International Science Index

43
4551
Enhancement of Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate with Ribs
Abstract:
Impinging jets are widely used in industrial cooling systems for their high heat transfer characteristics at stagnation points. However, the heat transfer characteristics are low in the downstream direction. In order to improve the heat transfer coefficient further downstream, investigations introducing ribs on jet-cooled flat plates have been conducted. Most studies regarding the heat-transfer enhancement using a rib-roughened wall have dealt with the rib pitch. In this paper, we focused on the rib spacing and demonstrated that the rib spacing must be more than 6 times the nozzle width to improve heat transfer at Reynolds number Re=5.0×103 because it is necessary to have enough space to allow reattachment of flow behind the first rib.
Paper Detail
1593
downloads
42
1179
Hydrodynamic Processes in Bubbly Liquid Flow in Tubes and Nozzles
Abstract:
The hydrodynamic processes in bubbly liquid flowing in tubes and nozzles are studied theoretically and numerically. The principal regularities of non-stationary processes of boiling liquid outflow are established under conditions of experiments when the depressurization of a tube with high pressure inside occurs. The steady-state solution of bubbly liquid flow in the nozzle of round cross section with high pressure and temperature conditions inside bubbles is studied accounting for phase transition and chemical reactions.
Paper Detail
1352
downloads
41
10562
Experimental Investigation of the Transient Cooling Characteristics of an Industrial Glass Tempering Unit
Abstract:
Energy consumption rate during the cooling process of industrial glass tempering process is considerably high. In this experimental study the effect of dimensionless jet to jet distance (S/D) and jet to plate distance (H/D) on the cooling time have been investigated. In the experiments 4 mm thick glass samples have been used. Cooling unit consists of 16 mutually placed seamless aluminum nozzles of 8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length. Nozzles were in staggered arrangement. Experiments were conducted with circular jets for H/D values between 1 and 10, and for S/D values between 2 and 10. During the experiments Reynolds number has been kept constant at 30000. Experimental results showed that the longest cooling time with 87 seconds has been observed in the experiments for S/D=10 and H/D=10 values, while the shortest cooling time with 42.5 seconds has been measured in the experiments for S/D=2 and H/D=4 values.
Paper Detail
1091
downloads
40
1235
Properties of Composite Nanofiber Produced by Single and Coaxial Nozzle Method used for Electrospinning Technique
Abstract:
In this study, single nozzle method used for electrospinning technique which composite polymer solution with cellulose nanowiskers (CNW) was treated by ultrasonic sonificator have been compared with coaxial (double) nozzle method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composite nanofiber. The effect of water content in composite polymer solution on properties of nanofiber has also been examined. It has been seen that single nozzle method which polymer solution does not contain water has better results than that of coaxial method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of nanofiber. However, it is necessary to make an optimization study on setting condition of ultrasonic treatment to get better dispersion of CNW in composite nanofiber and to get better mechanical and thermal properties
Paper Detail
1277
downloads
39
1404
Characteristics of Turbulent Round Jets in its Potential-Core Region
Abstract:
In this work, stationary hot-wire measurements are carried out to investigate the characteristics of a round free jet in its potential core region (0 ≤ x/d ≤ 10). Measurements are carried out on an incompressible round jet for a range of Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 8000, calculated based on the jet exit mean velocity and the nozzle diameter. The effect of flow velocity on the development characteristics of the jet in the core region is analyzed. Timeaveraged statistics, spectra of velocity and its higher order moments are presented and explained.
Paper Detail
2700
downloads
38
3195
Effect of Various Nozzle Profiles on Performance of a Two Phase Flow Jet Pump
Abstract:

This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations on the performance of a jet pump operated under selected primary flows to optimize the related parameters. For this purpose a two-phase flow jet pump was used employing various profiles of nozzles as the primary device which was designed, fabricated and used along with the combination of mixing tube and diffuser. The profiles employed were circular, conical, and elliptical. The diameter of the nozzle used was 4 mm. The area ratio of the jet pump was 0.16. The test facility created for this purpose was an open loop continuous circulation system. Performance of the jet pump was obtained as iso-efficiency curves on characteristic curves drawn for various water flow rates. To perform the suction capability, evacuation test was conducted at best efficiency point for all the profiles.

Paper Detail
2087
downloads
37
14507
Prediction of the Rear Fuselage Temperature with Radiation Shield
Abstract:
In order to enhance the aircraft survivability, the infrared signatures emitted by hot engine parts should be determined exactly. For its reduction it is necessary for the rear fuselage temperature to be decreased. In this study, numerical modeling of flow fields and heat transfer characteristics of an aircraft nozzle is performed and its temperature distribution along each component wall is predicted. The radiation shield is expected to reduce the skin temperature of rear fuselage. The effect of material characteristic of radiation shield on the heat transfer is also investigated. Through this numerical analysis, design parameters related to the susceptibility of aircraft are examined.
Paper Detail
1279
downloads
36
11479
Effect of Mesh Size on the Viscous Flow Parameters of an Axisymmetric Nozzle
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow in the axisymmetric nozzle taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier- Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the supersonic flow parameters at the exit of convergingdiverging nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the boundary layer thickness is significant at the exit of the nozzle. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid, especially near the wall, where we have a strong variation of velocity, temperature and shear stress. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.
Paper Detail
1117
downloads
35
8729
Development of Maximum Entropy Method for Prediction of Droplet-size Distribution in Primary Breakup Region of Spray
Abstract:
Droplet size distributions in the cold spray of a fuel are important in observed combustion behavior. Specification of droplet size and velocity distributions in the immediate downstream of injectors is also essential as boundary conditions for advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and two-phase spray transport calculations. This paper describes the development of a new model to be incorporated into maximum entropy principle (MEP) formalism for prediction of droplet size distribution in droplet formation region. The MEP approach can predict the most likely droplet size and velocity distributions under a set of constraints expressing the available information related to the distribution. In this article, by considering the mechanisms of turbulence generation inside the nozzle and wave growth on jet surface, it is attempted to provide a logical framework coupling the flow inside the nozzle to the resulting atomization process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the formulation of this new model and to incorporate it into the maximum entropy principle (MEP) by coupling sub-models together using source terms of momentum and energy. Comparison between the model prediction and experimental data for a gas turbine swirling nozzle and an annular spray indicate good agreement between model and experiment.
Paper Detail
1597
downloads
34
6695
Numerical Study on Parametrical Design of Long Shrouded Contra-Rotating Propulsion System in Hovering
Abstract:
The parametrical study of Shrouded Contra-rotating Rotor was done in this paper based on 2D axisymmetric simulations. The calculations were made with an actuator disk as double rotor model. It objects to explore and quantify the effects of different shroud geometry parameters mainly using the performance of power loading (PL), which could evaluate the whole propulsion system capability as 5 Newtontotal thrust generationfor hover demand. The numerical results show that:The increase of nozzle radius is desired but limited by the flow separation, its optimal design is around 1.15 times rotor radius, the viscosity effects greatly constraint the influence of nozzle shape, the divergent angle around 10.5° performs best for chosen nozzle length;The parameters of inlet such as leading edge curvature, radius and internal shape do not affect thrust great but play an important role in pressure distribution which could produce most part of shroud thrust, they should be chosen according to the reduction of adverse pressure gradients to reduce the risk of boundary separation.
Paper Detail
1185
downloads
33
10301
Effect of Uneven Surface on Magnetic Properties of Fe-based Amorphous Power Transformer
Abstract:
This study reports the preparation of soft magnetic ribbons of Fe-based amorphous alloys using the single-roller melt-spinning technique. Ribbon width varied from 142 mm to 213 mm and, with a thickness of approximately 22 μm ± 2 μm. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the ribbons were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and electrical resistivity measurements (ERM). The amorphous material properties dependence of the cooling rate and nozzle pressure have uneven surface in ribbon thicknesses are investigated. Magnetic measurement results indicate that some region of the ribbon exhibits good magnetic properties, higher saturation induction and lower coercivity. However, due to the uneven surface of 213 mm wide ribbon, the magnetic responses are not uniformly distributed. To understand the transformer magnetic performances, this study analyzes the measurements of a three-phase 2 MVA amorphous-cored transformer. Experimental results confirm that the transformer with a ribbon width of 142 mm has better magnetic properties in terms of lower core loss, exciting power, and audible noise.
Paper Detail
1341
downloads
32
7861
An Investigation into Air Ejector with Pulsating Primary Flow
Abstract:
The article deals with pneumatic and hot wire anemometry measurement on subsonic axi-symmetric air ejector. Performances of the ejector with and without pulsations of primary flow are compared, measuring of characteristic pressures and mass flow rates are performed and ejector efficiency is evaluated. The pulsations of primary flow are produced by a synthetic jet generator, which is placed in the supply line of the primary flow just in front of the primary nozzle. The aim of the pulsation is to intensify the mixing process. In the article we present: Pressure measuring of pulsation on the mixing chamber wall, behind the mixing chamber and behind the diffuser measured by fast pressure transducers and results of hot wire anemometry measurement. It was found out that using of primary flow pulsations yields higher back pressure behind the ejector and higher efficiency. The processes in this ejector and influences of primary flow pulsations on the mixing processes are described.
Paper Detail
944
downloads
31
6994
Prediction of Tool and Nozzle Flow Behavior in Ultrasonic Machining Process
Abstract:
The use of hard and brittle material has become increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research work has developed models using finite element approach to predict the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes have been used for the experimentation work.
Paper Detail
1939
downloads
30
2144
Effect of Uneven Surface on Magnetic Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous Transformer
Abstract:

This study reports the preparation of soft magnetic ribbons of Fe-based amorphous alloys using the single-roller melt-spinning technique. Ribbon width varied from 142 mm to 213 mm and, with a thickness of approximately 22 μm 2 μm. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the ribbons were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and electrical resistivity measurements (ERM). The amorphous material properties dependence of the cooling rate and nozzle pressure have uneven surface in ribbon thicknesses are investigated. Magnetic measurement results indicate that some region of the ribbon exhibits good magnetic properties, higher saturation induction and lower coercivity. However, due to the uneven surface of 213 mm wide ribbon, the magnetic responses are not uniformly distributed. To understand the transformer magnetic performances, this study analyzes the measurements of a three-phase 2 MVA amorphous-cored transformer. Experimental results confirm that the transformer with a ribbon width of 142 mm has better magnetic properties in terms of lower core loss, exciting power, and audible noise. 

Paper Detail
1384
downloads
29
2793
An Investigation on the Effects of Injection Spray Cone on Propulsive Droplets in a Duct
Abstract:
This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.
Paper Detail
814
downloads
28
11849
The Comparative Analysis of Two Typical Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Exhaust Nozzles on Aerodynamic Characteristics
Abstract:

The comparisons of two typical fluidic thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles including two-dimensional(2-D) nozzle and axisymmetric nozzle on aerodynamic characteristics was presented by numerical simulation. The results show: the thrust vector angles increased with the increasing secondary flow but decreased with the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) increasing. With the same secondary flow and NPR, the thrust vector angles of 2-D nozzle were higher than the axisymmetric nozzle-s. So with the lower NPR and more secondary weight flow, the much higher thrust vector angle was caused by 2-D fluidic nozzle. And with the higher NPR and less secondary weight flow, there was not much difference in angular dimension between two nozzles.

Paper Detail
1316
downloads
27
15390
Cold Flow Investigation of Primary Zone Characteristics in Combustor Utilizing Axial Air Swirler
Abstract:

This paper presents a cold flow simulation study of a small gas turbine combustor performed using laboratory scale test rig. The main objective of this investigation is to obtain physical insight of the main vortex, responsible for the efficient mixing of fuel and air. Such models are necessary for predictions and optimization of real gas turbine combustors. Air swirler can control the combustor performance by assisting in the fuel-air mixing process and by producing recirculation region which can act as flame holders and influences residence time. Thus, proper selection of a swirler is needed to enhance combustor performance and to reduce NOx emissions. Three different axial air swirlers were used based on their vane angles i.e., 30°, 45°, and 60°. Three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, isothermal flow characteristics of the combustor model operating at room temperature were simulated via Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. The model geometry has been created using solid model, and the meshing has been done using GAMBIT preprocessing package. Finally, the solution and analysis were carried out in a FLUENT solver. This serves to demonstrate the capability of the code for design and analysis of real combustor. The effects of swirlers and mass flow rate were examined. Details of the complex flow structure such as vortices and recirculation zones were obtained by the simulation model. The computational model predicts a major recirculation zone in the central region immediately downstream of the fuel nozzle and a second recirculation zone in the upstream corner of the combustion chamber. It is also shown that swirler angles changes have significant effects on the combustor flowfield as well as pressure losses.

Paper Detail
1483
downloads
26
7194
The Performance Analysis of Valveless Micropump with Contoured Nozzle/Diffuser
Abstract:
The operation performance of a valveless micro-pump is strongly dependent on the shape of connected nozzle/diffuser and Reynolds number. The aims of present work are to compare the performance curves of micropump with the original straight nozzle/diffuser and contoured nozzle/diffuser under different back pressure conditions. The tested valveless micropumps are assembled of five pieces of patterned PMMA plates with hot-embracing technique. The structures of central chamber, the inlet/outlet reservoirs and the connected nozzle/diffuser are fabricated with laser cutting machine. The micropump is actuated with circular-type PZT film embraced on the bottom of central chamber. The deformation of PZT membrane with various input voltages is measured with a displacement laser probe. A simple testing facility is also constructed to evaluate the performance curves for comparison. In order to observe the evaluation of low Reynolds number multiple vortex flow patterns within the micropump during suction and pumping modes, the unsteady, incompressible laminar three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved. The working fluid is DI water with constant thermo-physical properties. The oscillating behavior of PZT film is modeled with the moving boundary wall in way of UDF program. With the dynamic mesh method, the instants pressure and velocity fields are obtained and discussed.Results indicated that the volume flow rate is not monotony increased with the oscillating frequency of PZT film, regardless of the shapes of nozzle/diffuser. The present micropump can generate the maximum volume flow rate of 13.53 ml/min when the operation frequency is 64Hz and the input voltage is 140 volts. The micropump with contoured nozzle/diffuser can provide 7ml/min flow rate even when the back pressure is up to 400 mm-H2O. CFD results revealed that the flow central chamber was occupied with multiple pairs of counter-rotating vortices during suction and pumping modes. The net volume flow rate over a complete oscillating periodic of PZT
Paper Detail
1961
downloads
25
14821
Flow Visualization of Angled Supersonic Jets into a Supersonic Cross Flow
Abstract:
This paper describes Nano-particle based Planar Laser Scattering (NPLS) flow visualization of angled supersonic jets into a supersonic cross flow based on the HYpersonic Low TEmperature (HYLTE) nozzle which was widely used in DF chemical laser. In order to investigate the non-reacting flowfield in the HYLTE nozzle, a testing section with windows was designed and manufactured. The impact of secondary fluids orifice separation on mixing was examined. For narrow separation of orifices, the secondary fuel penetration increased obviously compared to diluent injection, which means smaller separation of diluent and fuel orifices would enhance the mixing of fuel and oxidant. Secondary injections with angles of 30, 40 and 50 degrees were studied. It was found that the injectant penetration increased as the injection angle increased, while the interfacial surface area to entrain the freestream fluid is largest when the injection angle is 40 degree.
Paper Detail
1107
downloads
24
7286
Effects of Injection Velocity and Entrance Airflow Velocity on Droplets Sizing in a Duct
Abstract:
This paper addresses one important aspect of combustion system analysis, the spray evaporation and dispersion modeling. In this study we assume an empty cylinder which is as a simulator for a ramjet engine and the cylinder has been studied by cold flow. Four nozzles have the duties of injection which are located in the entrance of cylinder. The air flow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done. By changing injection velocity and entrance air flow velocity, we have studied droplet sizing and efficient mass fraction of fuel vapor near and at the exit area. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the efficient mass fraction. Further, we decreased the initial temperature of fuel droplets and we have repeated the investigating again. To fulfill the calculation we used a modified version of KIVA-3V.
Paper Detail
1131
downloads
23
9457
Influence of Thermo-fluid-dynamic Parameters on Fluidics in an Expanding Thermal Plasma Deposition Chamber
Abstract:
Technology of thin film deposition is of interest in many engineering fields, from electronic manufacturing to corrosion protective coating. A typical deposition process, like that developed at the University of Eindhoven, considers the deposition of a thin, amorphous film of C:H or of Si:H on the substrate, using the Expanding Thermal arc Plasma technique. In this paper a computing procedure is proposed to simulate the flow field in a deposition chamber similar to that at the University of Eindhoven and a sensitivity analysis is carried out in terms of: precursor mass flow rate, electrical power, supplied to the torch and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the plasma jet, using different nozzles. To this purpose a deposition chamber similar in shape, dimensions and operating parameters to the above mentioned chamber is considered. Furthermore, a method is proposed for a very preliminary evaluation of the film thickness distribution on the substrate. The computing procedure relies on two codes working in tandem; the output from the first code is the input to the second one. The first code simulates the flow field in the torch, where Argon is ionized according to the Saha-s equation, and in the nozzle. The second code simulates the flow field in the chamber. Due to high rarefaction level, this is a (commercial) Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. Gas is a mixture of 21 chemical species and 24 chemical reactions from Argon plasma and Acetylene are implemented in both codes. The effects of the above mentioned operating parameters are evaluated and discussed by 2-D maps and profiles of some important thermo-fluid-dynamic parameters, as per Mach number, velocity and temperature. Intensity, position and extension of the shock wave are evaluated and the influence of the above mentioned test conditions on the film thickness and uniformity of distribution are also evaluated.
Paper Detail
1081
downloads
22
4708
Sustainable Design of Impinging Premixed Slot Jets
Abstract:
Cooktop burners are widely used nowadays. In cooktop burner design, nozzle efficiency and greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions mainly depend on heat transfer from the premixed flame to the impinging surface. This is a complicated issue depending on the individual and combined effects of various input combustion variables. Optimal operating conditions for sustainable burner design were rarely addressed, especially in the case of multiple slot-jet burners. Through evaluating the optimal combination of combustion conditions for a premixed slot-jet array, this paper develops a practical approach for the sustainable design of gas cooktop burners. Efficiency, CO and NOx emissions in respect of an array of slot jets using premixed flames were analysed. Response surface experimental design were applied to three controllable factors of the combustion process, viz. Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and jet-to-vessel distance. Desirability Function Approach(DFA) is the analytic technique used for the simultaneous optimization of the efficiency and emission responses.
Paper Detail
887
downloads
21
15685
Optimizing Electrospinning Parameters for Finest Diameter of Nano Fibers
Abstract:

Nano fibers produced by electrospinning are of industrial and scientific attention due to their special characteristics such as long length, small diameter and high surface area. Applications of electrospun structures in nanotechnology are included tissue scaffolds, fibers for drug delivery, composite reinforcement, chemical sensing, enzyme immobilization, membrane-based filtration, protective clothing, catalysis, solar cells, electronic devices and others. Many polymer and ceramic precursor nano fibers have been successfully electrospun with diameters in the range from 1 nm to several microns. The process is complex so that fiber diameter is influenced by various material, design and operating parameters. The objective of this work is to apply genetic algorithm on the parameters of electrospinning which have the most significant effect on the nano fiber diameter to determine the optimum parameter values before doing experimental set up. Effective factors including initial polymer concentration, initial jet radius, electrical potential, relaxation time, initial elongation, viscosity and distance between nozzle and collector are considered to determine finest diameter which is selected by user.

Paper Detail
1279
downloads
20
6595
Improving Power Plant Efficiency using Water Droplet Injection in Air Condensers
Abstract:
Observations show that power plant efficiency decreases in hot summer days. Water droplet injection in air condensers is suggested in order to decrease the inlet air temperature. Nozzle arrangement, injected water flow rate and droplets diameter effects on evaporation rate and the resulting air temperature are investigated using numerical simulation. Decreasing the diameter of injected droplets and increasing the number of injecting nozzles, decreases the outlet air temperature. Also a more uniform air temperature can be obtained using more injecting nozzles. Numerical results are in good agreement with analytical results.
Paper Detail
996
downloads
19
15242
CFD Simulations of a Co-current Spray Dryer
Abstract:
This paper presents the prediction of air flow, humidity and temperature patterns in a co-current pilot plant spray dryer fitted with a pressure nozzle using a three dimensional model. The modelling was done with a Computational Fluid Dynamic package (Fluent 6.3), in which the gas phase is modelled as continuum using the Euler approach and the droplet/ particle phase is modelled by the Discrete Phase model (Lagrange approach).Good agreement was obtained with published experimental data where the CFD simulation correctly predicts a fast downward central flowing core and slow recirculation zones near the walls. In this work, the effects of the air flow pattern on droplets trajectories, residence time distribution of droplets and deposition of the droplets on the wall also were investigated where atomizing of maltodextrin solution was used.
Paper Detail
2658
downloads
18
13458
A New Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Weld Bead Geometry in GMAW
Abstract:
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes is an important joining process widely used in metal fabrication industries. This paper addresses modeling and optimization of this technique using a set of experimental data and regression analysis. The set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of GMAW process parameters in weld bead geometry. The process variables considered here include voltage (V); wire feed rate (F); torch Angle (A); welding speed (S) and nozzle-to-plate distance (D). The process output characteristics include weld bead height, width and penetration. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the GMAW process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce desired bead geometry, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.
Paper Detail
1274
downloads
17
11914
A Statistical Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Depth of Cut in AWJ Machining for 6063-T6 Al Alloy
Abstract:

In this paper, a set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of abrasive water jet (AWJ) process parameters in cutting 6063-T6 aluminum alloy. The process variables considered here include nozzle diameter, jet traverse rate, jet pressure and abrasive flow rate. The effects of these input parameters are studied on depth of cut (h); one of most important characteristics of AWJ. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the AWJ process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce a desired depth of cut, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.

Paper Detail
1136
downloads
16
13339
Modeling and Optimization of Abrasive Waterjet Parameters using Regression Analysis
Abstract:

Abrasive waterjet is a novel machining process capable of processing wide range of hard-to-machine materials. This research addresses modeling and optimization of the process parameters for this machining technique. To model the process a set of experimental data has been used to evaluate the effects of various parameter settings in cutting 6063-T6 aluminum alloy. The process variables considered here include nozzle diameter, jet traverse rate, jet pressure and abrasive flow rate. Depth of cut, as one of the most important output characteristics, has been evaluated based on different parameter settings. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The pairwise effects of process parameters settings on process response outputs are also shown graphically. The proposed model is then embedded into a Simulated Annealing algorithm to optimize the process parameters. The optimization is carried out for any desired values of depth of cut. The objective is to determine proper levels of process parameters in order to obtain a certain level of depth of cut. Computational results demonstrate that the proposed solution procedure is quite effective in solving such multi-variable problems.

Paper Detail
1252
downloads
15
10118
Mixed Convection in a Vertical Heated Channel: Influence of the Aspect Ratio
Abstract:
In mechanical and environmental engineering, mixed convection is a frequently encountered thermal fluid phenomenon which exists in atmospheric environment, urban canopy flows, ocean currents, gas turbines, heat exchangers, and computer chip cooling systems etc... . This paper deals with a numerical investigation of mixed convection in a vertical heated channel. This flow results from the mixing of the up-going fluid along walls of the channel with the one issued from a flat nozzle located in its entry section. The fluiddynamic and heat-transfer characteristics of vented vertical channels are investigated for constant heat-flux boundary conditions, a Rayleigh number equal to 2.57 1010, for two jet Reynolds number Re=3 103 and 2104 and the aspect ratio in the 8-20 range. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volumes method and an implicit scheme. The obtained results show that the turbulence and the jet-wall interaction activate the heat transfer, as does the drive of ambient air by the jet. For low Reynolds number Re=3 103, the increase of the aspect Ratio enhances the heat transfer of about 3%, however; for Re=2 104, the heat transfer enhancement is of about 12%. The numerical velocity, pressure and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, and average Nusselt number, in terms of Rayleigh, Reynolds numbers and dimensionless geometric parameters are presented.
Paper Detail
1495
downloads
14
11741
The Self-Propelled Model of a Boat, Based on the Wave Thrust
Authors:
Abstract:
We attempted investigate a boat model, based on the conversion of energy of surface wave into a sequence of unidirectional pulses of jet spurts, in other words - model of the boat, which is thrusting by the waves field on water surface. These pulses are forming some average reactive stream from the output nozzle on the stern of boat. The suggested model provides the conversion of its oscillatory motions (both pitching and rolling) into a jet flow. This becomes possible due to special construction of the boat and due to several details, sensitive to the local wave field. The boat model presents the uniflow jet engine without slow conversions of mechanical energy into intermediate forms and without any external sources of energy (besides surface waves). Motion of boat is characterized by fast jerks and average onward velocity, which exceeds the velocities of liquid particles in the wave.
Paper Detail
1070
downloads