptions with low number of social phobic symptoms indicates its potential protective power against social phobia. Finally, positively and extremely positively biased perceptions of SC are negatively associated with social phobic symptoms in this study. However, the profile of extremely positively biased perceptions might be linked as well with the existence of externalizing problems such as antisocial behavior (e.g. disruptive impulsivity). The current findings highlight the importance of considering discrepancies between self- and others’ perceptions of one’s SC in clinical and research efforts. Interventions designed to prevent or moderate social phobic symptoms need to take into account individual needs rather than aiming for uniform treatment. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Mini Mental State Examination-2 in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Studies
From a psychological perspective, psychopathology is the area of clinical psychology that has at its core psychological assessment and psychotherapy. In day-to-day clinical practice, psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy are used independently, according to their intended purpose and their specific methods of application. The paper explores how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Mini Mental State Examination-2 (MMSE-2) psychological tools contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy (CBT). This combined approach, psychotherapy in conjunction with assessment of personality and cognitive functions, is illustrated by two cases, a severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and a mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The order in which CBT, MMPI-2, and MMSE-2 were used in the diagnostic and therapeutic process was determined by the particularities of each case. In the first case, the sequence started with psychotherapy, followed by the administration of blue form MMSE-2, MMPI-2, and red form MMSE-2. In the second case, the cognitive screening with blue form MMSE-2 led to a personality assessment using MMPI-2, followed by red form MMSE-2; reapplication of the MMPI-2 due to the invalidation of the first profile, and finally, psychotherapy. The MMPI-2 protocols gathered useful information that directed the steps of therapeutic intervention: a detailed symptom picture of potentially self-destructive thoughts and behaviors otherwise undetected during the interview. The memory loss and poor concentration were confirmed by MMSE-2 cognitive screening. This combined approach, psychotherapy with psychological assessment, aligns with the trend of adaptation of the psychological services to the everyday life of contemporary man and paves the way for deepening and developing the field.
Effect of Social Media on the Study Habits of Students of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri
There has been considerable anxiety in society that social media distracts from education and reduces the social skills of young people. Following this, educators have sought ways to mitigate its negative effects on educational attainment while incorporating its positive aspects into the learning process. This study sought to examine the impact of social media on the study habits of students of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. The research design involved survey technique where questionnaires were used to collect data from a sample of the student population. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data. Spearman’s Rho was the specific tool used for analysis. It was presented in frequency tables and bar charts. Findings from variables investigated showed that at p<0.5, social media usage had a significant impact on the study habits of students of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. This indicated the need for stakeholders in the community to employ counselling and other proactive measures to ensure that students maintained proper focus on their primary assignment for schooling.
A Study of Applying the Use of Breathing Training to Palliative Care Patients, Based on the Bio-Psycho-Social Model
In clinical practices, it is common that while facing the unknown progress of their disease, palliative care patients may easily feel anxious and depressed. These types of reactions are a cause of psychosomatic diseases and may also influence treatment results. However, the purpose of palliative care is to provide relief from all kinds of pains. Therefore, how to make patients more comfortable is an issue worth studying. This study adopted the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel and applied spontaneous breathing training, in the hope of seeing patients’ psychological state changes caused by their physiological state changes, improvements in their anxious conditions, corresponding adjustments of their cognitive functions, and further enhancement of their social functions and the social support system. This study will be a one-year study. Palliative care outpatients will be recruited and assigned to the experimental group or the control group for six outpatient visits (once a month), with 80 patients in each group. The patients of both groups agreed that this study can collect their physiological quantitative data using an HRV device before the first outpatient visit. They also agreed to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” before the first outpatient visit, to fill a self-report questionnaire after each outpatient visit, and to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” after the last outpatient visit. The patients of the experimental group agreed to receive the breathing training under HRV monitoring during the first outpatient visit of this study. Before each of the following three outpatient visits, they were required to fill a self-report questionnaire regarding their breathing practices after going home. After the outpatient visits, they were taught how to practice breathing through an HRV device and asked to practice it after going home. Later, based on the results from the HRV data analyses and the pre-tests and post-tests of the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire”, the influence of the breathing training in the bio, psycho, and social aspects were evaluated. The data collected through the self-report questionnaires of the patients of both groups were used to explore the possible interfering factors among the bio, psycho, and social changes. It is expected that this study will support the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel, meaning that bio, psycho, and social supports are closely related, and that breathing training helps to transform palliative care patients’ psychological feelings of anxiety and depression, to facilitate their positive interactions with others, and to improve the quality medical care for them.
Case Study of the Exercise Habits and Aging Anxiety of Taiwanese Insurance Agents
The rapid aging of the population is a common trend in the world. However, the progress of modern medical technology has increased the average life expectancy. The global population structure has changed dramatically, and the elderly population has risen rapidly. In the face of rapid population growth, it must be noted issues of the aging population must face up to, which are the physiological, psychological, and social problems associated with aging. This study aims to investigate how insurance agents are actively dealing with an aging society, their own aging anxiety, and their exercise habits. Purposive sampling was the sampling method of this study, a total of 204 respondents were surveyed and 204 valid surveys were returned. The returned valid ratio was 100%. Statistical method included descriptive statistics, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results of the study found that the insurance agent’s age, seniority, exercise habits to aging anxiety are significantly different.
A Robotic “Puppet Master” Application to ASD Therapeutic Support
This paper describes a preliminary work aimed at
setting a therapeutic support for autistic teenagers using three
humanoid robots NAO shared by ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder)
subjects. The studied population had attended successfully a first
year program, and were observed with a second year program
using the robots. This paper focuses on the content and the effects
of the second year program. The approach is based on a master
puppet concept: the subjects program the robots, and use them as
an extension for communication. Twenty sessions were organized,
alternating ten preparatory sessions and ten robotics programming
sessions. During the preparatory sessions, the subjects write a story
to be played by the robots. During the robot programming sessions,
the subjects program the motions to be realized to make the robot
tell the story. The program was concluded by a public performance.
The experiment involves five ASD teenagers aged 12-15, who had
all attended the first year robotics training. As a result, a progress
in voluntary and organized communication skills of the five subjects
was observed, leading to improvements in social organization,
focus, voluntary communication, programming, reading and writing
abilities. The changes observed in the subjects general behavior
took place in a short time, and could be observed from one robotics
session to the next one. The approach allowed the subjects to
draw the limits of their body with respect to the environment, and
therefore helped them confronting the world with less anxiety.
The Significant Effect of Wudu’ and Zikr in the Controlling of Emotional Pressure Using Biofeedback Emwave Technique
Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr are amongst some of the spiritual tools which may help an individual control his mind, emotion and attitude. These tools are deemed to be able to deliver a positive impact on an individual’s psychophysiology. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr therapy using the biofeedback emWave application and technology. For this research, 13 students were selected as samples from the students’ representative body at the University Tenaga National, Malaysia. The DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) questionnaire was used to help with the assessment and measurement of each student’s ability in controlling his or her emotions before and after the therapies. The biofeedback emWave technology was utilized to monitor the student’s psychophysiology level. In addition, the data obtained from the Heart rate variability (HRV) test have also been used to affirm that Wudu’ and Zikr had had significant impacts on the student’s success in controlling his or her emotional pressure.
The Formation of Mutual Understanding in Conversation: An Embodied Approach
The mutual understanding in conversation is very important for human relations. This study investigates the mental function of the formation of mutual understanding between two people in conversation using the embodied approach. Forty people participated in this study. They are divided into pairs randomly. Four conversation situations between two (make/listen to fun or pleasant talk, make/listen to regrettable talk) are set for four minutes each, and the finger plethysmogram (200 Hz) of each participant is measured. As a result, the attractors of the participants who reported “I did not understand my partner” show the collapsed shape, which means the fluctuation of their rhythm is too small to match their partner’s rhythm, and their cross correlation is low. The autonomic balance of both persons tends to resonate during conversation, and both LLEs tend to resonate, too. In human history, in order for human beings as weak mammals to live, they may have been with others; that is, they have brought about resonating characteristics, which is called self-organization. However, the resonant feature sometimes collapses, depending on the lifestyle that the person was formed by himself after birth. It is difficult for people who do not have a lifestyle of mutual gaze to resonate their biological signal waves with others’. These people have features such as anxiety, fatigue, and confusion tendency. Mutual understanding is thought to be formed as a result of cooperation between the features of self-organization of the persons who are talking and the lifestyle indicated by mutual gaze. Such an entanglement phenomenon is called a nonlinear relation. By this research, it is found that the formation of mutual understanding is expressed by the rhythm of a biological signal showing a nonlinear relationship.
A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.
Mindfulness and Employability: A Course on the Control of Stress during the Search for Work
Defining professional objectives and the search for work are some of the greatest stress factors for final year university students and recent graduates. To manage correctly the stress brought about by the uncertainty, confusion and frustration this process often generates, a course to control stress based on mindfulness has been designed and taught. This course provides tools based on relaxation, mindfulness and meditation that enable students to address personal and professional challenges in the transition to the job market, eliminating or easing the anxiety involved. The course is extremely practical and experiential, combining theory classes and practical classes of relaxation, meditation and mindfulness, group dynamics, reflection, application protocols and session integration. The evaluation of the courses highlighted on the one hand the high degree of satisfaction and, on the other, the usefulness for the students in becoming aware of stressful situations and how these affect them and learning new coping techniques that enable them to reach their goals more easily and with greater satisfaction and well-being.
Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range
This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.
Learners’ Violent Behaviour and Drug Abuse as Major Causes of Tobephobia in Schools
Many schools throughout the world are facing constant pressure to cope with the violence and drug abuse of learners who show little or no respect for acceptable and desirable social norms. These delinquent learners tend to harbour feelings of being beyond reproach because they strongly believe that it is well within their rights to engage in violent and destructive behaviour. Knives, guns, and other weapons appear to be more readily used by them on the school premises than before. It is known that learners smoke, drink alcohol, and use drugs during school hours, hence, their ability to concentrate, work, and learn, is affected. They become violent and display disruptive behaviour in their classrooms as well as on the school premises, and this atrocious behaviour makes it possible for drug dealers and gangsters to gain access onto the school premises. The primary purpose of this exploratory quantitative study was therefore to establish how tobephobia (TBP), caused by school violence and drug abuse, affects teaching and learning in schools. The findings of this study affirmed that poor discipline resulted in producing poor quality education. Most of the teachers in this study agreed that educating learners who consumed alcohol and other drugs on the school premises resulted in them suffering from TBP. These learners are frequently abusive and disrespectful, and resort to violence to seek attention. As a result, teachers feel extremely demotivated and suffer from high levels of anxiety and stress. The word TBP will surely be regarded as a blessing by many teachers throughout the world because finally, there is a word that will make people sit up and listen to their problems that cause real fear and anxiety in schools.
The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs
Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.
Linguistic Competence Analysis and the Development of Speaking Instructional Material
Linguistic oral competence plays a vital role in attaining effective communication. Since the English language is considered as universally used language and has a high demand skill needed in the work-place, mastery is the expected output from learners. To achieve this, learners should be given integrated differentiated tasks which help them develop and strengthen the expected skills. This study aimed to develop speaking instructional supplementary material to enhance the English linguistic competence of Grade 9 students in areas of pronunciation, intonation and stress, voice projection, diction and fluency. A descriptive analysis was utilized to analyze the speaking level of performance of the students in order to employ appropriate strategies. There were two sets of respondents: 178 Grade 9 students selected through a stratified sampling and chosen at random. The other set comprised English teachers who evaluated the usefulness of the devised teaching materials. A teacher conducted a speaking test and activities were employed to analyze the speaking needs of students. Observation and recordings were also used to evaluate the students’ performance. The findings revealed that the English pronunciation of the students was slightly unclear at times, but generally fair. There were lapses but generally they rated moderate in intonation and stress, because of other language interference. In terms of voice projection, students have erratic high volume pitch. For diction, the students’ ability to produce comprehensible language is limited, and as to fluency, the choice of vocabulary and use of structure were severely limited. Based on the students’ speaking needs analyses, the supplementary material devised was based on Nunan’s IM model, incorporating context of daily life and global work settings, considering the principle that language is best learned in the actual meaningful situation. To widen the mastery of skill, a rich learning environment, filled with a variety instructional material tends to foster faster acquisition of the requisite skills for sustained learning and development. The role of IM is to encourage information to stick in the learners’ mind, as what is seen is understood more than what is heard. Teachers say they found the IM “very useful.” This implied that English teachers could adopt the materials to improve the speaking skills of students. Further, teachers should provide varied opportunities for students to get involved in real life situations where they could take turns in asking and answering questions and share information related to the activities. This would minimize anxiety among students in the use of the English language.
Comparing the Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language of Bilinguals and Monolinguals
This study explored the relationship between L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC) of bilinguals and monolinguals in a foreign language using a snowball sampling method to collect questionnaire data from 200 bilinguals and monolinguals studying a foreign language (FL). The results indicated a higher willingness to communicate in a foreign language (WTC-FL) performed by bilinguals compared to that of the monolinguals with a weak significance. Yet a stronger significance was found in the relationship between the age of onset of bilingualism and WTC-FL. The researcher proposed that L2 WTC is indirectly influenced by knowledge of other languages, which can boost L2 confidence and reduce L2 anxiety and consequently lead to higher L2 WTC when learning a different L2. The study also found the age of onset of bilingualism to be a predictor of L2 WTC when learning a FL. The results emphasize the importance of bilingualism and early bilingualism in particular.
Study on the Effect of Pre-Operative Patient Education on Post-Operative Outcomes
Patient satisfaction represents a crucial aspect in the evaluation of health care services. Preoperative teaching provides the patient with pertinent information concerning the surgical process and the intended surgical procedure as well as anticipated patient behavior (anxiety, fear), expected sensation, and the probable outcomes. Although patient education is part of Accreditation protocols, it is not uniform at most places. The aim of this study was to try to assess the benefit of preoperative patient education on selected post-operative outcome parameters; mainly, post-operative pain scores, requirement of additional analgesia, return to activity of daily living and overall patient satisfaction, and try to standardize few education protocols. Dependent variables were measured before and after the treatment on a study population of 302 volunteers. Educational intervention was provided by the Investigator in the preoperative period to the study group through personal counseling. An information booklet contained detailed information was also provided. Statistical Analysis was done using Chi square test, Mann Whitney u test and Fischer Exact Test on a total of 302 subjects. P value <0.05 was considered as level of statistical significance and p<0.01 was considered as highly significant. This study suggested that patients who are given a structured, individualized and elaborate preoperative education and counseling have a better ability to cope up with postoperative pain in the immediate post-operative period. However, there was not much difference when the patients have had almost complete recovery. There was no difference in the requirement of additional analgesia among the two groups. There is a positive effect of preoperative counseling on expected return to the activities of daily living and normal work schedule. However, no effect was observed on the activities in the immediate post-operative period. There is no difference in the overall satisfaction score among the two groups of patients. Thus this study concludes that there is a positive benefit as suggested by the results for pre-operative patient education. Although the difference in various parameters studied might not be significant over a long term basis, they definitely point towards the benefits of preoperative patient education.
Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Psychosocial Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease: The Case of Patients in a Public Hospital in Ghana
Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is of major public-health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Africa. The objective of this study therefore was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used, involving the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life of individuals, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results: Results showed no gender and marital status differences in anxiety and depression. However, there were age and level of education variances in depression but not in anxiety. In terms of quality of life, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends, relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having Faith in God was the frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion: It is recommended that a multi-dimensional intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.
Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease
Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.
Information Overload, Information Literacy and Use of Technology by Students
The development of web technologies and mobile devices makes creating, accessing, using and sharing information or communicating with each other simpler every day. However, while the amount of information constantly increasing it is becoming harder to effectively organize and find quality information despite the availability of web search engines, filtering and indexing tools. Although digital technologies have overall positive impact on students’ lives, frequent use of these technologies and digital media enriched with dynamic hypertext and hypermedia content, as well as multitasking, distractions caused by notifications, calls or messages; can decrease the attention span, make thinking, memorizing and learning more difficult, which can lead to stress and mental exhaustion. This is referred to as “information overload”, “information glut” or “information anxiety”. Objective of this study is to determine whether students show signs of information overload and to identify the possible predictors. Research was conducted using a questionnaire developed for the purpose of this study. The results show that students frequently use technology (computers, gadgets and digital media), while they show moderate level of information literacy. They have sometimes experienced symptoms of information overload. According to the statistical analysis, higher frequency of technology use and lower level of information literacy are correlated with larger information overload. The multiple regression analysis has confirmed that the combination of these two independent variables has statistically significant predictive capacity for information overload. Therefore, the information science teachers should pay attention to improving the level of students’ information literacy and educate them about the risks of excessive technology use.
Identifying a Drug Addict Person Using Artificial Neural Networks
Use and abuse of drugs by teens is very common and can have dangerous consequences. The drugs contribute to physical and sexual aggression such as assault or rape. Some teenagers regularly use drugs to compensate for depression, anxiety or a lack of positive social skills. Teen resort to smoking should not be minimized because it can be "gateway drugs" for other drugs (marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and heroin). The combination of teenagers' curiosity, risk taking behavior, and social pressure make it very difficult to say no. This leads most teenagers to the questions: "Will it hurt to try once?" Nowadays, technological advances are changing our lives very rapidly and adding a lot of technologies that help us to track the risk of drug abuse such as smart phones, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Internet of Things (IoT), etc. This technique may help us to early discovery of drug abuse in order to prevent an aggravation of the influence of drugs on the abuser. In this paper, we have developed a Decision Support System (DSS) for detecting the drug abuse using Artificial Neural Network (ANN); we used a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network in developing the system. The input layer includes 50 variables while the output layer contains one neuron which indicates whether the person is a drug addict. An iterative process is used to determine the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each one. We used multiple experiment models that have been completed with Log-Sigmoid transfer function. Particularly, 10-fold cross validation schemes are used to access the generalization of the proposed system. The experiment results have obtained 98.42% classification accuracy for correct diagnosis in our system. The data had been taken from 184 cases in Jordan according to a set of questions compiled from Specialists, and data have been obtained through the families of drug abusers.
Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables
In this research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents’ educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are located in the center of Konya. The “general survey method” is adopted in the research. In accordance with the purpose of the study, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent samples t--‐test, ANOVA (variance) are employed in the study. A total of four scales are implemented. These four scales include a total of 13 sub-dimensions. The scores from these scales and their subscales are studied in terms of various variables. In the research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, the problematic Internet use and academic achievement (gender, parent educational level, and daily access to the Internet) are investigated based on various variables and some significant relations are found.
Stress and Social Support as Predictors of Quality of Life: A Case among Flood Victims in Malaysia
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects and
relationship of stress and social support towards the quality of life
among flood victims in Malaysia. A total of 764 respondents took
part in the survey via convenience sampling. The Depression,
Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS) was utilized to measure stress while
The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to
measure social support. To measure quality of life, the combination
of WHO Quality of Life – BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and The Impact
of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R) were utilized. The findings of this
study indicate that there were significant correlations between
variables in the study. The findings showed a significant negative
relation between stress and quality of life; and significant positive
correlations between support from family as well as support from
friends with quality of life. Stress and support from family were
found to be significant predictors that influence the quality of life
among flood victims.
The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Intervention in Alleviating Social Avoidance for Blind Students
Social Avoidance is one of the most important
problems that face a good number of disabled students. It results from
the negative attitudes of non-disabled students, teachers and others.
Some of the past research has shown that non-disabled individuals
hold negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The present
study aims to alleviate Social Avoidance by applying the Cognitive
Behavioral Intervention. 24 Blind students aged 19–24 (university students) were randomly
chosen we compared an experimental group (consisted of 12
students) who went through the intervention program, with a control
group (12 students also) who did not go through such intervention.
We used the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess
social anxiety and distress behavior. The author used many
techniques of cognitive behavioral intervention such as modeling,
cognitive restructuring, extension, contingency contracts, selfmonitoring,
assertiveness training, role play, encouragement and
others. Statistically, T-test was employed to test the research
hypothesis. Result showed that there is a significance difference between the
experimental group and the control group after the intervention and
also at the follow up stages of the Social Avoidance and Distress
Scale. Also for the experimental group, there is a significance
difference before the intervention and the follow up stages for the
scale. Results showed that, there is a decrease in social avoidance.
Accordingly, cognitive behavioral intervention program was
successful in decreasing social avoidance for blind students.
Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran
The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.
An Investigation on Students’ Reticence in Iranian University EFL Classrooms
Reticence is a prominent and complex phenomenon
which occurs in foreign language classrooms and influences students’
oral passivity. The present study investigated the extent in which
students experience reticence in the EFL classrooms and explored the
underlying factors triggering reticence. The participants were 104
Iranian freshmen undergraduate male and female EFL students, who
enrolled in listening and speaking courses, all majoring in English
studying at Islamic Azad University Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch and
University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. To collect the data, the Reticence
Scale-12 (RS-12) questionnaire which measures the level of reticence
consisting of six dimensions (anxiety, knowledge, timing,
organization, skills, and memory) was administered to the
participants. The statistical analyses showed that the reticent level
was high among the Iranian EFL undergraduate students, and their
major problems were feelings of anxiety and delivery skills.
Moreover, the results revealed that factors such as low English
proficiency, the teaching method, and lack of confidence contributed
to the students’ reticence in Iranian EFL classrooms. It can be
implied that language teachers’ awareness of learners’ reticence can
help them choose more appropriate activities and provide a friendly
environment enhancing hopefully more effective participation of EFL
learners. The findings can have implications for EFL teachers,
learners and policy makers.
Mathematics Anxiety among Male and Female Students
The purpose of this study is to determine the
relationship of anxiety level between male and female undergraduates
at a private university in Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used
in this study in which the students were selected based on the
grouping assigned by the faculty. There were 214 undergraduates
who registered the probability courses had participated in this study.
Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was the instrument used
in study which used to determine students’ anxiety level towards
probability. Reliability and validity of instrument was done before the
major study was conducted. In the major study, students were given
briefing about the study conducted. Participation of this study was
voluntary. Students were given consent form to determine whether
they agree to participate in the study. Duration of two weeks was
given for students to complete the given online questionnaire. The
data collected will be analyzed using Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the level of anxiety. There were
three anxiety level, i.e., low, average and high. Students’ anxiety
level was determined based on their scores obtained compared with
the mean and standard deviation. If the scores obtained were below
mean and standard deviation, the anxiety level was low. If the scores
were at below and above the mean and between one standard
deviation, the anxiety level was average. If the scores were above the
mean and greater than one standard deviation, the anxiety level was
high. Results showed that both of genders were having average
anxiety level. Among low, average and high anxiety level, frequency
of males were found to be higher as compared to females. Hence, the
mean values obtained for males (M = 3.62) was higher than females
(M = 3.42). In order to be significant of anxiety level among the
gender, the p-value should be less than .05. The p-value obtained in
this study was .117. However, this value was greater than .05. Thus,
there was no significant difference of anxiety level among the gender.
In other words, there was no relationship of anxiety level with the
EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks
EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level
were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of
error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic
conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a
measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta
desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset
and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms.
Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error
recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions.
The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16-
20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical
anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and
algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band
were associated with differences between anterior and posterior
cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated
with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects
of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait
anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of
desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated
with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety
in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the
strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta
band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas
the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual
The Comparison of Parental Childrearing Styles and Anxiety in Children with Stuttering and Normal Population
Family has a crucial role in maintaining the
physical, social and mental health of the children. Most of the
mental and anxiety problems of children reflect the complex
interpersonal situations among family members, especially parents.
In other words, anxiety problems of the children are correlated
with deficit relationships of family members and improper
childrearing styles. The parental child rearing styles leads to
positive and negative consequences which affect the children’s
mental health. Therefore, the present research was aimed to
compare the parental childrearing styles and anxiety of children
with stuttering and normal population. It was also aimed to study
the relationship between parental child rearing styles and anxiety
of children. The research sample included 54 boys with stuttering
and 54 normal boys who were selected from the children (boys) of
Tehran, Iran in the age range of 5 to 8 years in 2013. In order to
collect data, Baum-rind Childrearing Styles Inventory and Spence
Parental Anxiety Inventory were used. Appropriate descriptive
statistical methods and multivariate variance analysis and t test for
independent groups were used to test the study hypotheses.
Statistical data analyses demonstrated that there was a significant
difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in anxiety (t =
7.601, p< 0.01); but there was no significant difference between
stuttering boys and normal boys in parental childrearing styles (F =
0.129). There was also not found significant relationship between
parental childrearing styles and children anxiety (F = 0.135, p<
0.05). It can be concluded that the influential factors of children’s
society are parents, school, teachers, peers and media. So, parental
childrearing styles are not the only influential factors on anxiety of
children, and other factors including genetic, environment and
child experiences are effective in anxiety as well. Details are
Yawning and Cortisol as a Potential Biomarker for Early Detection of Multiple Sclerosis
Cortisol is essential to the regulation of the immune
system and yawning is a pathological symptom of multiple sclerosis
(MS). Electromyography activity (EMG) in the jaw muscles typically
rises when the muscles are moved and with yawning is highly
correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. Saliva samples from
59 participants were collected at the start and after yawning, or at the
end of the presentation of yawning-provoking stimuli, in the absence
of a yawn, together with EMG data and questionnaire data: Hospital
Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale,
General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details. Exclusion
criteria: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high
blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis,
stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol
samples for the yawners, t (23) = -4.263, p = 0.000, as compared with
the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli, which was nonsignificant.
Significant evidence was found to support the Thompson
Cortisol Hypothesis suggesting that rises in cortisol levels are
associated with yawning. Further research is exploring the use of
cortisol as an early diagnostic tool for MS. Ethics approval granted
and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues
are approved therein.
Development and Validation of the Response to Stressful Situations Scale in the General Population
The aim of the current study was to develop and
validate a Response to Stressful Situations Scale (RSSS) for the
Portuguese population. This scale assesses the degree of stress
experienced in scenarios that can constitute positive, negative and
more neutral stressors, and also describes the physiological,
emotional and behavioral reactions to those events according to their
intensity. These scenarios include typical stressor scenarios relevant
to patients with schizophrenia, which are currently absent from most
scales, assessing specific risks that these stressors may bring on
subjects, which may prove useful in non-clinical and clinical
populations (i.e. Patients with mood or anxiety disorders,
schizophrenia). Results from Principal Components Analysis and
Confirmatory Factor Analysis of two adult samples from general
population allowed to confirm a three-factor model with good fit
indices: χ2 (144)= 370.211, p = 0.000; GFI = 0.928; CFI = 0.927; TLI =
0.914, RMSEA = 0.055, P(rmsea ≤0.005) = .096; PCFI = .781.
Further data analysis of the scale revealed that RSSS is an adequate
assessment tool of stress response in adults to be used in further
research and clinical settings, with good psychometric characteristics,
adequate divergent and convergent validity, good temporal stability
and high internal consistency.