International Science Index
Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator
Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.
Attitude Stabilization of Satellites Using Random Dither Quantization
Recently, the effectiveness of random dither
quantization method for linear feedback control systems has
been shown in several papers. However, the random dither
quantization method has not yet been applied to nonlinear feedback
control systems. The objective of this paper is to verify the
effectiveness of random dither quantization method for nonlinear
feedback control systems. For this purpose, we consider the attitude
stabilization problem of satellites using discrete-level actuators.
Namely, this paper provides a control method based on the random
dither quantization method for stabilizing the attitude of satellites
using discrete-level actuators.
Assessment of Urban Heat Island through Remote Sensing in Nagpur Urban Area Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Satellite Images
Urban Heat Island (UHI) is found more pronounced as a prominent urban environmental concern in developing cities. To study the UHI effect in the Indian context, the Nagpur urban area has been explored in this paper using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images through Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. This paper intends to study the effect of LU/LC pattern on daytime Land Surface Temperature (LST) variation, contributing UHI formation within the Nagpur Urban area. Supervised LU/LC area classification was carried to study urban Change detection using ENVI 5. Change detection has been studied by carrying Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to understand the proportion of vegetative cover with respect to built-up ratio. Detection of spectral radiance from the thermal band of satellite images was processed to calibrate LST. Specific representative areas on the basis of urban built-up and vegetation classification were selected for observation of point LST. The entire Nagpur urban area shows that, as building density increases with decrease in vegetation cover, LST increases, thereby causing the UHI effect. UHI intensity has gradually increased by 0.7°C from 2000 to 2006; however, a drastic increase has been observed with difference of 1.8°C during the period 2006 to 2013. Within the Nagpur urban area, the UHI effect was formed due to increase in building density and decrease in vegetative cover.
An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload
The global coverage of broadband multimedia and
internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand
particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services
with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In
particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source
of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded
for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this
paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an
agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays.
In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is
carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite
in order to define a discretization function for determining that
delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the
development of a delay discretization function are together validated
by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation
results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial
data points of processing delay for Ku bands.
Innovative Design Considerations for Adaptive Spacecraft
Space technologies have changed the way we live in the present day society and manage many aspects of our daily affairs through Remote sensing, Navigation & Communications. Further, defense and military usage of spacecraft has increased tremendously along with civilian purposes. The number of satellites deployed in space in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and the Geostationary Orbit (GEO) has gone up. The dependency on remote sensing and operational capabilities are most invariably to be exploited more and more in future. Every country is acquiring spacecraft in one way or other for their daily needs, and spacecraft numbers are likely to increase significantly and create spacecraft traffic problems. The aim of this research paper is to propose innovative design concepts for adaptive spacecraft. The main idea here is to improve existing design methods of spacecraft design and development to further improve upon design considerations for futuristic adaptive spacecraft with inbuilt features for automatic adaptability and self-protection. In other words, the innovative design considerations proposed here are to have future spacecraft with self-organizing capabilities for orbital control and protection from anti-satellite weapons (ASAT). Here, an attempt is made to propose design and develop futuristic spacecraft for 2030 and beyond due to tremendous advancements in VVLSI, miniaturization, and nano antenna array technologies, including nano technologies are expected.
, low earth orbit
, medium earth orbit
, geostationary earth orbit
, self-organizing control system
, anti-satellite weapons
, orbital control
, radar warning receiver
, missile warning receiver
, laser warning receiver
, attitude and orbit control systems
, command and data handling.
Performance Analysis of Artificial Neural Network Based Land Cover Classification
Landcover classification using automated classification techniques, while employing remotely sensed multi-spectral imagery, is one of the promising areas of research. Different land conditions at different time are captured through satellite and monitored by applying different classification algorithms in specific environment. In this paper, a SPOT-5 image provided by SUPARCO has been studied and classified in Environment for Visual Interpretation (ENVI), a tool widely used in remote sensing. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classification technique is used to detect the land cover changes in Abbottabad district. Obtained results are compared with a pixel based Distance classifier. The results show that ANN gives the better overall accuracy of 99.20% and Kappa coefficient value of 0.98 over the Mahalanobis Distance Classifier.
Comparative Study of Conventional and Satellite Based Agriculture Information System
The purpose of this study is to compare the conventional crop monitoring system with the satellite based crop monitoring system in Pakistan. This study is conducted for SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission). The study focused on the wheat crop, as it is the main cash crop of Pakistan and province of Punjab. This study will answer the following: Which system is better in terms of cost, time and man power? The man power calculated for Punjab CRS is: 1,418 personnel and for SUPARCO: 26 personnel. The total cost calculated for SUPARCO is almost 13.35 million and CRS is 47.705 million. The man hours calculated for CRS (Crop Reporting Service) are 1,543,200 hrs (136 days) and man hours for SUPARCO are 8, 320hrs (40 days). It means that SUPARCO workers finish their work 96 days earlier than CRS workers. The results show that the satellite based crop monitoring system is efficient in terms of manpower, cost and time as compared to the conventional system, and also generates early crop forecasts and estimations. The research instruments used included: Interviews, physical visits, group discussions, questionnaires, study of reports and work flows. A total of 93 employees were selected using Yamane’s formula for data collection, which is done with the help questionnaires and interviews. Comparative graphing is used for the analysis of data to formulate the results of the research. The research findings also demonstrate that although conventional methods have a strong impact still in Pakistan (for crop monitoring) but it is the time to bring a change through technology, so that our agriculture will also be developed along modern lines.
Mapping of Alteration Zones in Mineral Rich Belt of South-East Rajasthan Using Remote Sensing Techniques
Remote sensing techniques have emerged as an asset for various geological studies. Satellite images obtained by different sensors contain plenty of information related to the terrain. Digital image processing further helps in customized ways for the prospecting of minerals. In this study, an attempt has been made to map the hydrothermally altered zones using multispectral and hyperspectral datasets of South East Rajasthan. Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion (Level1R) dataset have been processed to generate different Band Ratio Composites (BRCs). For this study, ASTER derived BRCs were generated to delineate the alteration zones, gossans, abundant clays and host rocks. ASTER and Hyperion images were further processed to extract mineral end members and classified mineral maps have been produced using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) method. Results were validated with the geological map of the area which shows positive agreement with the image processing outputs. Thus, this study concludes that the band ratios and image processing in combination play significant role in demarcation of alteration zones which may provide pathfinders for mineral prospecting studies.
Detection of Temporal Change of Fishery and Island Activities by DNB and SAR on the South China Sea
Fishery lights on the surface could be detected by the Day and Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP). The DNB covers the spectral range of 500 to 900 nm and realized a higher sensitivity. The DNB has a difficulty of identification of fishing lights from lunar lights reflected by clouds, which affects observations for the half of the month. Fishery lights and lights of the surface are identified from lunar lights reflected by clouds by a method using the DNB and the infrared band, where the detection limits are defined as a function of the brightness temperature with a difference from the maximum temperature for each level of DNB radiance and with the contrast of DNB radiance against the background radiance. Fishery boats or structures on islands could be detected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the polar orbit satellites using the reflected microwave by the surface reflecting targets. The SAR has a difficulty of tradeoff between spatial resolution and coverage while detecting the small targets like fishery boats. A distribution of fishery boats and island activities were detected by the scan-SAR narrow mode of Radarsat-2, which covers 300 km by 300 km with various combinations of polarizations. The fishing boats were detected as a single pixel of highly scattering targets with the scan-SAR narrow mode of which spatial resolution is 30 m. As the look angle dependent scattering signals exhibits the significant differences, the standard deviations of scattered signals for each look angles were taken into account as a threshold to identify the signal from fishing boats and structures on the island from background noise. It was difficult to validate the detected targets by DNB with SAR data because of time lag of observations for 6 hours between midnight by DNB and morning or evening by SAR. The temporal changes of island activities were detected as a change of mean intensity of DNB for circular area for a certain scale of activities. The increase of DNB mean intensity was corresponding to the beginning of dredging and the change of intensity indicated the ending of reclamation and following constructions of facilities.
Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration
In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.
Urban Growth Analysis Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Images, Non-stationary Decomposition Methods and Stochastic Modeling
Remotely sensed data are a significant source for monitoring and updating databases for land use/cover. Nowadays, changes detection of urban area has been a subject of intensive researches. Timely and accurate data on spatio-temporal changes of urban areas are therefore required. The data extracted from multi-temporal satellite images are usually non-stationary. In fact, the changes evolve in time and space. This paper is an attempt to propose a methodology for changes detection in urban area by combining a non-stationary decomposition method and stochastic modeling. We consider as input of our methodology a sequence of satellite images I1, I2, … In at different periods (t = 1, 2, ..., n). Firstly, a preprocessing of multi-temporal satellite images is applied. (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric and geometric). The systematic study of global urban expansion in our methodology can be approached in two ways: The first considers the urban area as one same object as opposed to non-urban areas (e.g. vegetation, bare soil and water). The objective is to extract the urban mask. The second one aims to obtain a more knowledge of urban area, distinguishing different types of tissue within the urban area. In order to validate our approach, we used a database of Tres Cantos-Madrid in Spain, which is derived from Landsat for a period (from January 2004 to July 2013) by collecting two frames per year at a spatial resolution of 25 meters. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our method.
Radio Regulation Development and Radio Spectrum Analysis of Earth Station in Motion Service
Although Earth Station in Motion (ESIM) services are widely used and there is a huge market demand around the world, International Telecommunication Union (ITU) does not have unified conclusion for the use of ESIM yet. ESIM are Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) due to its mobile-based attributes, while multiple administrations want to use ESIM in Fixed Satellite Service (FSS). However, Radio Regulations (RR) have strict distinction between MSS and FSS. In this case, ITU has been very controversial because this kind of application will violate the RR Article and the conflict will bring risks to the global deployment. Thus, this paper illustrates the development of rules, regulations, standards concerning ESIM and the radio spectrum usage of ESIM in different regions around the world. Firstly, the basic rules, standard and definition of ITU’s Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is introduced. Secondly, the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) agenda item on radio spectrum allocation for ESIM, e.g. in C/Ku/Ka band, is introduced and multi-view on the radio spectrum allocation is elaborated, especially on 19.7-20.2 GHz & 29.5-30.0 GHz. Then, some ITU-R Recommendations and Reports are analyzed on the specific technique to enable these ESIM to communicate with Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite (GSO) space stations in the FSS without causing interference at levels in excess of that caused by conventional FSS earth stations. Meanwhile, the opposite opinion on not allocating EISM service in FSS frequency band is also elaborated. Finally, based on the ESIM’s future application, the ITU-R standards development trend is forecasted. In conclusion, using radio spectrum resource in an equitable, rational and efficient manner is the basic guideline of ITU. Although it is not a good approach to obstruct the revise of RR when there is a large demand for radio spectrum resource in satellite industry, still the propulsion and global demand of the whole industry may face difficulties on the unclear application in modify rules of RR.
Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links
Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.
Satellite Imagery Classification Based on Deep Convolution Network
Satellite imagery classification is a challenging problem with many practical applications. In this paper, we designed a deep convolution neural network (DCNN) to classify the satellite imagery. The contributions of this paper are twofold — First, to cope with the large-scale variance in the satellite image, we introduced the inception module, which has multiple filters with different size at the same level, as the building block to build our DCNN model. Second, we proposed a genetic algorithm based method to efficiently search the best hyper-parameters of the DCNN in a large search space. The proposed method is evaluated on the benchmark database. The results of the proposed hyper-parameters search method show it will guide the search towards better regions of the parameter space. Based on the found hyper-parameters, we built our DCNN models, and evaluated its performance on satellite imagery classification, the results show the classification accuracy of proposed models outperform the state of the art method.
Authorization of Commercial Communication Satellite Grounds for Promoting Turkish Data Relay System
Uninterrupted and continuous satellite communication through the whole orbit time is becoming more indispensable every day. Data relay systems are developed and built for various high/low data rate information exchanges like TDRSS of USA and EDRSS of Europe. In these missions, a couple of task-dedicated communication satellites exist. In this regard, for Turkey a data relay system is attempted to be defined exchanging low data rate information (i.e. TTC) for Earth-observing LEO satellites appointing commercial GEO communication satellites all over the world. First, justification of this attempt is given, demonstrating duration enhancements in the link. Discussion of preference of RF communication is, also, given instead of laser communication. Then, preferred communication GEOs – including TURKSAT4A already belonging to Turkey- are given, together with the coverage enhancements through STK simulations and the corresponding link budget. Also, a block diagram of the communication system is given on the LEO satellite.
Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects
The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un this study, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found that, the best timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract the two objects asphalt and concrete from one satellite thermal image, saving time and money, occurred at a specific time in different months. A table is deduced shows the optimal timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract effectively these two objects.
Coastline Change at Koh Tao Island, Thailand
Human utilizes coastal resources as well as deteriorates them. Coastal tourism may degrade the environment if poorly managed. This research investigated the shoreline change at Koa Toa Island, one of the most famous tourist destinations. Aerial photographs and satellite images from three different periods were collected and analyzed. The results showed that the noticeable shoreline change before and after the tourism on the island had expanded. Between 1995 and 2002 when the tourism on Koh Toa Island was not intensive, sediment deposition occurred along most of the coastline. However, after the tourism had grown during 2002 to 2015, the coast evidently experienced less deposition and more erosion. The erosion resulted from less land-based sediment being provided to the littoral system. If the coastline of Koh Toa Island is not carefully sustained, the tourism will disappear along with the beautiful beach.
Land-Use Suitability Analysis for Merauke Agriculture Estates
Merauke district in Papua, Indonesia has a strategic position and natural potential for the development of agricultural industry. The development of agriculture in this region is being accelerated as part of Indonesian Government’s declaration announcing Merauke as one of future national food barns. Therefore, land-use suitability analysis for Merauke need to be performed. As a result, the mapping for future agriculture-based industries can be done optimally. In this research, a case study is carried out in Semangga sub district. The objective of this study is to determine the suitability of Merauke land for some food crops. A modified agro-ecological zoning is applied to reach the objective. In this research, land cover based on satellite imagery is combined with soil, water and climate survey results to come up with preliminary zoning. Considering the special characteristics of Merauke community, the agricultural zoning maps resulted based on those inputs will be combined with socio-economic information and culture to determine the final zoning map for agricultural industry in Merauke. Examples of culture are customary rights of local residents and the rights of local people and their own local food patterns. This paper presents the results of first year of the two-year research project funded by The Indonesian Government through MP3EI schema. It shares the findings of land cover studies, the distribution of soil physical and chemical parameters, as well as suitability analysis of Semangga sub-district for five different food plants.
Land Use Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS
In recent decades, rapid and incorrect changes in land-use have been associated with consequences such as natural resources degradation and environmental pollution. Detecting changes in land-use is one of the tools for natural resource management and assessment of changes in ecosystems. The target of this research is studying the land-use changes in Haraz basin with an area of 677000 hectares in a 15 years period (1996 to 2011) using LANDSAT data. Therefore, the quality of the images was first evaluated. Various enhancement methods for creating synthetic bonds were used in the analysis. Separate training sites were selected for each image. Then the images of each period were classified in 9 classes using supervised classification method and the maximum likelihood algorithm. Finally, the changes were extracted in GIS environment. The results showed that these changes are an alarm for the HARAZ basin status in future. The reason is that 27% of the area has been changed, which is related to changing the range lands to bare land and dry farming and also changing the dense forest to sparse forest, horticulture, farming land and residential area.
Satellite Interferometric Investigations of Subsidence Events Associated with Groundwater Extraction in Sao Paulo, Brazil
The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP) has suffered from serious water scarcity. Consequently, the most convenient solution has been building wells to extract groundwater from local aquifers. However, it requires constant vigilance to prevent over extraction and future events that can pose serious threat to the population, such as subsidence. Radar imaging techniques (InSAR) have allowed continuous investigation of such phenomena. The analysis of data in the present study consists of 23 SAR images dated from October 2007 to March 2011, obtained by the ALOS-1 spacecraft. Data processing was made with the software GMTSAR, by using the InSAR technique to create pairs of interferograms with ground displacement during different time spans. First results show a correlation between the location of 102 wells registered in 2009 and signals of ground displacement equal or lower than -90 millimeters (mm) in the region. The longest time span interferogram obtained dates from October 2007 to March 2010. As a result, from that interferogram, it was possible to detect the average velocity of displacement in millimeters per year (mm/y), and which areas strong signals have persisted in the MRSP. Four specific areas with signals of subsidence of 28 mm/y to 40 mm/y were chosen to investigate the phenomenon: Guarulhos (Sao Paulo International Airport), the Greater Sao Paulo, Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul. The coverage area of the signals was between 0.6 km and 1.65 km of length. All areas are located above a sedimentary type of aquifer. Itaquera and Sao Caetano do Sul showed signals varying from 28 mm/y to 32 mm/y. On the other hand, the places most likely to be suffering from stronger subsidence are the ones in the Greater Sao Paulo and Guarulhos, right beside the International Airport of Sao Paulo. The rate of displacement observed in both regions goes from 35 mm/y to 40 mm/y. Previous investigations of the water use at the International Airport highlight the risks of excessive water extraction that was being done through 9 deep wells. Therefore, it is affirmed that subsidence events are likely to occur and to cause serious damage in the area. This study could show a situation that has not been explored with proper importance in the city, given its social and economic consequences. Since the data were only available until 2011, the question that remains is if the situation still persists. It could be reaffirmed, however, a scenario of risk at the International Airport of Sao Paulo that needs further investigation.
Wireless Backhauling for 5G Small Cell Networks
Small cell backhaul solutions need to be cost-effective, scalable, and easy to install. This paper presents an overview of small cell backhaul technologies. Wireless solutions including TV white space, satellite, sub-6 GHz radio wave, microwave and mmWave with their backhaul characteristics are discussed. Recent research on issues like beamforming, backhaul architecture, precoding and large antenna arrays, and energy efficiency for dense small cell backhaul with mmWave communications is reviewed. Recent trials of 5G technologies are summarized.
Design of Optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Attitude Controller for an Uncoupled Flexible Satellite Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Flexible satellites are equipped with various appendages which vibrate under the influence of any excitation and make the attitude of the satellite to be unstable. Therefore, the system must be able to adjust to balance the effect of these appendages in order to point accurately and satisfactorily which is one of the most important problems in satellite design. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller is simple to design and computationally efficient to implement which is used to stabilize the effect of these flexible appendages. However, manual turning of the PID is time consuming, waste energy and money. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to tune the parameters of PID Controller. Simulation results obtained show that PSO tuned PID Controller is able to re-orient the spacecraft attitude as well as dampen the effect of mechanical resonance and yields better performance when compared with manually tuned PID Controller.
Low-Cost Space-Based Geoengineering: An Assessment Based on Self-Replicating Manufacturing of in-Situ Resources on the Moon
Geoengineering approaches to climate change mitigation are unpopular and regarded with suspicion. Of these, space-based approaches are regarded as unworkable and enormously costly. Here, a space-based approach is presented that is modest in cost, fully controllable and reversible, and acts as a natural spur to the development of solar power satellites over the longer term as a clean source of energy. The low-cost approach exploits self-replication technology which it is proposed may be enabled by 3D printing technology. Self-replication of 3D printing platforms will enable mass production of simple spacecraft units. Key elements being developed are 3D-printable electric motors and 3D-printable vacuum tube-based electronics. The power of such technologies will open up enormous possibilities at low cost including space-based geoengineering.
Collocation Assessment between GEO and GSO Satellites
The change in orbit evolution between collocated
satellites (X, Y) inside +/-0.09° E/W and +/- 0.07° N/S cluster, after
one of these satellites is placed in an inclined orbit (satellite X) and
the effect of this change in the collocation safety inside the cluster
window has been studied and evaluated. Several collocation scenarios had been studied in order to adjust
the location of both satellites inside their cluster to maximize the
separation between them and safe the mission.
Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect
This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination
on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its
footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical
simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the
additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station
keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in
satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the
satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after
the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented
biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level
from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and
after the implementation of the pointing corrections.
A Supervised Learning Data Mining Approach for Object Recognition and Classification in High Resolution Satellite Data
Advances in spatial and spectral resolution of satellite
images have led to tremendous growth in large image databases. The
data we acquire through satellites, radars, and sensors consists of
important geographical information that can be used for remote
sensing applications such as region planning, disaster management.
Spatial data classification and object recognition are important tasks
for many applications. However, classifying objects and identifying
them manually from images is a difficult task. Object recognition is
often considered as a classification problem, this task can be
performed using machine-learning techniques. Despite of many
machine-learning algorithms, the classification is done using
supervised classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the
area of interest is known. We proposed a classification method,
which considers neighboring pixels in a region for feature extraction
and it evaluates classifications precisely according to neighboring
classes for semantic interpretation of region of interest (ROI). A
dataset has been created for training and testing purpose; we
generated the attributes by considering pixel intensity values and
mean values of reflectance. We demonstrated the benefits of using
knowledge discovery and data-mining techniques, which can be on
image data for accurate information extraction and classification from
high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery.
Research on the Strategy of Orbital Avoidance for Optical Remote Sensing Satellite
This paper focuses on the orbit avoidance strategy of
the optical remote sensing satellite. The optical remote sensing
satellite, moving along the Sun-synchronous orbit, is equipped with
laser warning equipment to alert CCD camera from laser attacks. This
paper explores the strategy of satellite avoidance to protect the CCD
camera and also the satellite. The satellite could evasive to several
target points in the orbital coordinates of virtual satellite. The so-called
virtual satellite is a passive vehicle which superposes the satellite at the
initial stage of avoidance. The target points share the consistent cycle
time and the same semi-major axis with the virtual satellite, which
ensures the properties of the satellite’s Sun-synchronous orbit remain
unchanged. Moreover, to further strengthen the avoidance capability
of satellite, it can perform multi-target-points avoid maneuvers. On
occasions of fulfilling the satellite orbit tasks, the orbit can be restored
back to virtual satellite through orbit maneuvers. There into, the avoid
maneuvers adopts pulse guidance. In addition, the fuel consumption is
optimized. The avoidance strategy discussed in this article is
applicable to optical remote sensing satellite when it is encountered
with hostile attack of space-based laser anti-satellite.
Developing a Town Based Soil Database to Assess the Sensitive Zones in Nutrient Management
For this study, a town based soil database created in
Gümüsçay District of Biga Town, Çanakkale, Turkey. Crop and
livestock production are major activities in the district. Nutrient
management is mainly based on commercial fertilizer application
ignoring the livestock manure. Within the boundaries of district, 122
soil sampling points determined over the satellite image. Soil samples
collected from the determined points with the help of handheld
Global Positioning System. Labeled samples were sent to a
commercial laboratory to determine 11 soil parameters including
salinity, pH, lime, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Based on the test results soil maps
for mentioned parameters were developed using remote sensing, GIS,
and geostatistical analysis. In this study we developed a GIS database
that will be used for soil nutrient management. Methods were
explained and soil maps and their interpretations were summarized in
Use of Data of the Remote Sensing for Spatiotemporal Analysis Land Use Changes in the Eastern Aurès (Algeria)
Aurèsregion is one of the arid and semi-arid areas that
have suffered climate crises and overexploitation of natural resources
they have led to significant land degradation. The use of remote sensing data allowed us to analyze the land and
its spatiotemporal changes in the Aurès between 1987 and 2013, for
this work, we adopted a method of analysis based on the exploitation
of the images satellite Landsat TM 1987 and Landsat OLI 2013, from
the supervised classification likelihood coupled with field surveys of
the mission of May and September of 2013. Using ENVI EX software by the superposition of the ground cover
maps from 1987 and 2013, one can extract a spatial map change of
different land cover units. The results show that between 1987 and
2013 vegetation has suffered negative changes are the significant
degradation of forests and steppe rangelands, and sandy soils and
bare land recorded a considerable increase. The spatial change map land cover units between 1987 and 2013
allows us to understand the extensive or regressive orientation of
vegetation and soil, this map shows that dense forests give his place
to clear forests and steppe vegetation develops from a degraded forest
vegetation and bare, sandy soils earn big steppe surfaces that explain
its remarkable extension.
The analysis of remote sensing data highlights the profound
changes in our environment over time and quantitative monitoring of
the risk of desertification.
An Initial Assessment of the Potential Contribution of ‘Community Empowerment’ to Mitigating the Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation, in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve
Indonesia has experienced annual forest fires that have
rapidly destroyed and degraded its forests. Fires in the peat swamp
forests of Riau Province, have set the stage for problems to worsen,
this being the ecosystem most prone to fires (which are also the most
difficult, to extinguish). Despite various efforts to curb deforestation,
and forest degradation processes, severe forest fires are still
occurring. To find an effective solution, the basic causes of the
problems must be identified. It is therefore critical to have an indepth
understanding of the underlying causal factors that have
contributed to deforestation and forest degradation as a whole, in
order to attain reductions in their rates. An assessment of the drivers of deforestation and forest
degradation was carried out, in order to design and implement
measures that could slow these destructive processes. Research was
conducted in Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve
(GSKBB BR), in the Riau Province of Sumatera, Indonesia. A
biosphere reserve was selected as the study site because such reserves
aim to reconcile conservation with sustainable development. A
biosphere reserve should promote a range of local human activities,
together with development values that are in line spatially and
economically with the area conservation values, through use of a
zoning system. Moreover, GSKBB BR is an area with vast peatlands,
and is experiencing forest fires annually. Various factors were
analysed to assess the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation
in GSKBB BR; data were collected from focus group discussions
with stakeholders, key informant interviews with key stakeholders,
field observation and a literature review. Landsat satellite imagery was used to map forest-cover changes
for various periods. Analysis of landsat images, taken during the
period 2010-2014, revealed that within the non-protected area of core
zone, there was a trend towards decreasing peat swamp forest areas,
increasing land clearance, and increasing areas of community oilpalm
and rubber plantations. Fire was used for land clearing and most
of the forest fires occurred in the most populous area (the transition
area). The study found a relationship between the deforested/
degraded areas, and certain distance variables, i.e. distance from
roads, villages and the borders between the core area and the buffer
zone. The further the distance from the core area of the reserve, the
higher was the degree of deforestation and forest degradation. Research findings suggested that agricultural expansion may be
the direct cause of deforestation and forest degradation in the reserve,
whereas socio-economic factors were the underlying driver of forest
cover changes; such factors consisting of a combination of sociocultural,
infrastructural, technological, institutional (policy and governance), demographic (population pressure) and economic
(market demand) considerations. These findings indicated that local
factors/problems were the critical causes of deforestation and
degradation in GSKBB BR. This research therefore concluded that
reductions in deforestation and forest degradation in GSKBB BR
could be achieved through ‘local actor’-tailored approaches such as