International Science Index

20
10005642
H.264 Video Privacy Protection Method Using Regions of Interest Encryption
Abstract:

Like a closed-circuit television (CCTV), video surveillance system is widely placed for gathering video from unspecified people to prevent crime, surveillance, or many other purposes. However, abuse of CCTV brings about concerns of personal privacy invasions. In this paper, we propose an encryption method to protect personal privacy system in H.264 compressed video bitstream with encrypting only regions of interest (ROI). There is no need to change the existing video surveillance system. In addition, encrypting ROI in compressed video bitstream is a challenging work due to spatial and temporal drift errors. For this reason, we propose a novel drift mitigation method when ROI is encrypted. The proposed method was implemented by using JM reference software based on the H.264 compressed videos, and experimental results show the verification of our proposed methods and its effectiveness.

Paper Detail
573
downloads
19
10002731
Enhancing the Performance of H.264/AVC in Adaptive Group of Pictures Mode Using Octagon and Square Search Pattern
Abstract:
This paper integrates Octagon and Square Search pattern (OCTSS) motion estimation algorithm into H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video codec in Adaptive Group of Pictures (AGOP) mode. AGOP structure is computed based on scene change in the video sequence. Octagon and square search pattern block-based motion estimation method is implemented in inter-prediction process of H.264/AVC. Both these methods reduce bit rate and computational complexity while maintaining the quality of the video sequence respectively. Experiments are conducted for different types of video sequence. The results substantially proved that the bit rate, computation time and PSNR gain achieved by the proposed method is better than the existing H.264/AVC with fixed GOP and AGOP. With a marginal gain in quality of 0.28dB and average gain in bitrate of 132.87kbps, the proposed method reduces the average computation time by 27.31 minutes when compared to the existing state-of-art H.264/AVC video codec.
Paper Detail
971
downloads
18
16361
A New H.264-Based Rate Control Algorithm for Stereoscopic Video Coding
Abstract:

According to investigating impact of complexity of stereoscopic frame pairs on stereoscopic video coding and transmission, a new rate control algorithm is presented. The proposed rate control algorithm is performed on three levels: stereoscopic group of pictures (SGOP) level, stereoscopic frame (SFrame) level and frame level. A temporal-spatial frame complexity model is firstly established, in the bits allocation stage, the frame complexity, position significance and reference property between the left and right frames are taken into account. Meanwhile, the target buffer is set according to the frame complexity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently control the bitrates, and it outperforms the fixed quantization parameter method from the rate distortion perspective, and average PSNR gain between rate-distortion curves (BDPSNR) is 0.21dB.

Paper Detail
1152
downloads
17
13528
Face Image Coding Using Face Prototyping
Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for face image coding. The proposed method makes a use of the features of video encoders like motion prediction. At first encoder selects appropriate prototype from the database and warps it according to features of encoding face. Warped prototype is placed as first I frame. Encoding face is placed as second frame as P frame type. Information about features positions, color change, selected prototype and data flow of P frame will be sent to decoder. The condition is both encoder and decoder own the same database of prototypes. We have run experiment with H.264 video encoder and obtained results were compared to results achieved by JPEG and JPEG2000. Obtained results show that our approach is able to achieve 3 times lower bitrate and two times higher PSNR in comparison with JPEG. According to comparison with JPEG2000 the bitrate was very similar, but subjective quality achieved by proposed method is better.

Paper Detail
1115
downloads
16
7288
Selective Encryption using ISMA Cryp in Real Time Video Streaming of H.264/AVC for DVB-H Application
Abstract:
Multimedia information availability has increased dramatically with the advent of video broadcasting on handheld devices. But with this availability comes problems of maintaining the security of information that is displayed in public. ISMA Encryption and Authentication (ISMACryp) is one of the chosen technologies for service protection in DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting- Handheld), the TV system for portable handheld devices. The ISMACryp is encoded with H.264/AVC (advanced video coding), while leaving all structural data as it is. Two modes of ISMACryp are available; the CTR mode (Counter type) and CBC mode (Cipher Block Chaining) mode. Both modes of ISMACryp are based on 128- bit AES algorithm. AES algorithms are more complex and require larger time for execution which is not suitable for real time application like live TV. The proposed system aims to gain a deep understanding of video data security on multimedia technologies and to provide security for real time video applications using selective encryption for H.264/AVC. Five level of security proposed in this paper based on the content of NAL unit in Baseline Constrain profile of H.264/AVC. The selective encryption in different levels provides encryption of intra-prediction mode, residue data, inter-prediction mode or motion vectors only. Experimental results shown in this paper described that fifth level which is ISMACryp provide higher level of security with more encryption time and the one level provide lower level of security by encrypting only motion vectors with lower execution time without compromise on compression and quality of visual content. This encryption scheme with compression process with low cost, and keeps the file format unchanged with some direct operations supported. Simulation was being carried out in Matlab.
Paper Detail
1338
downloads
15
8359
Intra Prediction using Weighted Average of Pixel Values According to Prediction Direction
Abstract:
In this paper, we proposed a method to reduce quantization error. In order to reduce quantization error, low pass filtering is applied on neighboring samples of current block in H.264/AVC. However, it has a weak point that low pass filtering is performed regardless of prediction direction. Since it doesn-t consider prediction direction, it may not reduce quantization error effectively. Proposed method considers prediction direction for low pass filtering and uses a threshold condition for reducing flag bit. We compare our experimental result with conventional method in H.264/AVC and we can achieve the average bit-rate reduction of 1.534% by applying the proposed method. Bit-rate reduction between 0.580% and 3.567% are shown for experimental results.
Paper Detail
1038
downloads
14
8119
Intelligibility of Cued Speech in Video
Abstract:
This paper discusses the cued speech recognition methods in videoconference. Cued speech is a specific gesture language that is used for communication between deaf people. We define the criteria for sentence intelligibility according to answers of testing subjects (deaf people). In our tests we use 30 sample videos coded by H.264 codec with various bit-rates and various speed of cued speech. Additionally, we define the criteria for consonant sign recognizability in single-handed finger alphabet (dactyl) analogically to acoustics. We use another 12 sample videos coded by H.264 codec with various bit-rates in four different video formats. To interpret the results we apply the standard scale for subjective video quality evaluation and the percentual evaluation of intelligibility as in acoustics. From the results we construct the minimum coded bit-rate recommendations for every spatial resolution.
Paper Detail
897
downloads
13
11962
Post-Compression Consideration in Video Watermarking for Wireless Communication
Abstract:
A simple but effective digital watermarking scheme utilizing a context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) method is presented for wireless communication system. In the proposed approach, the watermark bits are embedded in the final non-zero quantized coefficient of each DCT block, thereby yielding a potential reduction in the length of the coded block. As a result, the watermarking scheme not only provides the means to check the authenticity and integrity of the video stream, but also improves the compression ratio and therefore reduces both the transmission time and the storage space requirements of the coded video sequence. The results confirm that the proposed scheme enables the detection of malicious tampering attacks and reduces the size of the coded H.264 file. Therefore, the current study is feasible to apply in the video applications of wireless communication such as 3G system
Paper Detail
1253
downloads
12
1983
Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain. The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and output bit-rate for most test videos.
Paper Detail
1383
downloads
11
2233
Dynamic Data Partition Algorithm for a Parallel H.264 Encoder
Abstract:
The H.264/AVC standard is a highly efficient video codec providing high-quality videos at low bit-rates. As employing advanced techniques, the computational complexity has been increased. The complexity brings about the major problem in the implementation of a real-time encoder and decoder. Parallelism is the one of approaches which can be implemented by multi-core system. We analyze macroblock-level parallelism which ensures the same bit rate with high concurrency of processors. In order to reduce the encoding time, dynamic data partition based on macroblock region is proposed. The data partition has the advantages in load balancing and data communication overhead. Using the data partition, the encoder obtains more than 3.59x speed-up on a four-processor system. This work can be applied to other multimedia processing applications.
Paper Detail
1119
downloads
10
2152
Fast Intra Prediction Algorithm for H.264/AVC Based on Quadratic and Gradient Model
Abstract:
The H.264/AVC standard uses an intra prediction, 9 directional modes for 4x4 luma blocks and 8x8 luma blocks, 4 directional modes for 16x16 macroblock and 8x8 chroma blocks, respectively. It means that, for a macroblock, it has to perform 736 different RDO calculation before a best RDO modes is determined. With this Multiple intra-mode prediction, intra coding of H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards, but computational complexity is increased significantly. This paper presents a fast intra prediction algorithm for H.264/AVC intra prediction based a characteristic of homogeneity information. In this study, the gradient prediction method used to predict the homogeneous area and the quadratic prediction function used to predict the nonhomogeneous area. Based on the correlation between the homogeneity and block size, the smaller block is predicted by gradient prediction and quadratic prediction, so the bigger block is predicted by gradient prediction. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method reduce the complexity by up to 76.07% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.94%bit rate increase in average.
Paper Detail
1117
downloads
9
14946
A High Bitrate Information Hiding Algorithm for Video in Video
Abstract:
In high bitrate information hiding techniques, 1 bit is embedded within each 4 x 4 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficient block by means of vector quantization, then the hidden bit can be effectively extracted in terminal end. In this paper high bitrate information hiding algorithms are summarized, and the scheme of video in video is implemented. Experimental result shows that the host video which is embedded numerous auxiliary information have little visually quality decline. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)Y of host video only degrades 0.22dB in average, while the hidden information has a high percentage of survives and keeps a high robustness in H.264/AVC compression, the average Bit Error Rate(BER) of hiding information is 0.015%.
Paper Detail
1182
downloads
8
14286
Transform-Domain Rate-Distortion Optimization Accelerator for H.264/AVC Video Encoding
Abstract:
In H.264/AVC video encoding, rate-distortion optimization for mode selection plays a significant role to achieve outstanding performance in compression efficiency and video quality. However, this mode selection process also makes the encoding process extremely complex, especially in the computation of the ratedistortion cost function, which includes the computations of the sum of squared difference (SSD) between the original and reconstructed image blocks and context-based entropy coding of the block. In this paper, a transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator based on fast SSD (FSSD) and VLC-based rate estimation algorithm is proposed. This algorithm could significantly simplify the hardware architecture for the rate-distortion cost computation with only ignorable performance degradation. An efficient hardware structure for implementing the proposed transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator is also proposed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm reduces about 47% of total encoding time with negligible degradation of coding performance. The proposed method can be easily applied to many mobile video application areas such as a digital camera and a DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) phone.
Paper Detail
925
downloads
7
1982
Using PFA in Feature Analysis and Selection for H.264 Adaptation
Abstract:

Classification of video sequences based on their contents is a vital process for adaptation techniques. It helps decide which adaptation technique best fits the resource reduction requested by the client. In this paper we used the principal feature analysis algorithm to select a reduced subset of video features. The main idea is to select only one feature from each class based on the similarities between the features within that class. Our results showed that using this feature reduction technique the source video features can be completely omitted from future classification of video sequences.

Paper Detail
916
downloads
6
10193
Bitrate Reduction Using FMO for Video Streaming over Packet Networks
Abstract:
Flexible macroblock ordering (FMO), adopted in the H.264 standard, allows to partition all macroblocks (MBs) in a frame into separate groups of MBs called Slice Groups (SGs). FMO can not only support error-resilience, but also control the size of video packets for different network types. However, it is well-known that the number of bits required for encoding the frame is increased by adopting FMO. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can reduce the bitrate overhead caused by utilizing FMO. In the proposed algorithm, all MBs are grouped in SGs based on the similarity of the transform coefficients. Experimental results show that our algorithm can reduce the bitrate as compared with conventional FMO.
Paper Detail
752
downloads
5
5468
Motion Area Estimated Motion Estimation with Triplet Search Patterns for H.264/AVC
Abstract:
In this paper a fast motion estimation method for H.264/AVC named Triplet Search Motion Estimation (TS-ME) is proposed. Similar to some of the traditional fast motion estimation methods and their improved proposals which restrict the search points only to some selected candidates to decrease the computation complexity, proposed algorithm separate the motion search process to several steps but with some new features. First, proposed algorithm try to search the real motion area using proposed triplet patterns instead of some selected search points to avoid dropping into the local minimum. Then, in the localized motion area a novel 3-step motion search algorithm is performed. Proposed search patterns are categorized into three rings on the basis of the distance from the search center. These three rings are adaptively selected by referencing the surrounding motion vectors to early terminate the motion search process. On the other hand, computation reduction for sub pixel motion search is also discussed considering the appearance probability of the sub pixel motion vector. From the simulation results, motion estimation speed improved by a factor of up to 38 when using proposed algorithm than that of the reference software of H.264/AVC with ignorable picture quality loss.
Paper Detail
658
downloads
4
16015
Novel Security Strategy for Real Time Digital Videos
Abstract:

Now a days video data embedding approach is a very challenging and interesting task towards keeping real time video data secure. We can implement and use this technique with high-level applications. As the rate-distortion of any image is not confirmed, because the gain provided by accurate image frame segmentation are balanced by the inefficiency of coding objects of arbitrary shape, with a lot factors like losses that depend on both the coding scheme and the object structure. By using rate controller in association with the encoder one can dynamically adjust the target bitrate. This paper discusses about to keep secure videos by mixing signature data with negligible distortion in the original video, and to keep steganographic video as closely as possible to the quality of the original video. In this discussion we propose the method for embedding the signature data into separate video frames by the use of block Discrete Cosine Transform. These frames are then encoded by real time encoding H.264 scheme concepts. After processing, at receiver end recovery of original video and the signature data is proposed.

Paper Detail
995
downloads
3
3908
Layered Multiple Description Coding For Robust Video Transmission Over Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper presents a video transmission system using layered multiple description (coding (MDC) and multi-path transport for reliable video communications in wireless ad-hoc networks. The proposed MDC extends a quality-scalable H.264/AVC video coding algorithm to generate two independent descriptions. The two descriptions are transmitted over different paths to a receiver in order to alleviate the effect of unstable channel conditions of wireless adhoc networks. If one description is lost due to transmission erros, then the correctly received description is used to estimate the lost information of the corrupted description. The proposed MD coder maintains an adequate video quality as long as both description are not simultaneously lost. Simulation results show that the proposed MD coding combined with multi-path transport system is largely immune to packet losses, and therefore, can be a promising solution for robust video communications over wireless ad-hoc networks.
Paper Detail
845
downloads
2
1738
Selective Intra Prediction Mode Decision for H.264/AVC Encoders
Abstract:
H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards such as MPEG-2, but computational complexity is increased significantly. In this paper, we propose selective mode decision schemes for fast intra prediction mode selection. The objective is to reduce the computational complexity of the H.264/AVC encoder without significant rate-distortion performance degradation. In our proposed schemes, the intra prediction complexity is reduced by limiting the luma and chroma prediction modes using the directional information of the 16×16 prediction mode. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed schemes reduce the complexity by up to 78% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.46% bit rate increase in average.
Paper Detail
2327
downloads
1
11238
A New Fast Intra Prediction Mode Decision Algorithm for H.264/AVC Encoders
Abstract:

The H.264/AVC video coding standard contains a number of advanced features. Ones of the new features introduced in this standard is the multiple intramode prediction. Its function exploits directional spatial correlation with adjacent block for intra prediction. With this new features, intra coding of H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standard, but computational complexity is increased significantly when brut force rate distortion optimization (RDO) algorithm is used. In this paper, we propose a new fast intra prediction mode decision method for the complexity reduction of H.264 video coding. for luma intra prediction, the proposed method consists of two step: in the first step, we make the RDO for four mode of intra 4x4 block, based the distribution of RDO cost of those modes and the idea that the fort correlation with adjacent mode, we select the best mode of intra 4x4 block. In the second step, we based the fact that the dominating direction of a smaller block is similar to that of bigger block, the candidate modes of 8x8 blocks and 16x16 macroblocks are determined. So, in case of chroma intra prediction, the variance of the chroma pixel values is much smaller than that of luma ones, since our proposed uses only the mode DC. Experimental results show that the new fast intra mode decision algorithm increases the speed of intra coding significantly with negligible loss of PSNR.

Paper Detail
1734
downloads