International Science Index

15
10007564
Influence of Build Orientation on Machinability of Selective Laser Melted Titanium Alloy-Ti-6Al-4V
Abstract:
Selective laser melting (SLM), a promising additive manufacturing (AM) technology, has a huge potential in the fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V near-net shape components. However, poor surface finish of the components fabricated from this technology requires secondary machining to achieve the desired accuracy and tolerance. Therefore, a systematic understanding of the machinability of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V components is paramount to improve the productivity and product quality. Considering the significance of machining in SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V components, this research aim is to study the influence of build orientation on machinability characteristics by performing low speed orthogonal cutting tests. In addition, the machinability of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V is compared with conventionally produced wrought Ti-6Al-4V to understand the influence of SLM technology on machining. This paper is an attempt to provide evidence to the hypothesis associated that build orientation influences cutting forces, chip formation and surface integrity during orthogonal cutting of SLM Ti-6Al-4V samples. Results obtained from the low speed orthogonal cutting tests highlight the practical importance of microstructure and build orientation on machinability of SLM Ti-6Al-4V.
Paper Detail
54
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14
10007028
Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V
Abstract:

A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.

Paper Detail
87
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13
10006350
Effect of Gas-Diffusion Oxynitriding on Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys
Abstract:

The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.

Paper Detail
261
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12
10004002
Precision Grinding of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloy Using Nanolubrication
Abstract:

In this current era of competitive machinery productions, the industries are designed to place more emphasis on the product quality and reduction of cost whilst abiding by the pollution-preventing policy. In attempting to delve into the concerns, the industries are aware that the effectiveness of existing lubrication systems must be improved to achieve power-efficient and pollution-preventing machining processes. As such, this research is targeted to study on a plausible solution to the issue in grinding titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) by using nanolubrication, as an alternative to flood grinding. The aim of this research is to evaluate the optimum condition of grinding force and surface roughness using MQL lubricating system to deliver nano-oil at different level of weight concentration of Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) mixed normal mineral oil. Taguchi Design of Experiment (DoE) method is carried out using a standard Taguchi orthogonal array of L16(43) to find the optimized combination of weight concentration mixture of SiO2, nozzle orientation and pressure of MQL. Surface roughness and grinding force are also analyzed using signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio to determine the best level of each factor that are tested. Consequently, the best combination of parameters is tested for a period of time and the results are compared with conventional grinding method of dry and flood condition. The results show a positive performance of MQL nanolubrication.  

Paper Detail
834
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11
10000823
Fuzzy Modeling for Micro EDM Parameters Optimization in Drilling of Biomedical Implants Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Higher Machining Performance
Abstract:

Ti6Al4V alloy is highly used in the automotive and aerospace industry due to its good machining characteristics. Micro EDM drilling is commonly used to drill micro hole on extremely hard material with very high depth to diameter ratio. In this study, the parameters of micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) in drilling of Ti6Al4V alloy is optimized for higher machining accuracy with less hole-dilation and hole taper ratio. The micro-EDM machining parameters includes, peak current and pulse on time. Fuzzy analysis was developed to evaluate the machining accuracy. The analysis shows that hole-dilation and hole-taper ratio are increased with the increasing of peak current and pulse on time. However, the surface quality deteriorates as the peak current and pulse on time increase. The combination that gives the optimum result for hole dilation is medium peak current and short pulse on time. Meanwhile, the optimum result for hole taper ratio is low peak current and short pulse on time.

Paper Detail
1544
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10
10001256
The Effect of Nose Radius on Cutting Force and Temperature during Machining Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Abstract:

This paper presents a study the effect of nose radius (Rz-mm) on cutting force components and temperatures during the machining simulation in an orthogonal cutting process for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The cutting process was performed at various nose radiuses (Rz-mm) while the depth of cut (d-mm), feed rate (fmm/ tooth) and cutting speed (vc-m/ min) were remained constant. The main cutting force (Fc), feed cutting force (Ft) and temperatures were estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software and the simulation was developed the two-dimension via an orthogonal cutting process during machining titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The results led to the conclusion that the nose radius (Rz-mm) has affected directly on the cutting force components. However, temperature gave no indication or has no significant relation with nose radius during machining titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Hence, any increase or decrease in the nose radius (Rzmm) during machining operation led to effect on the cutting forces and thus it will be effective on surface finish, quality, and quantity of products.

Paper Detail
1690
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9
9997536
Effect of Structure on Properties of Incrementally Formed Titanium Alloy Sheets
Abstract:

Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex industrial components with a minimal environmental impact. The AISF experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2), Timetal (15-3-3-3) alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. A special testing geometry was used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of the forming zone and titanium structure effect. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and microhardness measurements.The highest differences in the parameters assessed as a function of the sampling zone were observed in the case of alpha-phase Ti-Gr2at the expense of the most substantial sheet thinning occurrence. A springback causes a smaller stored deformation in Timetal (β alloy) resulting in less pronounced microstructure refinement and microhardness increase. Ti-6Al-4V alloy exhibited early failure due to its poor formability at ambient temperature.

 

Paper Detail
1820
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8
9997200
Effect of Incremental Forming Parameters on Titanium Alloys Properties
Abstract:

Shear spinning is closely related to the asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) that could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex aeronautical components with a minimal environmental impact. The spinning experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2) and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. Three forming modes were used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of different spinning parameters. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and microhardness measurements. The highest value wall angle failure limit was achieved using spinning parameters mode for both materials. The feed rate effect was observed only in the samples from the Ti-Gr2 material, when a refinement of the grain microstructure with lower feed rate and higher tangential speed occurred. Ti-Gr5 alloy exhibited a decrease of the microhardness at higher straining due to recovery processes.

Paper Detail
2309
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7
9996988
Development of Regression Equation for Surface Finish and Analysis of Surface Integrity in EDM
Abstract:

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a relatively modern machining process having distinct advantages over other machining processes and can machine Ti-alloys effectively. The present study emphasizes the features of the development of regression equation based on response surface methodology (RSM) for correlating the interactive and higher-order influences of machining parameters on surface finish of Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The process parameters selected in this study are discharge current, pulse on time, pulse off time and servo voltage. Machining has been accomplished using negative polarity of Graphite electrode. Analysis of variance is employed to ascertain the adequacy of the developed regression model. Experiments based on central composite of response surface method are carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to investigate the surface topography of the EDMed job. The results evidence that the proposed regression equation can predict the surface roughness effectively. The lower ampere and short pulse on time yield better surface finish.

Paper Detail
1649
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6
9805
Finite Element Modeling to Predict the Effect of Nose Radius on the Equivalent Strain (PEEQ) for Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Abstract:

In present work, prediction the effect of nose radius, rz (mm) on the equivalent strain (PEEQ) and surface finish during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) through orthogonal cutting process. The results were performed at several of the nose radiuses, rz (mm) while the cutting speed, vc (m/min), feed rate, f (mm/tooth) and depth of cut, d (mm) were remained constant. The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) and applied through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software. The simulation results led to conclude that the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was increased and surface roughness (Ra) decreased when increasing nose radius, rz (mm) during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) in dry cutting conditions.

Paper Detail
1556
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5
14178
Application of Nano Cutting Fluid under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Technique to Improve Grinding of Ti – 6Al – 4V Alloy
Abstract:
Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) technique obtained a significant attention in machining processes to reduce environmental loads caused by usage of conventional cutting fluids. Recently nanofluids are finding an extensive application in the field of mechanical engineering because of their superior lubrication and heat dissipation characteristics. This paper investigates the use of a nanofluid under MQL mode to improve grinding characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Taguchi-s experimental design technique has been used in the present investigation and a second order model has been established to predict grinding forces and surface roughness. Different concentrations of water based Al2O3 nanofluids were applied in the grinding operation through MQL setup developed in house and the results have been compared with those of conventional coolant and pure water. Experimental results showed that grinding forces reduced significantly when nano cutting fluid was used even at low concentration of the nano particles and surface finish has been found to improve with higher concentration of the nano particles.
Paper Detail
2616
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4
3069
Analytical Model Prediction: Micro-Cutting Tool Forces with the Effect of Friction on Machining Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Abstract:
In this paper, a methodology of a model based on predicting the tool forces oblique machining are introduced by adopting the orthogonal technique. The applied analytical calculation is mostly based on Devries model and some parts of the methodology are employed from Amareggo-Brown model. Model validation is performed by comparing experimental data with the prediction results on machining titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) based on micro-cutting tool perspective. Good agreements with the experiments are observed. A detailed friction form that affected the tool forces also been examined with reasonable results obtained.
Paper Detail
1078
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3
5659
Effect of Welding Processes on Fatigue Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joints
Abstract:
This paper reports the fatigue crack growth behaviour of gas tungsten arc, electron beam and laser beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Centre cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behaviour. A 100kN servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine was used under constant amplitude uniaxial tensile load (stress ratio of 0.1 and frequency of 10 Hz). Crack growth curves were plotted and crack growth parameters (exponent and intercept) were evaluated. Critical and threshold stress intensity factor ranges were also evaluated. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of welds was correlated with mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of welds. Of the three joints, the joint fabricated by laser beam welding exhibited higher fatigue crack growth resistance due to the presence of fine lamellar microstructure in the weld metal.
Paper Detail
3171
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2
6939
Modeling of Material Removal on Machining of Ti-6Al-4V through EDM using Copper Tungsten Electrode and Positive Polarity
Abstract:
This paper deals optimized model to investigate the effects of peak current, pulse on time and pulse off time in EDM performance on material removal rate of titanium alloy utilizing copper tungsten as electrode and positive polarity of the electrode. The experiments are carried out on Ti6Al4V. Experiments were conducted by varying the peak current, pulse on time and pulse off time. A mathematical model is developed to correlate the influences of these variables and material removal rate of workpiece. Design of experiments (DOE) method and response surface methodology (RSM) techniques are implemented. The validity test of the fit and adequacy of the proposed models has been carried out through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results evidence that as the material removal rate increases as peak current and pulse on time increases. The effect of pulse off time on MRR changes with peak ampere. The optimum machining conditions in favor of material removal rate are verified and compared. The optimum machining conditions in favor of material removal rate are estimated and verified with proposed optimized results. It is observed that the developed model is within the limits of the agreeable error (about 4%) when compared to experimental results. This result leads to desirable material removal rate and economical industrial machining to optimize the input parameters.
Paper Detail
1363
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1
12325
Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviuor of Rotary Friction Welded Titanium Alloys
Abstract:
Ti-6Al-4V alloy has demonstrated a high strength to weight ratio as well as good properties at high temperature. The successful application of the alloy in some important areas depends on suitable joining techniques. Friction welding has many advantageous features to be chosen for joining Titanium alloys. The present work investigates the feasibility of producing similar metal joints of this Titanium alloy by rotary friction welding method. The joints are produced at three different speeds and the performances of the welded joints are evaluated by conducting microstructure studies, Vickers Hardness and tensile tests at the joints. It is found that the weld joints produced are sound and the ductile fractures in the tensile weld specimens occur at locations away from the welded joints. It is also found that a rotational speed of 1500 RPM can produce a very good weld, with other parameters kept constant.
Paper Detail
1518
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