International Science Index

52
10007143
Performance Assessment of the Gold Coast Desalination Plant Offshore Multiport Brine Diffuser during ‘Hot Standby’ Operation
Abstract:

Alongside the rapid expansion of Seawater Reverse Osmosis technologies there is a concurrent increase in the production of hypersaline brine by-products. To minimize environmental impact, these by-products are commonly disposed into open-coastal environments via submerged diffuser systems as inclined dense jet outfalls. Despite the widespread implementation of this process, diffuser designs are typically based on small-scale laboratory experiments under idealistic quiescent conditions. Studies concerning diffuser performance in the field are limited. A set of experiments were conducted to assess the near field characteristics of brine disposal at the Gold Coast Desalination Plant offshore multiport diffuser. The aim of the field experiments was to determine the trajectory and dilution characteristics of the plume under various discharge configurations with production ranging 66 – 100% of plant operative capacity. The field monitoring system employed an unprecedented static array of temperature and electrical conductivity sensors in a three-dimensional grid surrounding a single diffuser port. Complimenting these measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers were also deployed to record current variability over the depth of the water column and wave characteristics. Recorded data suggested the open-coastal environment was highly active over the experimental duration with ambient velocities ranging 0.0 – 0.5 m∙s-1, with considerable variability over the depth of the water column observed. Variations in background electrical conductivity corresponding to salinity fluctuations of ± 1.7 g∙kg-1 were also observed. Increases in salinity were detected during plant operation and appeared to be most pronounced 10 – 30 m from the diffuser, consistent with trajectory predictions described by existing literature. Plume trajectories and respective dilutions extrapolated from salinity data are compared with empirical scaling arguments. Discharge properties were found to adequately correlate with modelling projections. Temporal and spatial variation of background processes and their subsequent influence upon discharge outcomes are discussed with a view to incorporating the influence of waves and ambient currents in the design of brine outfalls into the future.

Paper Detail
80
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51
10006971
Experimental Investigation of Plane Jets Exiting Five Parallel Channels with Large Aspect Ratio
Abstract:

The paper aims to extend the knowledge about jet behavior and jet interaction between five plane unventilated jets with large aspect ratio (AR). The distance between the single plane jets is two times the channel height. The experimental investigation applies 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and static pressure measurements. Our study focuses on the influence of two different outlet nozzle geometries (triangular shape with 2 x 7.5° and blunt geometry) with respect to variation of Reynolds number from 5500 - 12000. It is shown that the outlet geometry has a major influence on the jet formation in terms of uniformity of velocity profiles downstream of the sudden expansion. Furthermore, we describe characteristic regions like converging region, merging region and combined region. The triangular outlet geometry generates most uniform velocity distributions in comparison to a blunt outlet nozzle geometry. The blunt outlet geometry shows an unstable behavior where the jets tend to attach to one side of the walls (ceiling) generating a large recirculation region on the opposite side. Static pressure measurements confirm the observation and indicate that the recirculation region is connected to larger pressure drop.

Paper Detail
101
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50
10006507
Numerical Investigation of Improved Aerodynamic Performance of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet
Abstract:

Numerical investigations are performed to analyze the flow behavior over NACA0015 and to evaluate the efficiency of synthetic jet as active control device. The second objective of this work is to investigate the influence of momentum coefficient of synthetic jet on the flow behaviour. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using, k-ω SST provided by ANSYS CFX-CFD code. The model presented in this paper is a comprehensive representation of the information found in the literature. Comparison of obtained numerical flow parameters with the experimental ones shows that the adopted computational procedure reflects nearly the real flow nature. Also, numerical results state that use of synthetic jets devices has positive effects on the flow separation, and thus, aerodynamic performance improvement of NACA0015 airfoil. It can also be observed that the use of synthetic jet increases the lift coefficient about 13.3% and reduces the drag coefficient about 52.7%.

Paper Detail
168
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49
10006459
Experimental Study of Unconfined and Confined Isothermal Swirling Jets
Abstract:

A 3C-2D PIV technique was applied to investigate the swirling flow generated by an axial plus tangential type swirl generator. This work is focused on the near-exit region of an isothermal swirling jet to characterize the effect of swirl on the flow field and to identify the large coherent structures both in unconfined and confined conditions for geometrical swirl number, Sg = 4.6. Effects of the Reynolds number on the flow structure were also studied. The experimental results show significant effects of the confinement on the mean velocity fields and its fluctuations. The size of the recirculation zone was significantly enlarged upon confinement compared to the free swirling jet. Increasing in the Reynolds number further enhanced the recirculation zone. The frequency characteristics have been measured with a capacitive microphone which indicates the presence of periodic oscillation related to the existence of precessing vortex core, PVC. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the jet velocity field was carried out, enabling the identification of coherent structures. The time coefficients of the first two most energetic POD modes were used to reconstruct the phase-averaged velocity field of the oscillatory motion in the swirling flow. The instantaneous minima of negative swirl strength values calculated from the instantaneous velocity field revealed the presence of two helical structures located in the inner and outer shear layers and this structure fade out at an axial location of approximately z/D = 1.5 for unconfined case and z/D = 1.2 for confined case. By phase averaging the instantaneous swirling strength maps, the 3D helical vortex structure was reconstructed.

Paper Detail
149
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48
10006188
Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles
Abstract:
The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  
Paper Detail
351
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47
10003353
Optical Flow Technique for Supersonic Jet Measurements
Abstract:

This paper outlines the development of an experimental technique in quantifying supersonic jet flows, in an attempt to avoid seeding particle problems frequently associated with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) techniques at high Mach numbers. Based on optical flow algorithms, the idea behind the technique involves using high speed cameras to capture Schlieren images of the supersonic jet shear layers, before they are subjected to an adapted optical flow algorithm based on the Horn-Schnuck method to determine the associated flow fields. The proposed method is capable of offering full-field unsteady flow information with potentially higher accuracy and resolution than existing point-measurements or PIV techniques. Preliminary study via numerical simulations of a circular de Laval jet nozzle successfully reveals flow and shock structures typically associated with supersonic jet flows, which serve as useful data for subsequent validation of the optical flow based experimental results. For experimental technique, a Z-type Schlieren setup is proposed with supersonic jet operated in cold mode, stagnation pressure of 4 bar and exit Mach of 1.5. High-speed singleframe or double-frame cameras are used to capture successive Schlieren images. As implementation of optical flow technique to supersonic flows remains rare, the current focus revolves around methodology validation through synthetic images. The results of validation test offers valuable insight into how the optical flow algorithm can be further improved to improve robustness and accuracy. Despite these challenges however, this supersonic flow measurement technique may potentially offer a simpler way to identify and quantify the fine spatial structures within the shock shear layer.

Paper Detail
1001
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46
10002823
Comparison of Polynomial and Radial Basis Kernel Functions based SVR and MLR in Modeling Mass Transfer by Vertical and Inclined Multiple Plunging Jets
Abstract:
Presently various computational techniques are used in modeling and analyzing environmental engineering data. In the present study, an intra-comparison of polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based on Support Vector Regression and, in turn, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression has been attempted in modeling mass transfer capacity of vertical (θ = 90O) and inclined (θ multiple plunging jets (varying from 1 to 16 numbers). The data set used in this study consists of four input parameters with a total of eighty eight cases, forty four each for vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets. For testing, tenfold cross validation was used. Correlation coefficient values of 0.971 and 0.981 along with corresponding root mean square error values of 0.0025 and 0.0020 were achieved by using polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression respectively. An intra-comparison suggests improved performance by radial basis function in comparison to polynomial kernel based Support Vector Regression. Further, an inter-comparison with Multi Linear Regression (correlation coefficient = 0.973 and root mean square error = 0.0024) reveals that radial basis kernel functions based Support Vector Regression performs better in modeling and estimating mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.
Paper Detail
622
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45
10002005
Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets
Abstract:
Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out at different secondary injection locations to identifying the highest unsymmetrical distribution of the main gas flow due to shock waves, which produces a desirable side force more lucratively for vectoring. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet is more efficient in certain locations at the divergent region of a CD nozzle than a case with supersonic single jet with same mass flow rate. We observed that the best axial location of the self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet nozzle with a given jet interaction angle, built-in to a CD nozzle having area ratio 1.797, is 0.991 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the throat location. We also observed that the flexible steering is possible after invoking ON/OFF facility to the secondary nozzles for meeting the onboard mission requirements. Through our case studies we concluded that the supersonic self-impinging secondary double jet at predesigned jet interaction angle and location can provide more flexible steering options facilitating with 8.81% higher thrust vectoring efficiency than the conventional supersonic single secondary jet without compromising the payload capability of any supersonic aerospace vehicle.
Paper Detail
1726
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44
10000315
Central Finite Volume Methods Applied in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics: Applications in Disks and Jets
Abstract:

We have developed a new computer program in Fortran 90, in order to obtain numerical solutions of a system of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics partial differential equations with predetermined gravitation (GRMHD), capable of simulating the formation of relativistic jets from the accretion disk of matter up to his ejection. Initially we carried out a study on numerical methods of unidimensional Finite Volume, namely Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, Nessyahu-Tadmor method and Godunov methods dependent on Riemann problems, applied to equations Euler in order to verify their main features and make comparisons among those methods. It was then implemented the method of Finite Volume Centered of Nessyahu-Tadmor, a numerical schemes that has a formulation free and without dimensional separation of Riemann problem solvers, even in two or more spatial dimensions, at this point, already applied in equations GRMHD. Finally, the Nessyahu-Tadmor method was possible to obtain stable numerical solutions - without spurious oscillations or excessive dissipation - from the magnetized accretion disk process in rotation with respect to a central black hole (BH) Schwarzschild and immersed in a magnetosphere, for the ejection of matter in the form of jet over a distance of fourteen times the radius of the BH, a record in terms of astrophysical simulation of this kind. Also in our simulations, we managed to get substructures jets. A great advantage obtained was that, with the our code, we got simulate GRMHD equations in a simple personal computer.

Paper Detail
1432
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43
9999958
Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets
Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tail water depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Paper Detail
1201
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42
9999247
3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:

The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Paper Detail
2348
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41
9997622
Multi-Linear Regression Based Prediction of Mass Transfer by Multiple Plunging Jets
Abstract:

The paper aims to compare the performance of vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets and to model and predict their mass transfer capacity by multi-linear regression based approach. The multiple vertical plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 90O; whereas, multiple inclined plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 60O. The results of the study suggests that mass transfer is higher for multiple jets, and inclined multiple plunging jets have up to 1.6 times higher mass transfer than vertical multiple plunging jets under similar conditions. The derived relationship, based on multi-linear regression approach, has successfully predicted the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) from operational parameters of multiple plunging jets with a correlation coefficient of 0.973, root mean square error of 0.002 and coefficient of determination of 0.946. The results suggests that predicted overall mass transfer coefficient is in good agreement with actual experimental values; thereby, suggesting the utility of derived relationship based on multi-linear regression based approach and can be successfully employed in modeling mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Paper Detail
1450
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40
9997559
Calculus of Turbojet Performances for Ideal Case
Abstract:

Developments in turbine cooling technology play an important role in increasing the thermal efficiency and the power output of recent gas turbines, in particular the turbojets.

Advanced turbojets operate at high temperatures to improve thermal efficiency and power output. These temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades in order to give theirs a maximum life period for safe operation.

The focused objective of this work is to calculate the turbojet performances, as well as the calculation of turbine blades cooling.

The developed application able the calculation of turbojet performances to different altitudes in order to find a point of optimal use making possible to maintain the turbine blades at an acceptable maximum temperature and to limit the local variations in temperatures in order to guarantee their integrity during all the lifespan of the engine.

Paper Detail
1503
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39
9996967
Comparative Analysis of Turbulent Plane Jets from a Sharp-Edged Orifice, a Beveled-Edge Orifice and a Radially Contoured Nozzle
Abstract:

This article investigates through experiments the flow characteristics of plane jets from sharp-edged orifice-plate, beveled-edge and radially contoured nozzle. The first two configurations exhibit saddle-backed velocity profiles while the third shows a top-hat. A vena contracta is found for the jet emanating from orifice at x/h » 3 while the contoured case displays a potential core extending to the range x/h = 5. A spurt in jet pressure on the centerline supports vena contracta for the orifice-jet. Momentum thicknesses and integral length scales elongate linearly with x although the growth of the shear-layer and large-scale eddies for the orifice are greater than the contoured case. The near-field spectrum exhibits higher frequency of the primary eddies that concur with enhanced turbulence intensity. Importantly, highly “turbulent” state of the orifice-jet prevails in the far-field where the spectra confirm more energetic secondary eddies associated with greater flapping amplitude of the orifice-jet.

Paper Detail
1889
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38
10002382
Modeling Aeration of Sharp Crested Weirs by Using Support Vector Machines
Authors:
Abstract:
The present paper attempts to investigate the prediction of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency of a free overfall jets issuing from a triangular sharp crested weir by using regression based modelling. The empirical equations, Support vector machine (polynomial and radial basis function) models and the linear regression techniques were applied on the triangular sharp crested weirs relating the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency to the input parameters namely drop height, discharge, and vertex angle. It was observed that there exists a good agreement between the measured values and the values obtained using empirical equations, Support vector machine (Polynomial and rbf) models and the linear regression techniques. The test results demonstrated that the SVM based (Poly & rbf) model also provided acceptable prediction of the measured values with reasonable accuracy along with empirical equations and linear regression techniques in modelling the air entrainment rate and the aeration efficiency of a free overfall jets issuing from triangular sharp crested weir. Further sensitivity analysis has also been performed to study the impact of input parameter on the output in terms of air entrainment rate and aeration efficiency.
Paper Detail
1203
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37
16720
CFD Parametric Study of Mixers Performance
Abstract:

The mixing of two or more liquids is very common in many industrial applications from automotive to food processing. CFD simulations of these processes require comparison with test results. In many cases it is practically impossible. Therefore, comparison provides with scalable tests.  So, parameterization of the problem is sufficient to capture the performance of the mixer.

However, the influence of geometrical and thermo-physical parameters on the mixing is not well understood.

In this work influence of geometrical and thermal parameters was studied. It was shown that for full developed turbulent flows (Re > 104), Pet»const and concentration of secondary fluid ~ F(r/l).

In other words, the mixing is practically independent of total flow rate and scale for a given geometry and ratio of flow rates of mixing flows. This statement was proved in present work for different geometries and mixtures such as EGR and water-urea mixture.

Present study has been shown that the best way to improve the mixing is to establish geometry with the lowest Pet number possible by intensifying the turbulence in the domain. This is achievable by using step geometry, impinging flow EGR on a wall, or EGR jets, with a strong change in the flow direction, or using swirler like flow in the domain or combination all of these factors. All of these results are applicable to any mixtures of no compressible fluids.  

Paper Detail
1360
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36
16212
Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock Induced Supersonic Secondary Jet
Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced supersonic secondary jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with various secondary jets at different divergent locations, jet interaction angles, jet pressures. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the primary nozzle with a small divergence angle, downstream injections with a distance of 2.5 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the primary nozzle throat location warrant higher efficiency over a certain range of jet pressures and jet angles. We observed that the supersonic secondary jet opposing the core flow with jets interaction angle of 40o to the axis far downstream of the nozzle throat facilitates better thrust vectoring than the secondary jet with same direction as that of core flow with various interaction angles. We concluded that fixing of the supersonic secondary jet nozzle pointing towards the throat direction with suitable angle at a distance 2 to 4 times of the primary nozzle throat diameter, as the case may be, from the primary nozzle throat location could facilitate better thrust vectoring for the supersonic aerospace vehicles.

Paper Detail
2546
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35
16487
The Influence of Gravity on The Temporal Instability of Viscoelastic Liquid Curved Jets
Abstract:

A liquid curved jet has many applications in different industrial and engineering processes, such as the prilling process for generating small spherical pellets (fertilizer or magnesium). The liquids used are usually molten and contain small quantities of polymers and therefore can be modelled as non-Newtonian liquids. In this paper, we model the viscoelastic liquid jet by using the Oldroyd- B model. An asymptotic analysis has been used to simplify the governing equations. Furthermore, the trajectory and a linear temporal stability in the presence of gravity and rotation have been determined.

Paper Detail
1250
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34
12512
Spreading of Swirling Double–Concentric Jets at Low and High Pulsation Intensities
Abstract:
The spreading characteristics of acoustically excited swirling double-concentric jets were studied experimentally. The central jet was acoustically excited at low and high pulsation intensities. A smoke wire flow visualization and a hot-wire anemometer velocity measurement results show that excitation forces a vortex ring to roll-up from the edge of the central tube during each excitation period. At low pulsation intensities, the vortex ring evolves downstream, and eventually breaks up into turbulent eddies. At high pulsation intensities, the primary vortex ring evolves and a series of trailing vortex rings form during the same period of excitation. The trailing vortex rings accelerate while evolving downstream and overtake the primary vortex ring within the same cycle. In the process, the primary vortex ring becomes unstable and breaks up early. The effect of the fast traveling trailing vortex rings combined with the swirl motion of the annular flow improve jet spreading compared with the naturally evolving jets.
Paper Detail
1211
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33
12311
Large-Eddy Simulations of Subsonic Impinging Jets
Abstract:
We consider here the subsonic impinging jet representing the flow field of a vertical take-off aircraft or the initial stage of rocket launching. Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation (ILES) is used to calculate the time-dependent flow field and the radiate sound pressure associated with jet impinging. With proper boundary treatments and high-order numerical scheme, the near field sound pressure is successfully obtained. Results are presented for both a rectangular as well a circular jet.
Paper Detail
1272
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32
11404
Dominant Flow Features of Two Inclined Impinging Jets Confined in Large Enclosure
Abstract:
The present study was provided to examine the vortical structures generated by two inclined impinging jets with experimental and numerical investigations. The jets are issuing with a pitch angle α=40° into a confined quiescent fluid. The experimental investigation on flow patterns was visualized by using olive particles injected into the jets illuminated by Nd:Yag laser light to reveal the finer details of the confined jets interaction. It was observed that two counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVPs) were generated in the near region. A numerical investigation was also performed. First, the numerical results were validates against the experimental results and then the numerical model was used to study the effect of section ratio on the evolution of the CVPs. Our results show promising agreement with experimental data, and indicate that our model has the potential to produce useful and accurate data regarding the evolution of CVPs.
Paper Detail
1242
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31
13287
Flame Stability and Structure of Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fired Inverse Diffusion Flame with Hydrogen Enrichment
Abstract:
The present project was conducted with the circumferential-fuel-jets inverse diffusion flame (CIDF) burner burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) enriched with 50% of hydrogen fuel (H2). The range of stable operation of the CIDF burner in terms of Reynolds number (from laminar to turbulent flow regions), equivalence ratio and fuel jet velocity of LPG of the 50% H2-LPG mixed fuel was identified. Experiments were also carried out to investigate the flame structures of the LPG flame and LPG enriched H2 flame. Experimental results obtained from these two flames were compared to fully explore the influence of hydrogen addition on flame stability. Flame heights obtained by burning these two kinds of fuels at various equivalence ratios were compared and correlated with the Global Momentum Ratio (GMR).
Paper Detail
1906
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30
3801
Parametric Study of Confined Turbulent Impinging Slot Jets upon a Flat Plate
Abstract:
In the present paper, a numerical investigation has been carried out to classify and clarify the effects of paramount parameters on turbulent impinging slot jets. The effects of nozzle-s exit turbulent intensity, distance between nozzle and impinging plate are studied at Reynolds number 5000 and 20000. In addition, the effect of Mach number that is varied between 0.3-0.8 at a constant Reynolds number 133000 is investigated to elucidate the effect of compressibility in impinging jet upon a flat plate. The wall that is located at the same level with nozzle-s exit confines the flow. A compressible finite volume solver is implemented for simulation the flow behavior. One equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model is used to simulate turbulent flow at this study. Assessment of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model at high nozzle to plate distance, and giving enough insights to characterize the effect of Mach number at high Reynolds number for the complex impinging jet flow are the remarkable results of this study.
Paper Detail
1712
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29
2091
Numerical Simulation of Minimum Distance Jet Impingement Heat Transfer
Abstract:
Impinging jets are used in various industrial areas as a cooling and drying technique. The current research is concerned with the means of improving the heat transfer for configurations with a minimum distance of the nozzle to the impingement surface. The impingement heat transfer is described using numerical methods over a wide range of parameters for an array of planar jets. These parameters include varying jet flow speed, width of nozzle, distance of nozzle, angle of the jet flow, velocity and geometry of the impingement surface. Normal pressure and shear stress are computed as additional parameters. Using dimensionless characteristic numbers the parameters and the results are correlated to gain generalized equations. The results demonstrate the effect of the investigated parameters on the flow.
Paper Detail
1551
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28
614
Ignition Time Delay in Swirling Supersonic Flow Combustion
Authors:
Abstract:
Supersonic hydrogen-air cylindrical mixing layer is numerically analyzed to investigate the effect of inlet swirl on ignition time delay in scramjets. Combustion is treated using detail chemical kinetics. One-equation turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras is chosen to study the problem and advection upstream splitting method is used as computational scheme. The results show that swirling both fuel and oxidizer streams may drastically decrease the ignition distance in supersonic combustion, unlike using the swirl just in fuel stream which has no helpful effect.
Paper Detail
1406
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27
4936
A Numerical Study on Heat Transfer in Laminar Pulsed Slot Jets Impinging on a Surface
Authors:
Abstract:
Numerical simulations are performed for laminar continuous and pulsed jets impinging on a surface in order to investigate the effects of pulsing frequency on the heat transfer characteristics. The time-averaged Nusselt number of pulsed jets is larger in the impinging jet region as compared to the continuous jet, while it is smaller in the outer wall jet region. At the stagnation point, the mean and RMS Nusselt numbers become larger and smaller, respectively, as the pulsing frequency increases. Unsteady behaviors of vortical fluid motions and temperature field are also investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement.
Paper Detail
1120
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26
4551
Enhancement of Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate with Ribs
Abstract:
Impinging jets are widely used in industrial cooling systems for their high heat transfer characteristics at stagnation points. However, the heat transfer characteristics are low in the downstream direction. In order to improve the heat transfer coefficient further downstream, investigations introducing ribs on jet-cooled flat plates have been conducted. Most studies regarding the heat-transfer enhancement using a rib-roughened wall have dealt with the rib pitch. In this paper, we focused on the rib spacing and demonstrated that the rib spacing must be more than 6 times the nozzle width to improve heat transfer at Reynolds number Re=5.0×103 because it is necessary to have enough space to allow reattachment of flow behind the first rib.
Paper Detail
1593
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25
11626
Density Wave Instability of Supercritical Kerosene in Active Cooling Channels of Scramjets
Abstract:

Experimental investigations were made on the instability of supercritical kerosene flowing in active cooling channels. Two approaches were used to control the pressure in the channel. One is the back-pressure valve while the other is the venturi. In both conditions, a kind of low-frequency oscillation of pressure and temperature is observed. And the oscillation periods are calculated. By comparison with the flow time, it is concluded that the instability occurred in active cooling channels is probably one kind of density wave instability. And its period has no relationship with the cooling channel geometry, nor the pressure, but only depends on the flow time of kerosene in active cooling channels. When the mass flow rate, density and pressure drop couple with each other, the density wave instability will appear.

Paper Detail
911
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24
9996923
Role of Viscosity Ratio in Liquid-Liquid Jets under Radial Electric Field
Abstract:

The effect of viscosity ratio (λ, defined as viscosity of surrounding medium/viscosity of fluid jet) on stability of axisymmetric (m=0) and asymmetric (m=1) modes of perturbation on a liquid-liquid jet in presence of radial electric field (E0 ), is studied using linear stability analysis. The viscosity ratio is shown to have a damping effect on both the modes of perturbation. However the effect was found more pronounced for the m=1 mode as compared to m=1 mode. Investigating the effect of both E0 and λ simultaneously, an operating diagram is generated, which clearly shows the regions of dominance of the two modes for a range of electric field and viscosity ratio values.

Paper Detail
1087
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23
9027
Study of Aero-thermal Effects with Heat Radiation in Optical Side Window
Abstract:
In hypersonic environments, the aerothermal effect makes it difficult for the optical side windows of optical guided missiles to withstand high heat. This produces cracking or breaking, resulting in an inability to function. This study used computational fluid mechanics to investigate the external cooling jet conditions of optical side windows. The turbulent models k-ε and k-ω were simulated. To be in better accord with actual aerothermal environments, a thermal radiation model was added to examine suitable amounts of external coolants and the optical window problems of aero-thermodynamics. The simulation results indicate that when there are no external cooling jets, because airflow on the optical window and the tail groove produce vortices, the temperatures in these two locations reach a peak of approximately 1600 K. When the external cooling jets worked at 0.15 kg/s, the surface temperature of the optical windows dropped to approximately 280 K. When adding thermal radiation conditions, because heat flux dissipation was faster, the surface temperature of the optical windows fell from 280 K to approximately 260 K. The difference in influence of the different turbulence models k-ε and k-ω on optical window surface temperature was not significant.
Paper Detail
1918
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