International Science Index

60
10008959
A Review on Medical Image Registration Techniques
Abstract:
This paper discusses the current trends in medical image registration techniques and addresses the need to provide a solid theoretical foundation for research endeavours. Methodological analysis and synthesis of quality literature was done, providing a platform for developing a good foundation for research study in this field which is crucial in understanding the existing levels of knowledge. Research on medical image registration techniques assists clinical and medical practitioners in diagnosis of tumours and lesion in anatomical organs, thereby enhancing fast and accurate curative treatment of patients. Literature review aims to provide a solid theoretical foundation for research endeavours in image registration techniques. Developing a solid foundation for a research study is possible through a methodological analysis and synthesis of existing contributions. Out of these considerations, the aim of this paper is to enhance the scientific community’s understanding of the current status of research in medical image registration techniques and also communicate to them, the contribution of this research in the field of image processing. The gaps identified in current techniques can be closed by use of artificial neural networks that form learning systems designed to minimise error function. The paper also suggests several areas of future research in the image registration.
Paper Detail
46
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59
10008177
Reliability-Based Maintenance Management Methodology to Minimise Life Cycle Cost of Water Supply Networks
Abstract:
With a large percentage of countries’ total infrastructure expenditure attributed to water network maintenance, it is essential to optimise maintenance strategies to rehabilitate or replace underground pipes before failure occurs. The aim of this paper is to provide water utility managers with a maintenance management approach for underground water pipes, subject to external loading and material corrosion, to give the lowest life cycle cost over a predetermined time period. This reliability-based maintenance management methodology details the optimal years for intervention, the ideal number of maintenance activities to perform before replacement and specifies feasible renewal options and intervention prioritisation to minimise the life cycle cost. The study was then extended to include feasible renewal methods by determining the structural condition index and potential for soil loss, then obtaining the failure impact rating to assist in prioritising pipe replacement. A case study on optimisation of maintenance plans for the Melbourne water pipe network is considered in this paper to evaluate the practicality of the proposed methodology. The results confirm that the suggested methodology can provide water utility managers with a reliable systematic approach to determining optimum maintenance plans for pipe networks.
Paper Detail
276
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58
10007081
Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation
Abstract:
In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.
Paper Detail
265
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57
10007666
Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation Methodology for Aircraft Load Prediction
Abstract:

The paper demonstrates a methodology that can be used at an early design stage of any conventional aircraft. This research activity assesses the feasibility derivation of methodology for aircraft loads estimation during the various phases of design for a transport category aircraft by utilizing potential of using commercial finite element analysis software, which may drive significant time saving. Early Design phase have limited data and quick changing configuration results in handling of large number of load cases. It is useful to idealize the aircraft as a connection of beams, which can be very accurately modelled using finite element analysis (beam elements). This research explores the correct approach towards idealizing an aircraft using beam elements. FEM Techniques like inertia relief were studied for implementation during course of work. The correct boundary condition technique envisaged for generation of shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams for the aircraft. The possible applications of this approach are the aircraft design process, which have been investigated.

Paper Detail
166
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56
10006829
Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay
Abstract:
Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.
Paper Detail
218
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55
10006880
Optimisation of Intermodal Transport Chain of Supermarkets on Isle of Wight, UK
Abstract:

This work investigates an intermodal transportation system for delivering goods from a Regional Distribution Centre to supermarkets on the Isle of Wight (IOW) via the port of Southampton or Portsmouth in the UK. We consider this integrated logistics chain as a 3-echelon transportation system. In such a system, there are two types of transport methods used to deliver goods across the Solent Channel: one is accompanied transport, which is used by most supermarkets on the IOW, such as Spar, Lidl and Co-operative food; the other is unaccompanied transport, which is used by Aldi. Five transport scenarios are studied based on different transport modes and ferry routes. The aim is to determine an optimal delivery plan for supermarkets of different business scales on IOW, in order to minimise the total running cost, fuel consumptions and carbon emissions. The problem is modelled as a vehicle routing problem with time windows and solved by genetic algorithm. The computing results suggested that accompanied transport is more cost efficient for small and medium business-scale supermarket chains on IOW, while unaccompanied transport has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of large business scale supermarket chains.

Paper Detail
272
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54
10004315
Serviceability of Fabric-Formed Concrete Structures
Abstract:

Fabric form-work is a technique to cast concrete structures with a great advantage of saving concrete material of up to 40%. This technique is particularly associated with the optimized concrete structures that usually have smaller cross-section dimensions than equivalent prismatic members. However, this can make the structural system produced from these members prone to smaller serviceability safety margins. Therefore, it is very important to understand the serviceability issue of non-prismatic concrete structures. In this paper, an analytical computer-based model to optimize concrete beams and to predict load-deflection behaviour of both prismatic and non-prismatic concrete beams is presented. The model was developed based on the method of sectional analysis and integration of curvatures. Results from the analytical model were compared to load-deflection behaviour of a number of beams with different geometric and material properties from other researchers. The results of the comparison show that the analytical program can accurately predict the load-deflection response of concrete beams with medium reinforcement ratios. However, it over-estimates deflection values for lightly reinforced specimens. Finally, the analytical program acceptably predicted load-deflection behaviour of on-prismatic concrete beams.

Paper Detail
802
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53
10003630
Analysis of the Strip Shape and Microstructure with Consideration of Roll Crossing and Shifting
Abstract:
Optimisation of the physical and mechanical properties of cold rolled thin strips is achieved by controlling the rolling parameters. In this paper, the factors affecting the asymmetrical cold rolling of thin low carbon steel strip have been studied at a speed ratio of 1.1 without lubricant applied. The effect of rolling parameters on the resulting microstructure was also investigated. It was found that under dry condition, work roll shifting and work roll cross angle can improve the strip profile, and the result is more significant with an increase of work roll cross angle rather than that of work roll shifting. However, there was no obvious change in microstructure. In addition, effects of rolling parameters on strip profile and microstructure have also been discussed.
Paper Detail
643
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52
10003459
Non–Geometric Sensitivities Using the Adjoint Method
Abstract:
The adjoint method has been used as a successful tool to obtain sensitivity gradients in aerodynamic design and optimisation for many years. This work presents an alternative approach to the continuous adjoint formulation that enables one to compute gradients of a given measure of merit with respect to control parameters other than those pertaining to geometry. The procedure is then applied to the steady 2–D compressible Euler and incompressible Navier–Stokes flow equations. Finally, the results are compared with sensitivities obtained by finite differences and theoretical values for validation.
Paper Detail
979
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51
10003067
Multi-Objective Optimization of an Aerodynamic Feeding System Using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
Considering the challenges of short product life cycles and growing variant diversity, cost minimization and manufacturing flexibility increasingly gain importance to maintain a competitive edge in today’s global and dynamic markets. In this context, an aerodynamic part feeding system for high-speed industrial assembly applications has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. The aerodynamic part feeding system outperforms conventional systems with respect to its process safety, reliability, and operating speed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation of the aerodynamic feeding system regarding the orientation rate, the feeding velocity, and the required nozzle pressure is presented.
Paper Detail
1034
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50
10003134
Batch-Oriented Setting Time Optimisation in an Aerodynamic Feeding System
Abstract:
The change of conditions for production companies in high-wage countries is characterized by the globalization of competition and the transition of a supplier´s to a buyer´s market. The companies need to face the challenges of reacting flexibly to these changes. Due to the significant and increasing degree of automation, assembly has become the most expensive production process. Regarding the reduction of production cost, assembly consequently offers a considerable rationalizing potential. Therefore, an aerodynamic feeding system has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. This system has been enabled to adjust itself by using a genetic algorithm. The longer this genetic algorithm is executed the better is the feeding quality. In this paper, the relation between the system´s setting time and the feeding quality is observed and a function which enables the user to achieve the minimum of the total feeding time is presented.
Paper Detail
801
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49
10003183
Performance of Neural Networks vs. Radial Basis Functions When Forming a Metamodel for Residential Buildings
Abstract:
Average temperatures worldwide are expected to continue to rise. At the same time, major cities in developing countries are becoming increasingly populated and polluted. Governments are tasked with the problem of overheating and air quality in residential buildings. This paper presents the development of a model, which is able to estimate the occupant exposure to extreme temperatures and high air pollution within domestic buildings. Building physics simulations were performed using the EnergyPlus building physics software. An accurate metamodel is then formed by randomly sampling building input parameters and training on the outputs of EnergyPlus simulations. Metamodels are used to vastly reduce the amount of computation time required when performing optimisation and sensitivity analyses. Neural Networks (NNs) have been compared to a Radial Basis Function (RBF) algorithm when forming a metamodel. These techniques were implemented using the PyBrain and scikit-learn python libraries, respectively. NNs are shown to perform around 15% better than RBFs when estimating overheating and air pollution metrics modelled by EnergyPlus.
Paper Detail
1369
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48
10002829
Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique
Abstract:
Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.
Paper Detail
1223
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47
10005157
Comparative Dynamic Performance of Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Intelligent Techniques
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates dynamic performance evaluation of load frequency control (LFC) with different intelligent techniques. All non-linearities and physical constraints have been considered in simulation studies such as governor dead band (GDB), generation rate constraint (GRC) and boiler dynamics. The conventional integral time absolute error has been considered as objective function. The design problem is formulated as an optimisation problem and particle swarm optimisation (PSO), bacterial foraging optimisation algorithm (BFOA) and differential evolution (DE) are employed to search optimal controller parameters. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic control (FLC) for the same interconnected power system. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, undershoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a step load perturbation (SLP). It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than FLC. Further, robustness analysis is carried out by varying the time constants of speed governor, turbine, tie-line power in the range of +40% to -40% to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed DE optimized PID controller.
Paper Detail
407
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46
10001639
Optimization of the Input Layer Structure for Feed-Forward Narx Neural Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimization method for reducing the number of input channels and the complexity of the feed-forward NARX neural network (NN) without compromising the accuracy of the NN model. By utilizing the correlation analysis method, the most significant regressors are selected to form the input layer of the NN structure. An application of vehicle dynamic model identification is also presented in this paper to demonstrate the optimization technique and the optimal input layer structure and the optimal number of neurons for the neural network is investigated.
Paper Detail
1509
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45
10002160
Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox
Authors:
Abstract:
Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (μmax and μmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.
Paper Detail
1081
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44
10001655
The Adoption of Process Management for Accounting Information Systems in Thailand
Abstract:
Information Quality (IQ) has become a critical, strategic issue in Accounting Information Systems (AIS) adoption. In order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to consider the quality of information use throughout the adoption process, which seriously impacts the effectiveness of AIS adoption practice and the optimisation of AIS adoption decisions. There is a growing need for research to provide insights into issues and solutions related to IQ in AIS adoption. The need for an integrated approach to improve IQ in AIS adoption, as well as the unique characteristics of accounting data, demands an AIS adoption specific IQ framework. This research aims to explore ways of managing information quality and AIS adoption to investigate the relationship between the IQ issues and AIS adoption process. This study has led to the development of a framework for understanding IQ management in AIS adoption. This research was done on 44 respondents as ten organisations from manufacturing firms in Thailand. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest that IQ dimensions in AIS adoption to provide assistance in all process of decision making. This research provides empirical evidence that information quality of AIS adoption affect decision making and suggests that these variables should be considered in adopting AIS in order to improve the effectiveness of AIS.
Paper Detail
1833
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43
10001689
Design Optimisation of Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for Improved Performance
Abstract:
A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is a wellknown non-imaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver (PV cell). One of disadvantage of CPC is has tall and narrow height compared to its diameter entry aperture area. Therefore, for economic reason, a truncation had been done by removed from the top of the full height CPC. This also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2-D hollow compound parabolic trough concentrator (hCPTC) design is presented. The untruncated design has initial height H=193.4mm with concentration ratio C_(2-D)=4. This paper presents the optical simulation of compound parabolic trough concentrator using raytracing software TracePro. Results showed that, after the truncation, the height of CPC reduced 45% from initial height with the geometrical concentration ratio only decrease 10%. Thus, the cost of reflector and material dielectric usage can be saved especially at manufacturing site.
Paper Detail
2339
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42
10001040
Intelligent Path Tracking Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for a Unicycle-Type Differential Drive Robot
Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the performance of applying hybrid spiral dynamic bacterial chemotaxis (HSDBC) optimisation algorithm on an intelligent controller for a differential drive robot. A unicycle class of differential drive robot is utilised to serve as a basis application to evaluate the performance of the HSDBC algorithm. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is developed and implemented for the unicycle robot to follow a predefined trajectory. Trajectories of various frictional profiles and levels were simulated to evaluate the performance of the robot at different operating conditions. Controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using HSDBC and the performance is evaluated in comparison to previously adopted optimisation algorithms. The HSDBC has proven its feasibility in achieving a faster convergence toward the optimal gains and resulted in a superior performance.

Paper Detail
1670
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41
9999793
Algorithm for Determining the Parameters of a Two-Layer Soil Model
Abstract:

The parameters of a two-layer soil can be determined by processing resistivity data obtained from resistivity measurements carried out on the soil of interest. The processing usually entails applying the resistivity data as inputs to an optimisation function. This paper proposes an algorithm which utilises the square error as an optimisation function. Resistivity data from previous works were applied to test the accuracy of the new algorithm developed and the result obtained conforms significantly to results from previous works.

 

Paper Detail
2323
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40
9999999
A Spiral Dynamic Optimised Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Unicycle Mobile Robot on Irregular Terrains
Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy logic control strategy for a unicycle trajectory following robot on irregular terrains. In literature, researchers have presented the design of path tracking controllers of mobile robots on non-frictional surface. In this work, the robot is simulated to drive on irregular terrains with contrasting frictional profiles of peat and rough gravel. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is utilised to stabilise and drive the robot precisely with the predefined trajectory and overcome the frictional impact. The controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using spiral dynamics optimisation algorithm to minimise the mean square error of the linear and angular velocities of the unicycle robot. The robot was simulated on various frictional surfaces and terrains and the controller was able to stabilise the robot with a superior performance that is shown via simulation results.

Paper Detail
1152
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39
9999231
Optimisation of a Dragonfly-Inspired Flapping Wing-Actuation System
Abstract:

An optimisation method using both global and local optimisation is implemented to determine the flapping profile which will produce the most lift for an experimental wing-actuation system. The optimisation method is tested using a numerical quasi-steady analysis. Results of an optimised flapping profile show a 20% increase in lift generated as compared to flapping profiles obtained by high speed cinematography of a Sympetrum frequens dragonfly. Initial optimisation procedures showed 3166 objective function evaluations. The global optimisation parameters - initial sample size and stage one sample size, were altered to reduce the number of function evaluations. Altering the stage one sample size had no significant effect. It was found that reducing the initial sample size to 400 would allow a reduction in computational effort to approximately 1500 function evaluations without compromising the global solvers ability to locate potential minima. To further reduce the optimisation effort required, we increase the local solver’s convergence tolerance criterion. An increase in the tolerance from 0.02N to 0.05N decreased the number of function evaluations by another 20%. However, this potentially reduces the maximum obtainable lift by up to 0.025N.

Paper Detail
1796
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38
9998992
Particle Swarm Optimisation of a Terminal Synergetic Controllers for a DC-DC Converter
Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used as reliable power source for many industrial and military applications, computers and electronic devices. Several control methods were developed for DC-DC converters control mostly with asymptotic convergence. Synergetic control (SC) is a proven robust control approach and will be used here in a so called terminal scheme to achieve finite time convergence. Lyapounov synthesis is adopted to assure controlled system stability. Furthermore particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, based on an integral time absolute of error (ITAE) criterion will be used to optimize controller parameters. Simulation of terminal synergetic control of a DC-DC converter is carried out for different operating conditions and results are compared to classic synergetic control performance, that which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control method.

Paper Detail
1585
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37
10000006
Particle Swarm Optimization Based Interconnected Hydro-Thermal AGC System Considering GRC and TCPS
Abstract:

This paper represents performance of particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm based integral (I) controller and proportional-integral controller (PI) for interconnected hydro-thermal automatic generation control (AGC) with generation rate constraint (GRC) and Thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with tie line. The control strategy of TCPS provides active control of system frequency. Conventional objective function integral square error (ISE) and another objective function considering square of derivative of change in frequencies of both areas and change in tie line power are considered. The aim of designing the objective function is to suppress oscillation in frequency deviations and change in tie line power oscillation. The controller parameters are searched by PSO algorithm by minimising the objective functions. The dynamic performance of the controllers I and PI, for both the objective functions, are compared with conventionally optimized I controller.

Paper Detail
1513
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36
9998352
Packaging in a Multivariate Conceptual Design Synthesis of a BWB Aircraft
Abstract:

A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Paper Detail
1731
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35
9997995
LIDAR Obstacle Warning and Avoidance System for Unmanned Aircraft
Abstract:

The availability of powerful eye-safe laser sources and the recent advancements in electro-optical and mechanical beam-steering components have allowed laser-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) to become a promising technology for obstacle warning and avoidance in a variety of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. LIDAR outstanding angular resolution and accuracy characteristics are coupled to its good detection performance in a wide range of incidence angles and weather conditions, providing an ideal obstacle avoidance solution, which is especially attractive in low-level flying platforms such as helicopters and small-to-medium size Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The Laser Obstacle Avoidance Marconi (LOAM) system is one of such systems, which was jointly developed and tested by SELEX-ES and the Italian Air Force Research and Flight Test Centre. The system was originally conceived for military rotorcraft platforms and, in this paper, we briefly review the previous work and discuss in more details some of the key development activities required for integration of LOAM on UA platforms. The main hardware and software design features of this LOAM variant are presented, including a brief description of the system interfaces and sensor characteristics, together with the system performance models and data processing algorithms for obstacle detection, classification and avoidance. In particular, the paper focuses on the algorithm proposed for optimal avoidance trajectory generation in UA applications.

Paper Detail
5626
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34
17116
Identifying Interactions in a Feeding System
Abstract:

In production processes, assembly conceals a considerable potential for increased efficiency in terms of lowering production costs. Due to the individualisation of customer requirements, product variants have increased in recent years. Simultaneously, the portion of automated production systems has increased. A challenge is to adapt the flexibility and adaptability of automated systems to these changes. The Institute for Production Systems and Logistics developed an aerodynamic orientation system for feeding technology. When changing to other components, only four parameters must be adjusted. The expenditure of time for setting parameters is high. An objective therefore is developing an optimisation algorithm for automatic parameter configuration. Know how regarding the interaction of the four parameters and their effect on the sizes to be optimised is required in order to be able to develop a more efficient algorithm. This article introduces an analysis of the interactions between parameters and their influence on the quality of feeding.

Paper Detail
1168
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33
16291
Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming
Abstract:

The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expressed as integer number), the worst-case running time of the proposed algorithm is O (n x (B+1)), which makes the proposed method a very efficient tool for solving the optimal risk reduction problem in the railway industry. 

Paper Detail
1576
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32
16505
A Comparison of Experimental Data with Monte Carlo Calculations for Optimisation of the Sourceto- Detector Distance in Determining the Efficiency of a LaBr3:Ce (5%) Detector
Abstract:

Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide LaBr3:Ce(5%) crystals are considered to be one of the most advanced scintillator materials used in PET scanning, combining a high light yield, fast decay time and excellent energy resolution. Apart from the correct choice of scintillator, it is also important to optimise the detector geometry, not least in terms of source-to-detector distance in order to obtain reliable measurements and efficiency. In this study a commercially available 25 mm x 25 mm BrilLanCeTM 380 LaBr3: Ce (5%) detector was characterised in terms of its efficiency at varying source-to-detector distances. Gamma-ray spectra of 22Na, 60Co, and 137Cs were separately acquired at distances of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm. As a result of the change in solid angle subtended by the detector, the geometric efficiency reduced in efficiency with increasing distance. High efficiencies at low distances can cause pulse pile-up when subsequent photons are detected before previously detected events have decayed. To reduce this systematic error the source-to-detector distance should be balanced between efficiency and pulse pile-up suppression as otherwise pile-up corrections would need to be necessary at short distances. In addition to the experimental measurements Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the same setup, allowing a comparison of results. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been highlighted.

Paper Detail
1258
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31
4793
Optimization of Multifunctional Battery Structures for Mars
Abstract:
Multifunctional structures are a potentially disruptive technology that allows for significant mass savings on spacecraft. The specific concept addressed herein is that of a multifunctional power structure. In this paper, a parametric optimisation of the design of such a structure that uses commercially available battery cells is presented. Using numerical modelling, it was found that there exists several trade-offs aboutthe conflict between the capacity of the panel and its mechanical properties. It was found that there is no universal optimal location for the cells. Placing them close to the mechanical interfaces increases loading in the mechanically weak cells whereas placing them at the centre of the panel increases the stress inthe panel and reduces the stiffness of the structure.
Paper Detail
1074
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