International Science Index

4
10002640
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Lyophilization Using Vacuum-Induced Freezing
Abstract:
Lyophilization, also called freeze-drying, is an important dehydration technique mainly used for pharmaceuticals. Food industry also uses lyophilization when it is important to retain most of the nutritional quality, taste, shape and size of dried products and to extend their shelf life. Vacuum-Induced during freezing cycle (VI) has been used in order to control ice nucleation and, consequently, to reduce the time of primary drying cycle of pharmaceuticals preserving quality properties of the final product. This procedure has not been applied in freeze drying of foods. The present work aims to investigate the effect of VI on the lyophilization drying time, final moisture content, density and reconstitutional properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) slices (MS) and mango pulp-maltodextrin dispersions (MPM) (30% concentration of total solids). Control samples were run at each freezing rate without using induced vacuum. The lyophilization endpoint was the same for all treatments (constant difference between capacitance and Pirani vacuum gauges). From the experimental results it can be concluded that at the high freezing rate (0.4°C/min) reduced the overall process time up to 30% comparing process time required for the control and VI of the lower freeze rate (0.1°C/min) without affecting the quality characteristics of the dried product, which yields a reduction in costs and energy consumption for MS and MPM freeze drying. Controls and samples treated with VI at freezing rate of 0.4°C/min in MS showed similar results in moisture and density parameters. Furthermore, results from MPM dispersion showed favorable values when VI was applied because dried product with low moisture content and low density was obtained at shorter process time compared with the control. There were not found significant differences between reconstitutional properties (rehydration for MS and solubility for MPM) of freeze dried mango resulting from controls, and VI treatments.
Paper Detail
1196
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3
10002404
Extraction, Characterization and Application of Natural Dyes from the Fresh Rind of Index Colour 5 Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)
Authors:
Abstract:
This study was to explore and utilize the fresh rind of mangosteen Index Colour 5 as an upcoming raw material for the production of natural dyes. Rind from the fresh mangosteen Index Colour 5 was utilized to extract the dyes. The established extracts were experimented on silk fabrics via three types of mordanting and dyeing procedures; pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post-mordanting. As a result, the applications of the freeze-drying methodology and mechanizable equipment have helped to produce excellent range of natural colours. Silk fabric treated simultaneously with mordanting and dyeing with extract dye Index Colour 5 produced a brilliant shade of the red colour and the colour from this index is also discovered sensitive to light and washing during the fastness tests. The preliminary evaluation and instrumentation analysis allowed us to examine whether the application of different mordanting and dyeing procedures with the same extract samples and concentrations affected the colours and shades of the fabric samples.
Paper Detail
1859
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2
10003788
Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder
Abstract:
Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.
Paper Detail
604
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1
9997277
Preparation of Tempeh Spore Powder by Freeze Drying
Abstract:

Study production of tempeh inoculums powder by freeze-drying comparison with dry at 50°C and the sun bask for developing efficient tempeh inoculums for tempeh producing. Rhizopus oligosporus in PDA slant cultures was incubated at 30oC for 3-5 days until spores and mycelium. Preparation spores suspension with sterilized water and then count the number of started spores. Fill spores suspension in Rice flour and soy flour, mixed with water (in the ratio 10: 7), which is steamed and sterilized at 121°C 15min. Incubated at room temperature for 4 days, count number of spores. Then take the progressive infection and full spore dough to dry at 50°C, sun bask, and lyophilize. Grind to powder. Then pack in plastic bags, stored at 5°C. To investigate quality of inoculums which use different methods, tempeh was fermented every 4 weeks for 24 weeks of the experiment. The result found that rice flour is not suitable to use as raw material in the production of powdered spores.  Fungi can growth rarely. Less number of spores and requires more time than soy flour. For drying method, lyophilization is the least possible time. Samples from this method are very hard and very dark and harder to grind than other methods. Drying at 50°C takes longer time than lyophilization but can also set time use for drying. Character of the dry samples is hard solid and brown color, but can be grinded easier. The sun drying takes the longest time, can’t determine the exact time. When the spore powder was used to fermented tempeh immediately, product has similar characters as which use spores that was fresh prepared. The tempeh has normal quality. When spore powder stored at low temperature, tempeh from storage spore in weeks 4, 8 and 12 is still normal. Time spending in production was close to the production of fresh spores. After storage  spores for 16 and 20 weeks, tempeh is still normal but growth and sporulation were take longer time than usual (about 6 hours). At 24 week storage, fungal growth is not good, made tempeh looks inferior to normal color, also smell and texture.

Paper Detail
2459
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