International Science Index
Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes
Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.
Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.
Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study
We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.
Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation
The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.
Radiation Effects in the PVDF/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites
Exposure to ionizing radiation has been found to induce changes in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymers. The high dose gamma irradiation process induces the formation of C=C and C=O bonds in its [CH2-CF2]n main chain. The irradiation also provokes crosslinking and chain scission. All these radio-induced defects lead to changes in the PVDF crystalline structure. As a consequence, it is common to observe a decrease in the melting temperature (TM) and melting latent heat (LM) and some changes in its ferroelectric features. We have investigated the possibility of preparing nanocomposites of PVDF with graphene oxide (GO) through the radio-induction of molecular bonds. In this work, we discuss how the gamma radiation interacts with the nanocomposite crystalline structure.
Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle
In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.
Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets
Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.
Molecular Dynamics Analysis onI mpact Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Sheets
Impact behavior of striker on graphene sheet and carbon nanotube is investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A MD simulation is conducted to obtain the maximum dynamic deflections of a square and rectangular single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) with various values of side-length and striker parameter. Effect of (i) chirality, (ii) graphene side-length and nanotube length, (iii) striker mass on the maximum dynamic deflections of graphene and nanotube are investigated. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (Length/Diameter).
Properties Modification of Fiber Metal Laminates by Nanofillers
During past decades, increasing demand of modified Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) has stimulated a strong trend towards the development of these structures. FMLs contain several thin layers of metal bonded with composite materials. Characteristics of FMLs such as low specific mass, high bearing strength, impact resistance, corrosion resistance and high fatigue life are attractive. Nowadays, increasing development can be observed to promote the properties of polymer-based composites by nanofillers. By dispersing strong, nanofillers in polymer matrix, modified composites can be developed and tailored to individual applications. On the other hand, the synergic effects of nanoparticles such as graphene and carbon nanotube can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. In present paper, the modifying of FMLs by nanofillers and the dispersing of nanoparticles in the polymers matrix are discussed. The evaluations have revealed that this approach is acceptable. Finally, a prospect is presented. This paper will lead to further work on these modified FML species.
One-Pot Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Graphene Synthesized from Paraphenylenediamine as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Used for Alkaline Fuel Cells
In the work presented here, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were synthesized and used as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. Paraphenylenediamine was used as N precursor. The N-doped graphene was synthesized under hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. All the materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, for electrochemical evaluation of samples, Rotating Disk electrode (RDE) and Cyclic Voltammetry techniques (CV) were employed. The resulting material exhibits an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent resistance towards methanol crossover effects, indicating their promising potential as ORR electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.
Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor
Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.
Characterization of Gamma Irradiated PVDF and PVDF/Graphene Oxide Composites by Spectroscopic Techniques
The combination of the properties of graphene oxide
(OG) and PVDF homopolymer makes their combined composite
materials as multifunctional systems with great potential. Knowledge
of the molecular structure is essential for better use. In this work, the
degradation of PVDF polymer exposed to gamma irradiation in
oxygen atmosphere in high dose rate has been studied and compared
to degradation of PVDF/OG composites. The samples were irradiated
with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate, with doses ranging from
100 kGy to 1,000 kGy. In FTIR data shown that the formation of
oxidation products was at the both samples with formation of
carbonyl and hydroxyl groups amongst the most prevalent products
in the pure PVDF samples. In the other hand, the composites samples
exhibit less presence of degradation products with predominant
formation of carbonyl groups, these results also seen in the UV-Vis
analysis. The results show that the samples of composites may have
greater resistance to the irradiation process, since they have less
degradation products than pure PVDF samples seen by spectroscopic
Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger
The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an
annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy
optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water
nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were
synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent
functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and
specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data
for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After
validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special
parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop
were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer
parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased
water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input
powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and
friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.
Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Modified Epoxy Resin for Pipeline Repair
This experimental study consists of a characterization
of epoxy grout where an amount of 2% of graphene nanoplatelets
particles were added to commercial epoxy resin to evaluate their
behavior regarding neat epoxy resin. Compressive tests, tensile tests
and flexural tests were conducted to study the effect of graphene
nanoplatelets on neat epoxy resin. By comparing graphene-based and
neat epoxy grout, there is no significant increase of strength due to
weak interface in the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites.
From this experiment, the tension and flexural strength of graphenebased
epoxy grouts is slightly lower than ones of neat epoxy grout.
Nevertheless, the addition of graphene has produced more consistent
results according to a smaller standard deviation of strength.
Furthermore, the graphene has also improved the ductility of the
grout, hence reducing its brittle behaviour. This shows that the
performance of graphene-based grout is reliably predictable and able
to minimise sudden rupture. This is important since repair design of
damaged pipeline is of deterministic nature.
Magnetic Field Effects on Parabolic Graphene Quantum Dots with Topological Defects
In this paper, we investigate the low-lying energy
levels of the two-dimensional parabolic graphene quantum dots
(GQDs) in the presence of topological defects with long range
Coulomb impurity and subjected to an external uniform magnetic
field. The low-lying energy levels of the system are obtained within
the framework of the perturbation theory. We theoretically
demonstrate that a valley splitting can be controlled by geometrical
parameters of the graphene quantum dots and/or by tuning a uniform
magnetic field, as well as topological defects. It is found that, for
parabolic graphene dots, the valley splitting occurs due to the
introduction of spatial confinement. The corresponding splitting is
enhanced by the introduction of a uniform magnetic field and it
increases by increasing the angle of the cone in subcritical regime.
Molecular Dynamics Study on Mechanical Responses of Circular Graphene Nanoflake under Nanoindentation
Graphene, a single-atom sheet, has been considered as
the most promising material for making future nanoelectromechanical
systems as well as purely electrical switching with graphene
transistors. Graphene-based devices have advantages in scaled-up
device fabrication due to the recent progress in large area graphene
growth and lithographic patterning of graphene nanostructures. Here
we investigated its mechanical responses of circular graphene
nanoflake under the nanoindentation using classical molecular
dynamics simulations. A correlation between the load and the
indentation depth was constructed. The nanoindented force in this
work was applied to the center point of the circular graphene nanoflake
and then, the resonance frequency could be tuned by a nanoindented
depth. We found the hardening or the softening of the graphene
nanoflake during its nanoindented-deflections, and such properties
were recognized by the shift of the resonance frequency. The
calculated mechanical parameters in the force-vs-deflection plot were
in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical works.
This proposed schematics can detect the pressure via the deflection
change or/and the resonance frequency shift, and also have great
potential for versatile applications in nanoelectromechanical systems.
The Toxicity of Doxorubicin with Nanotransporters
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline drug used to treat many cancer diseases. Similarly to other cytostatic drugs, DOX has serious side effects; the biggest obstacle is the cardiotoxicity. With the aim of lowering the negative side effects and to target the DOX into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles (NPs) are studied. The aim of this work was to synthetized different NPs and conjugated them with DOX and determine the binding capacity of the NPs. For this experiment, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO), fullerene (FUL) and liposomes (LIP) were used. The highest binding capacity was observed in GO (85%). Subsequently the toxicity of NPs and NPs-DOX conjugates was analyzed in in vivo system (chicken embryos). Some NPs (GO) can increase the toxicity of DOX, whereas other NPs (LIP, CNTs) decrease DOX toxicity.
The Study on Mechanical Properties of Graphene Using Molecular Mechanics
The elastic properties and fracture of two-dimensional
graphene were calculated purely from the atomic bonding (stretching
and bending) based on molecular mechanics method. Considering the
representative unit cell of graphene under various loading conditions,
the deformations of carbon bonds and the variations of the interlayer
distance could be realized numerically under the geometry constraints
and minimum energy assumption. In elastic region, it was found that
graphene was in-plane isotropic. Meanwhile, the in-plane deformation
of the representative unit cell is not uniform along armchair direction
due to the discrete and non-uniform distributions of the atoms. The
fracture of graphene could be predicted using fracture criteria based on
the critical bond length, over which the bond would break. It was
noticed that the fracture behavior were directional dependent, which
was consistent with molecular dynamics simulation results.
Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene
Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the
effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS)
and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or
not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether
they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for
wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in
various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on dewrinkling
graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning
Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of
graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has significant
effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the dewrinkling
Effects of Position and Shape of Atomic Defects on the Band Gap of Graphene Nano Ribbon Superlattices
In this work, we study the behavior of introducing
atomic size vacancy in a graphene nanoribbon superlattice. Our
investigations are based on the density functional theory (DFT) with
the Local Density Approximation in Atomistix Toolkit (ATK). We
show that, in addition to its shape, the position of vacancy has a
major impact on the electrical properties of a graphene nanoribbon
superlattice. We show that the band gap of an armchair graphene
nanoribbon may be tuned by introducing an appropriate periodic
pattern of vacancies. The band gap changes in a zig-zag manner
similar to the variation of band gap of a graphene nanoribbon by
changing its width.
Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots
Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs)
were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The
optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of
the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength.
Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by
near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a
key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to
find application in biological applications including bioimaging and
Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field
One- and two-dimensional carbon nanostructures with
sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nanotubes
and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and
spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic
structure. In this paper we present a comparative study of graphene
and single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in
strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in
electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nanostructures
induced by a strong magnetic field.
Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/ MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications
We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μg.cm-2 on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50μg.cm-2 MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.
Rheological and Thermomechanical Properties of Graphene/ABS/PP Nanocomposites
In the present study, the incorporation of graphene
into blends of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer with
polypropylene (ABS/PP) was investigated focusing on the
improvement of their thermomechanical characteristics and the effect
on their rheological behavior. The blends were prepared by melt
mixing in a twin-screw extruder and were characterized by measuring
the MFI as well as by performing DSC, TGA and mechanical tests.
The addition of graphene to ABS/PP blends tends to increase their
melt viscosity, due to the confinement of polymer chains motion.
Also, graphene causes an increment of the crystallization temperature
(Tc), especially in blends with higher PP content, because of the
reduction of surface energy of PP nucleation, which is a consequence
of the attachment of PP chains to the surface of graphene through the
intermolecular CH-π interaction. Moreover, the above nanofiller
improves the thermal stability of PP and increases the residue of
thermal degradation at all the investigated compositions of blends,
due to the thermal isolation effect and the mass transport barrier
effect. Regarding the mechanical properties, the addition of graphene
improves the elastic modulus, because of its intrinsic mechanical
characteristics and its rigidity, and this effect is particularly strong in
the case of pure PP.
Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects
The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of
carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We
demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene
nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching,
chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-
BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct
the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene
wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN
substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements
in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and
power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These
critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier
transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires
exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as
compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h-
BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the
implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.
Graphene Based Electronic Device
The semiconductor industry is placing an increased
emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide
improved performance, or provide novel functionality for devices.
Recently, graphene, as a true two-dimensional carbon material, has
shown fascinating applications in electronics. In this paper detailed
discussions are introduced for possible applications of grapheme
Transistor in RF and digital devices.
Green-Reduction of Covalently Functionalized Graphene Oxide with Varying Stoichiometry
Graphene-based materials were prepared by chemical reduction of covalently functionalized graphene oxide with environmentally friendly agents. Two varying stoichiometry of graphene oxide (GO) induced by using different chemical preparation conditions, further covalent functionalization of the GO materials with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride / N-hydroxysuccinimide and ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite as reducing agents were exploited in order to obtain controllable properties of the final solution-based graphene materials. The obtained materials were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed successful functionalization of the GO materials, while a comparison of the deoxygenation efficiency of the two-type functionalized graphene oxide suspensions by the different reducing agents has been made, revealing the strong dependence of their properties on the GO structure and reducing agents.
Extraction of Graphene-Titanium Contact Resistances using Transfer Length Measurement and a Curve-Fit Method
Graphene-metal contact resistance limits the performance of graphene-based electrical devices. In this work, we have fabricated both graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) and transfer length measurement (TLM) test devices with titanium contacts. The purpose of this work is to compare the contact resistances that can be numerically extracted from the GFETs and measured from the TLM structures. We also provide a brief review of the work done in the field to solve the contact resistance problem.
Crystalline Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges via a Novel Physico- Chemical Route
A novel physico-chemical route to produce few layer graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges is reported, via acid treatment (H2SO4:HNO3) followed by characteristic thermal shock processes involving extremely cold substances. Samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This method demonstrates the importance of having the nanotubes open ended for an efficient uniform unzipping along the nanotube axis. The average dimensions of these nanoribbons are approximately ca. 210 nm wide and consist of few layers, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The produced nanoribbons exhibit different chiralities, as observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This method is able to provide graphene nanoribbons with atomically smooth edges which could be used in various applications including sensors, gas adsorption materials, composite fillers, among others.
The Small Scale Effect on Nonlinear Vibration of Single Layer Graphene Sheets
In the present article, nonlinear vibration analysis of
single layer graphene sheets is presented and the effect of small
length scale is investigated. Using the Hamilton's principle, the three
coupled nonlinear equations of motion are obtained based on the von
Karman geometrical model and Eringen theory of nonlocal
continuum. The solutions of Free nonlinear vibration, based on a one
term mode shape, are found for both simply supported and clamped
graphene sheets. A complete analysis of graphene sheets with
movable as well as immovable in-plane conditions is also carried out.
The results obtained herein are compared with those available in the
literature for classical isotropic rectangular plates and excellent
agreement is seen. Also, the nonlinear effects are presented as
functions of geometric properties and small scale parameter.