International Science Index

13
727
Automated Separation of Organic Liquids through Their Boiling Points
Abstract:
This paper discuss the separation of the miscible liquids by means of fractional distillation. For complete separation of liquids, the process of heating, condensation, separation and storage is done automatically to achieve the objective. PIC micro-controller has been used to control each and every process of the work. The controller also controls the storage process by activating and deactivating the conveyors. The liquids are heated which on reaching their respective boiling points evaporate and enter the condensation chamber where they convert into liquid. The liquids are then directed to their respective tanks by means of stepper motor which moves in three directions, each movement into different tank. The tank on filling sends the signal to controller which then opens the solenoid valves. The tank is emptied into the beakers below the nozzle. As the beaker filled, the nozzle closes and the conveyors come into operation. The filled beaker is replaced by an empty beaker from behind. The work can be used in oil industries, chemical industries and paint industries.
Paper Detail
1070
downloads
12
5585
Mixed Convection in a 2D-channel with a Co- Flowing Fluid Injection: Influence of the Jet Position
Abstract:
Numerical study of a plane jet occurring in a vertical heated channel is carried out. The aim is to explore the influence of the forced flow, issued from a flat nozzle located in the entry section of a channel, on the up-going fluid along the channel walls. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width and the jet velocity ranges between 3 103 and 2.104; whereas, the Grashof number based on the channel length and the wall temperature difference is 2.57 1010. Computations are established for a symmetrically heated channel and various nozzle positions. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volumes method. The obtained results show that the jet-wall interactions activate the heat transfer, the position variation modifies the heat transfer especially for low Reynolds numbers: the heat transfer is enhanced for the adjacent wall; however it is decreased for the opposite one. The numerical velocity and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, and the Nusselt number along the plates.
Paper Detail
1098
downloads
11
9142
Numerical Study of Vertical Wall Jets: Influence of the Prandtl Number
Abstract:
This paper is a numerical investigation of a laminar isothermal plane two dimensional wall jet. Special attention has been paid to the effect of the inlet conditions at the nozzle exit on the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of the flow. The behaviour of various fluids evolving in both forced and mixed convection regimes near a vertical plate plane is carried out. The system of governing equations is solved with an implicit finite difference scheme. For numerical stability we use a staggered non uniform grid. The obtained results show that the effect of the Prandtl number is significant in the plume region in which the jet flow is governed by buoyant forces. Further for ascending X values, the buoyancy forces become dominating, and a certain agreement between the temperature profiles are observed, which shows that the velocity profile has no longer influence on the wall temperature evolution in this region. Fluids with low Prandtl number warm up more importantly, because for such fluids the effect of heat diffusion is higher.
Paper Detail
937
downloads
10
15038
Analytical and Experimental Methods of Design for Supersonic Two-Stage Ejectors
Abstract:
In this paper the supersonic ejectors are experimentally and analytically studied. Ejector is a device that uses the energy of a fluid to move another fluid. This device works like a vacuum pump without usage of piston, rotor or any other moving component. An ejector contains an active nozzle, a passive nozzle, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. Since the fluid viscosity is large, and the flow is turbulent and three dimensional in the mixing chamber, the numerical methods consume long time and high cost to analyze the flow in ejectors. Therefore this paper presents a simple analytical method that is based on the precise governing equations in fluid mechanics. According to achieved analytical relations, a computer code has been prepared to analyze the flow in different components of the ejector. An experiment has been performed in supersonic regime 1.5
Paper Detail
2196
downloads
9
9594
New Technologies for Modeling of Gas Turbine Cooled Blades
Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and cvazistationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine 1st stage nozzle blade

Paper Detail
997
downloads
8
12007
Numerical Investigation of the Chilling of Food Products by Air-Mist Spray
Authors:
Abstract:
Spray chilling using air-mist nozzles has received much attention in the food processing industry because of the benefits it has shown over forced air convection. These benefits include an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and a reduction in the water loss by the product during cooling. However, few studies have simulated the heat transfer and aerodynamics phenomena of the air-mist chilling process for optimal operating conditions. The study provides insight into the optimal conditions for spray impaction, heat transfer efficiency and control of surface flooding. A computational fluid dynamics model using a two-phase flow composed of water droplets injected with air is developed to simulate the air-mist chilling of food products. The model takes into consideration droplet-to-surface interaction, water-film accumulation and surface runoff. The results of this study lead to a better understanding of the heat transfer enhancement, water conservation, and to a clear direction for the optimal design of air-mist chilling systems that can be used in commercial applications in the food and meat processing industries.
Paper Detail
1270
downloads
7
2112
Numerical Modeling of Gas Turbine Engines
Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasi-stationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Paper Detail
1019
downloads
6
5534
Study and Enhancement of Flash Evaporation Desalination Utilizing the Ocean Thermocline and Discharged heat
Abstract:
This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations of flash evaporation from superheated jet issues vertically upward from a round straight nozzle of 81.3 mm diameter. For the investigated range of jet superheat degree and velocity, it was shown that flash evaporation enhances with initial temperature increase. Due to the increase of jet inertia and subsequently the delay of jet shattering, increase of jet velocity was found to result in increase of evaporation "delay period". An empirical equation predicts the jet evaporation completion height was developed, this equation is thought to be useful in designing the flash evaporation chamber. In attempts for enhancement of flash evaporation, use of steel wire mesh located at short distance downstream was found effective with no consequent pressure drop.
Paper Detail
1978
downloads
5
15134
A CFD Study of Sensitive Parameters Effect on the Combustion in a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray Gun
Abstract:
High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying uses a combustion process to heat the gas flow and coating material. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to predict gas dynamic behavior in a HVOF thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propane are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a parallel-sided nozzle. The CFD analysis is applied to investigate axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, compressible, chemically reacting, subsonic and supersonic flow inside and outside the gun. The gas velocity, temperature, pressure and Mach number distributions are presented for various locations inside and outside the gun. The calculated results show that the most sensitive parameters affecting the process are fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio and total gas flow rate. Gas dynamic behavior along the centerline of the gun depends on both total gas flow rate and fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio. The numerical simulations show that the axial gas velocity and Mach number distribution depend on both flow rate and ratio; the highest velocity is achieved at the higher flow rate and most fuel-rich ratio. In addition, the results reported in this paper illustrate that the numerical simulation can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the HVOF system design, optimization and performance analysis.
Paper Detail
1508
downloads
4
4832
Effect of Fuel Spray Angle on Soot Formation in Turbulent Spray Flames
Abstract:
Results are presented from a combined experimental and modeling study undertaken to understand the effect of fuel spray angle on soot production in turbulent liquid spray flames. The experimental work was conducted in a cylindrical laboratory furnace at fuel spray cone angle of 30º, 45º and 60º. Soot concentrations inside the combustor are measured by filter paper technique. The soot concentration is modeled by using the soot particle number density and the mass density based acetylene concentrations. Soot oxidation occurred by both hydroxide radicals and oxygen molecules. The comparison of calculated results against experimental measurements shows good agreement. Both the numerical and experimental results show that the peak value of soot and its location in the furnace depend on fuel spray cone angle. An increase in spray angle enhances the evaporating rate and peak temperature near the nozzle. Although peak soot concentration increase with enhance of fuel spray angle but soot emission from the furnace decreases.
Paper Detail
1178
downloads
3
14623
Mathematical Modeling of Gas Turbine Blade Cooling
Abstract:
In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasistationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.
Paper Detail
1299
downloads
2
2251
Modeling and Simulating of Gas Turbine Cooled Blades
Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasistationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Paper Detail
992
downloads
1
10226
Solid Circulation Rate and Gas Leakage Measurements in an Interconnected Bubbling Fluidized Beds
Abstract:
Two-interconnected fluidized bed systems are widely used in various processes such as Fisher-Tropsch, hot gas desulfurization, CO2 capture-regeneration with dry sorbent, chemical-looping combustion, sorption enhanced steam methane reforming, chemical-looping hydrogen generation system, and so on. However, most of two-interconnected fluidized beds systems require riser and/or pneumatic transport line for solid conveying and loopseals or seal-pots for gas sealing, recirculation of solids to the riser, and maintaining of pressure balance. The riser (transport bed) is operated at the high velocity fluidization condition and residence times of gas and solid in the riser are very short. If the reaction rate of catalyst or sorbent is slow, the riser can not ensure sufficient contact time between gas and solid and we have to use two bubbling beds for each reaction to ensure sufficient contact time. In this case, additional riser must be installed for solid circulation. Consequently, conventional two-interconnected fluidized bed systems are very complex, large, and difficult to operate. To solve these problems, a novel two-interconnected fluidized bed system has been developed. This system has two bubbling beds, solid injection nozzles, solid conveying lines, and downcomers. In this study, effects of operating variables on solid circulation rate, gas leakage between two beds have been investigated in a cold mode two-interconnected fluidized bed system. Moreover, long-term operation of continuous solid circulation up to 60 hours has been performed to check feasibility of stable operation.
Paper Detail
1280
downloads