International Science Index
Comparison of Regime Transition between Ellipsoidal and Spherical Particle Assemblies in a Model Shear Cell
This paper presents a numerical investigation of regime transition of flow of ellipsoidal particles and a comparison with that of spherical particle assembly. Particle assemblies constituting spherical and ellipsoidal particle of 2.5:1 aspect ratio are examined at separate instances in similar flow conditions in a shear cell model that is numerically developed based on the discrete element method. Correlations among elastically scaled stress, kinetically scaled stress, coordination number and volume fraction are investigated, and show important similarities and differences for the spherical and ellipsoidal particle assemblies. In particular, volume fractions at points of regime transition are identified for both types of particles. It is found that compared with spherical particle assembly, ellipsoidal particle assembly has higher volume fraction for the quasistatic to intermediate regime transition and lower volume fraction for the intermediate to inertial regime transition. Finally, the relationship between coordination number and volume fraction shows strikingly distinct features for the two cases, suggesting that different from spherical particles, the effect of the shear rate on the coordination number is not significant for ellipsoidal particles. This work provides a glimpse of currently running work on one of the most attractive scopes of research in this field and has a wide prospect in understanding rheology of more complex shaped particles in light of the strong basis of simpler spherical particle rheology.
Improved Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to Design Problem
Aiming at optimizing the weight and deflection of cantilever beam subjected to maximum stress and maximum deflection, Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) with Utopia Point based local search is implemented. Utopia point is used to govern the search towards the Pareto Optimal set. The elite candidates obtained during the iterations are stored in an archive according to non-dominated sorting and also the archive is truncated based on least crowding distance. Local search is also performed on elite candidates and the most diverse particle is selected as the global best. This method is implemented on standard test functions and it is observed that the improved algorithm gives better convergence and diversity as compared to NSGA-II in fewer iterations. Implementation on practical structural problem shows that in 5 to 6 iterations, the improved algorithm converges with better diversity as evident by the improvement of cantilever beam on an average of 0.78% and 9.28% in the weight and deflection respectively compared to NSGA-II.
Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System
This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.
Parametric Analysis and Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Plates Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and a Hybrid Meshless Method
The present study is concerned with the optimal design of functionally graded plates using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. In this study, meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is employed to obtain the functionally graded (FG) plate’s natural frequencies. Effects of two parameters including thickness to height ratio and volume fraction index on the natural frequencies and total mass of plate are studied by using the MLPG results. Then the first natural frequency of the plate, for different conditions where MLPG data are not available, is predicted by an artificial neural network (ANN) approach which is trained by back-error propagation (BEP) technique. The ANN results show that the predicted data are in good agreement with the actual one. To maximize the first natural frequency and minimize the mass of FG plate simultaneously, the weighted sum optimization approach and PSO algorithm are used. However, the proposed optimization process of this study can provide the designers of FG plates with useful data.
Optimal Design of Multimachine Power System Stabilizers Using Improved Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
In this paper, the concept of a non-dominated sorting multi-objective particle swarm optimization with local search (NSPSO-LS) is presented for the optimal design of multimachine power system stabilizers (PSSs). The controller design is formulated as an optimization problem in order to shift the system electromechanical modes in a pre-specified region in the s-plan. A composite set of objective functions comprising the damping factor and the damping ratio of the undamped and lightly damped electromechanical modes is considered. The performance of the proposed optimization algorithm is verified for the 3-machine 9-bus system. Simulation results based on eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time-domain simulation show the potential and superiority of the NSPSO-LS algorithm in tuning PSSs over a wide range of loading conditions and large disturbance compared to the classic PSO technique and genetic algorithms.
Limits of Phase Modulated Frequency Shifted Holographic Vibrometry at Low Amplitudes of Vibrations
This paper presents advanced time average digital holography by means of frequency shift and phase modulation. This technique can measure amplitudes of vibrations at ultimate dynamic range while the amplitude distribution evaluation is done independently in every pixel. The main focus of the paper is to gain insight into behavior of the method at low amplitudes of vibrations. In order to reach that, a set of experiments was performed. Results of the experiments together with novel noise suppression show the limit of the method to be below 0.1 nm.
Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method
The goal of this project is to investigate constant
properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map
as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where
the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a
closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas
for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus
Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem,
Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and
the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to
estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived
p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project
is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images
of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid.
The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the
lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic
Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant.
Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing
map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy
minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore
the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into
a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of
p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the
domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p
is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the
ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type
results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a
generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is
also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a
special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1)
parameters in the general setting.
Determination of Optical Constants of Semiconductor Thin Films by Ellipsometry
Ellipsometry is an optical method based on the study of the behavior of polarized light. The light reflected on a surface induces a change in the polarization state which depends on the characteristics of the material (complex refractive index and thickness of the different layers constituting the device). The purpose of this work is to determine the optical properties of semiconductor thin films by ellipsometry. This paper describes the experimental aspects concerning the semiconductor samples, the SE400 ellipsometer principle, and the results obtained by direct measurements of ellipsometric parameters and modelling using appropriate software.
Fuzzy Based Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Technique for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Network lifetime improvement and uncertainty in multiple systems are the issues of wireless sensor network routing. This paper presents fuzzy based particle swarm optimization routing technique to improve the network scalability. Significantly, in the cluster formation procedure, fuzzy based system is used to solve the uncertainty and network balancing. Cluster heads play an important role to reduce the energy consumption using particle swarm optimization algorithm, the cluster head sends its information along data packets to the heads with link. The simulation results show that the presented routing protocol can perform load balancing effectively and reduce the energy consumption of cluster heads.
Medical Advances in Diagnosing Neurological and Genetic Disorders
Retinoblastoma is a rare type of childhood genetic cancer that affects children worldwide. The diagnosis is often missed due to lack of education and difficulty in presentation of the tumor. Frequently, the tumor on the retina is noticed by photography when the red-eye flash, commonly seen in normal eyes, is not produced. Instead, a yellow or white colored patch is seen or the child has a noticeable strabismus. Early detection can be life-saving though often results in removal of the affected eye. Remaining functioning in the healthy eye when the child is young has resulted in super-vision and high or above-average intelligence. Technological advancement of cameras has helped in early detection. Brain imaging has also made possible early detection of neurological diseases and, together with the monitoring of cortisol levels and yawning frequency, promises to be the next new early diagnostic tool for the detection of neurological diseases where cortisol insufficiency is particularly salient, such as multiple sclerosis and Cushing’s disease.
Fatigue Analysis of Spread Mooring Line
Offshore floating structure under the various environmental conditions maintains a fixed position by mooring system. Environmental conditions, vessel motions and mooring loads are applied to mooring lines as the dynamic tension. Because global responses of mooring system in deep water are specified as wave frequency and low frequency response, they should be calculated from the time-domain analysis due to non-linear dynamic characteristics. To take into account all mooring loads, environmental conditions, added mass and damping terms at each time step, a lot of computation time and capacities are required. Thus, under the premise that reliable fatigue damage could be derived through reasonable analysis method, it is necessary to reduce the analysis cases through the sensitivity studies and appropriate assumptions. In this paper, effects in fatigue are studied for spread mooring system connected with oil FPSO which is positioned in deep water of West Africa offshore. The target FPSO with two Mbbls storage has 16 spread mooring lines (4 bundles x 4 lines). The various sensitivity studies are performed for environmental loads, type of responses, vessel offsets, mooring position, loading conditions and riser behavior. Each parameter applied to the sensitivity studies is investigated from the effects of fatigue damage through fatigue analysis. Based on the sensitivity studies, the following results are presented: Wave loads are more dominant in terms of fatigue than other environment conditions. Wave frequency response causes the higher fatigue damage than low frequency response. The larger vessel offset increases the mean tension and so it results in the increased fatigue damage. The external line of each bundle shows the highest fatigue damage by the governed vessel pitch motion due to swell wave conditions. Among three kinds of loading conditions, ballast condition has the highest fatigue damage due to higher tension. The riser damping occurred by riser behavior tends to reduce the fatigue damage. The various analysis results obtained from these sensitivity studies can be used for a simplified fatigue analysis of spread mooring line as the reference.
Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability
The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.
Multi-Objective Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on RDPSO and Crowding Distance Sorting
In this paper, we presented a Multi-Objective Random
Drift Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MORDPSO-CD) based
on RDPSO and crowding distance sorting to improve the convergence
and distribution with less computation cost. MORDPSO-CD makes
the most of RDPSO to approach the true Pareto optimal solutions
fast. We adopt the crowding distance sorting technique to update and
maintain the archived optimal solutions. Introducing the crowding
distance technique into MORDPSO can make the leader particles
find the true Pareto solution ultimately. The simulation results reveal
that the proposed algorithm has better convergence and distribution.
Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease
Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.
A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Nelder- Mead Algorithm (PSO-NM) for Nelson-Siegel- Svensson Calibration
Today, insurers may use the yield curve as an indicator
evaluation of the profit or the performance of their portfolios;
therefore, they modeled it by one class of model that has the ability
to fit and forecast the future term structure of interest rates. This class
of model is the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson model. Unfortunately, many
authors have reported a lot of difficulties when they want to calibrate
the model because the optimization problem is not convex and has
multiple local optima. In this context, we implement a hybrid Particle
Swarm optimization and Nelder Mead algorithm in order to minimize
by least squares method, the difference between the zero-coupon
curve and the NSS curve.
An Analysis of the Performances of Various Buoys as the Floats of Wave Energy Converters
The power generated by eight point absorber type wave energy converters each having a different buoy are calculated in order to investigate the performances of buoys in this study. The calculations are carried out by modeling three different sea states observed in two different locations in the Black Sea. The floats analyzed in this study have two basic geometries and four different draft/radius (d/r) ratios. The buoys possess the shapes of a semi-ellipsoid and a semi-elliptic paraboloid. Additionally, the draft/radius ratios range from 0.25 to 1 by an increment of 0.25. The radiation forces acting on the buoys due to the oscillatory motions of these bodies are evaluated by employing a 3D panel method along with a distribution of 3D pulsating sources in frequency domain. On the other hand, the wave forces acting on the buoys which are taken as the sum of Froude-Krylov forces and diffraction forces are calculated by using linear wave theory. Furthermore, the wave energy converters are assumed to be taut-moored to the seabed so that the secondary body which houses a power take-off system oscillates with much smaller amplitudes compared to the buoy. As a result, it is assumed that there is not any significant contribution to the power generation from the motions of the housing body and the only contribution to power generation comes from the buoy. The power take-off systems of the wave energy converters are high pressure oil hydraulic systems which are identical in terms of their characteristic parameters. The results show that the power generated by wave energy converters which have semi-ellipsoid floats is higher than that of those which have semi elliptic paraboloid floats in both locations and in all sea states. It is also determined that the power generated by the wave energy converters follow an unsteady pattern such that they do not decrease or increase with changing draft/radius ratios of the floats. Although the highest power level is obtained with a semi-ellipsoid float which has a draft/radius ratio equal to 1, other floats of which the draft/radius ratio is 0.25 delivered higher power that the floats with a draft/radius ratio equal to 1 in some cases.
Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications
This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.
Optimized Algorithm for Particle Swarm Optimization
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is becoming one of
the most important swarm intelligent paradigms for solving global
optimization problems. Although some progress has been made to
improve PSO algorithms over the last two decades, additional work
is still needed to balance parameters to achieve better numerical
properties of accuracy, efficiency, and stability. In the optimal
PSO algorithm, the optimal weightings of (√ 5 − 1)/2 and (3 − √5)/2 are used for the cognitive factor and the social factor,
respectively. By the same token, the same optimal weightings have
been applied for intensification searches and diversification searches,
respectively. Perturbation and constriction effects are optimally
balanced. Simulations of the de Jong, the Rosenbrock, and the
Griewank functions show that the optimal PSO algorithm indeed
achieves better numerical properties and outperforms the canonical
Manipulation of Image Segmentation Using Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony Approach
Image segmentation is the concept of splitting the images into several images. Image Segmentation algorithm is used to manipulate the process of image segmentation. The advantage of ABC is that it conducts every worldwide exploration and inhabitant exploration for iteration. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) encompass a number of search problems. Cleverness Artificial Bee Colony algorithm has been imposed to increase the performance of a neighborhood search. The simulation results clearly show that the presented ABC methods outperform the existing methods. The result shows that the algorithms can be used to implement the manipulator for grasping of colored objects. The efficiency of the presented method is improved a lot by comparing to other methods.
Design of Optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Attitude Controller for an Uncoupled Flexible Satellite Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Flexible satellites are equipped with various appendages which vibrate under the influence of any excitation and make the attitude of the satellite to be unstable. Therefore, the system must be able to adjust to balance the effect of these appendages in order to point accurately and satisfactorily which is one of the most important problems in satellite design. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller is simple to design and computationally efficient to implement which is used to stabilize the effect of these flexible appendages. However, manual turning of the PID is time consuming, waste energy and money. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to tune the parameters of PID Controller. Simulation results obtained show that PSO tuned PID Controller is able to re-orient the spacecraft attitude as well as dampen the effect of mechanical resonance and yields better performance when compared with manually tuned PID Controller.
Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies
This paper investigates the characteristics of wall
pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows
on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has
a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are
used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer
flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise
wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime
and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The
process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in
turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave)
is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S
wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher
than those in the turbulent boundary layer.
Super-ellipsoidal Potential Function for Autonomous Collision Avoidance of a Teleoperated UAV
In this paper, we present the design of the
super-ellipsoidal potential function (SEPF), that can be used for
autonomous collision avoidance of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
in a 3-dimensional space. In the design of SEPF, we have the
full control over the shape and size of the potential function. In
particular, we can adjust the length, width, height, and the amount
of flattening at the tips of the potential function so that the collision
avoidance motion vector generated from the potential function can
be adjusted accordingly. Based on the idea of the SEPF, we also
propose an approach for the local autonomy of a UAV for its collision
avoidance when the UAV is teleoperated by a human operator. In
our proposed approach, a teleoperated UAV can not only avoid
collision autonomously with other surrounding objects but also track
the operator’s control input as closely as possible. As a result, an
operator can always be in control of the UAV for his/her high-level
guidance and navigation task without worrying too much about
the UAVs collision avoidance while it is being teleoperated. The
effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a
human-in-the-loop simulation of quadrotor UAV teleoperation using
virtual robot experimentation platform (v-rep) and Matlab programs.
Properties of Fly Ash Brick Prepared in Local Environment of Bangladesh
Coal fly ash, an industrial by product of coal
combustion thermal power plants is considered as a hazardous
material and its improper disposal has become an environmental
issue. On the other hand, manufacturing conventional clay bricks
involves on consumption of large amount of clay and leads
substantial depletion of topsoil. This paper unveils the possibility of
using fly ash as a partial replacement of clay for brick manufacturing
considering the local technology practiced in Bangladesh. The effect
of fly ash with different replacing ratio (0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and
50% by volume) of clay on properties of bricks was studied. Bricks
were made in the field parallel to ordinary bricks marked with
specific number for different percentage to identify them at time of
testing. No physical distortion is observed in fly ash brick after
burning in the kiln. Results from laboratory test show that
compressive strength of brick is decreased with the increase of fly
ash and maximum compressive strength is found to be 19.6 MPa at
20% of fly ash. In addition, water absorption of fly ash brick is
increased with the increase of fly ash. The abrasion value and
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate prepared from brick with fly ash
also studied and the results of this study suggests that 20% fly ash
can be considered as the optimum fly ash content for producing good
quality bricks utilizing present practiced technology.
Up Scaling of Highly Transparent Quasi-Solid State, Dye-Sensitized Solar Devices Composed of Nanocomposite Materials
At the present work, highly transparent strip type
quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated
through inkjet printing using nanocomposite TiO2 inks as raw
materials and tested under outdoor illumination conditions. The cells,
which can be considered as the structural units of large area modules,
were fully characterized electrically and electrochemically and after
the evaluation of the received results a large area DSSC module was
manufactured. The module design was a sandwich Z-interconnection
where the working electrode is deposited on one conductive glass and
the counter electrode on a second glass. Silver current collective
fingers were printed on the conductive glasses to make the internal
electrical connections and the adjacent cells were connected in series
and finally insulated using a UV curing resin to protect them from the
corrosive (I-/I3-) redox couple of the electrolyte. Finally, outdoor tests
were carried out to the fabricated dye-sensitized solar module and its
performance data were collected and assessed.
Using Jumping Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Operation of Pump in Water Distribution Networks
Carefully scheduling the operations of pumps can be
resulted to significant energy savings. Schedules can be defined
either implicit, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank
levels, or explicit by specifying the time during which each pump is
on/off. In this study, two new explicit representations based on timecontrolled
triggers were analyzed, where the maximum number of
pump switches was established beforehand, and the schedule may
contain fewer switches than the maximum. The optimal operation of
pumping stations was determined using a Jumping Particle Swarm
Optimization (JPSO) algorithm to achieve the minimum energy cost.
The model integrates JPSO optimizer and EPANET hydraulic
network solver. The optimal pump operation schedule of VanZyl
water distribution system was determined using the proposed model
and compared with those from Genetic and Ant Colony algorithms.
The results indicate that the proposed model utilizing the JPSO
algorithm is a versatile management model for the operation of realworld
water distribution system.
Developing New Algorithm and Its Application on Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Network
In recent years, new techniques for solving complex
problems in engineering are proposed. One of these techniques is
JPSO algorithm. With innovative changes in the nature of the jump
algorithm JPSO, it is possible to construct a graph-based solution
with a new algorithm called G-JPSO. In this paper, a new algorithm
to solve the optimal control problem Fletcher-Powell and optimal
control of pumps in water distribution network was evaluated.
Optimal control of pumps comprise of optimum timetable operation
(status on and off) for each of the pumps at the desired time interval.
Maximum number of status on and off for each pumps imposed to the
objective function as another constraint. To determine the optimal
operation of pumps, a model-based optimization-simulation
algorithm was developed based on G-JPSO and JPSO algorithms.
The proposed algorithm results were compared well with the ant
colony algorithm, genetic and JPSO results. This shows the
robustness of proposed algorithm in finding near optimum solutions
with reasonable computational cost.
Fertigation Use in Agriculture and Biosorption of Residual Nitrogen by Soil Microorganisms
Present work deals with the possible use of fertigation
in agriculture and its impact on the availability of mineral nitrogen
(Nmin) in topsoil and subsoil horizons. The aim of the present study is
to demonstrate the effect of the organic matter presence in fertigation
on microbial transformation and availability of mineral nitrogen
forms. The main investigation reason is the potential use of pretreated
waste water, as a source of organic carbon (Corg) and residual
nutrients (Nmin) for fertigation. Laboratory experiment has been
conducted to demonstrate the effect of the arable land fertilization
method on the Nmin availability in different depths of the soil with
the usage of model experimental containers filled with soil from
topsoil and podsoil horizons that were taken from the precise area.
Tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) has been chosen as a
model plant. The water source protection zone Brezova nad Svitavou
has been a research area where significant underground reservoirs of
drinking water of the highest quality are located. From the second
half of the last century local sources of drinking water show
nitrogenous compounds increase that get here almost only from
arable lands. Therefore, an attention of the following text focuses on
the fate of mineral nitrogen in the complex plant-soil. Research
results show that the fertigation application with Corg in a
combination with mineral fertilizer can reduce the amount of Nmin
leached from topsoil horizon of agricultural soils. In addition, some
plants biomass production reduces may occur.
Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper addresses the problem of offline path
planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex threedimensional
environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D
Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the
computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the
flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper
Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied
to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The
simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing
optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.
Comparative Dynamic Performance of Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Intelligent Techniques
This paper demonstrates dynamic performance evaluation of load frequency control (LFC) with different intelligent techniques. All non-linearities and physical constraints have been considered in simulation studies such as governor dead band (GDB), generation rate constraint (GRC) and boiler dynamics. The conventional integral time absolute error has been considered as objective function. The design problem is formulated as an optimisation problem and particle swarm optimisation (PSO), bacterial foraging optimisation algorithm (BFOA) and differential evolution (DE) are employed to search optimal controller parameters. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic control (FLC) for the same interconnected power system. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, undershoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a step load perturbation (SLP). It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than FLC. Further, robustness analysis is carried out by varying the time constants of speed governor, turbine, tie-line power in the range of +40% to -40% to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed DE optimized PID controller.
New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections
Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam
web and the column flange, are studied to investigate their
moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior
is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear
behavior of a single angle connection. The identical geometric and
material conditions with Lipson’s test are used for verifying finite
element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and
Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range of mechanism,
simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed.