International Science Index
Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process
Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.
Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network
In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.
Energy Management System and Interactive Functions of Smart Plug for Smart Home
Intelligent electronic equipment and automation network is the brain of high-tech energy management systems in critical role of smart homes dominance. Smart home is a technology integration for greater comfort, autonomy, reduced cost, and energy saving as well. These services can be provided to home owners for managing their home appliances locally or remotely and consequently allow them to automate intelligently and responsibly their consumption by individual or collective control systems. In this study, three smart plugs are described and one of them tested on typical household appliances. This article proposes to collect the data from the wireless technology and to extract some smart data for energy management system. This smart data is to quantify for three kinds of load: intermittent load, phantom load and continuous load. Phantom load is a waste power that is one of unnoticed power of each appliance while connected or disconnected to the main. Intermittent load and continuous load take in to consideration the power and using time of home appliances. By analysing the classification of loads, this smart data will be provided to reduce the communication of wireless sensor network for energy management system.
Role of Facade in Sustainability Enhancement of Contemporary Iranian Buildings
A growing demand for sustainability makes sustainability as one of the significant debates of nowadays. Energy saving is one of the main criteria to be considered in the context of sustainability. Reducing energy use in buildings is one of the most important ways to reduce humans’ overall environmental impact. Taking this into consideration, study of different design strategies, which can assist in reducing energy use and subsequently improving the sustainability level of today's buildings would be an essential task. The sustainability level of a building is highly affected by the sustainability performance of its components. One of the main building components, which can have a great impact on energy saving and sustainability level of the building, is its facade. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of facade in sustainability enhancement of the contemporary buildings of Iran. In this study, the concept of sustainability in architecture, the building facades, and their relationship to sustainability are explained briefly. Following that, a number of contemporary Iranian buildings are discussed and analyzed in terms of different design strategies used in their facades in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. The results of this paper would assist in generating a wider vision and a source of inspiration for the current designers to design and create environmental and sustainable buildings for the future.
Hybrid Adaptive Modeling to Enhance Robustness of Real-Time Optimization
Real-time optimization has been considered an effective approach for improving energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In model-based real-time optimization, model mismatches cannot be avoided. When model mismatches are significant, the performance of the real-time optimization will be impaired and hence the expected energy saving will be reduced. In this paper, the model mismatches for chiller plant on real-time optimization are considered. In the real-time optimization of the chiller plant, simplified semi-physical or grey box model of chiller is always used, which should be identified using available operation data. To overcome the model mismatches associated with the chiller model, hybrid Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) method is used for online real-time training of the chiller model. HGAs combines Genetic Algorithms (GAs) method (for global search) and traditional optimization method (i.e. faster and more efficient for local search) to avoid conventional hit and trial process of GAs. The identification of model parameters is synthesized as an optimization problem; and the objective function is the Least Square Error between the output from the model and the actual output from the chiller plant. A case study is used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed approach is able to provide reliability in decision making, enhance the robustness of the real-time optimization strategy and improve on energy performance.
Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD
In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.
Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates
Upgrading the thermal performance of building
envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce
heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for
building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and
thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time.
Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in
winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously,
overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic
zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of
overhang device on building energy performance under different
climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a
computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based
on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy
simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down
around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the
stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by
other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling
though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In
regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over
windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and
without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that
overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy
consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.
Comparison of Traditional and Green Building Designs in Egypt: Energy Saving
This paper describes in details a commercial green building that has been designed and constructed in Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment has been taken into consideration in the design and construction of this building. The building consists of one floor with 3 m height and 2810 m2 area while the envelope area is 1400 m2. The building construction fulfills the natural ventilation requirements. The glass curtain walls are about 50% of the building and the windows area is 300 m2. 6 mm greenish gray tinted temper glass as outer board lite, 6 mm safety glass as inner board lite and 16 mm thick dehydrated air spaces are used in the building. Visible light with 50% transmission, 0.26 solar factor, 0.67 shading coefficient and 1.3 W/m2.K thermal insulation U-value are implemented to realize the performance requirements. Optimum electrical distribution for lighting system, air conditions and other electrical loads has been carried out. Power and quantity of each type of the lighting system lamps and the energy consumption of the lighting system are investigated. The design of the air conditions system is based on summer and winter outdoor conditions. Ventilated, air conditioned spaces and fresh air rates are determined. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is the air conditioning system used in this building. The VRF outdoor units are located on the roof of the building and connected to indoor units through refrigerant piping. Indoor units are distributed in all building zones through ducts and air outlets to ensure efficient air distribution. The green building energy consumption is evaluated monthly all over one year and compared with the consumed energy in the non-green conditions using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) model. The comparison results show that the total energy consumed per year in the green building is about 1,103,221 kWh while the non-green energy consumption is about 1,692,057 kWh. In other words, the green building total annual energy cost is reduced from 136,581 $ to 89,051 $. This means that, the energy saving and consequently the money-saving of this green construction is about 35%. In addition, 13 points are awarded by applying one of the most popular worldwide green energy certification programs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design “LEED”) as a rating system for the green construction. It is concluded that this green building ensures sustainability, saves energy and offers an optimum energy performance with minimum cost.
Contemplating Preference Ratings of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices for Supply Chain Performance System Implementation
The objective of this research work is to identify and analyze the significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices with an aim to improve the supply chain performance of automobile industry located at National Capital Region (NCR) of India. To achieve the objective, 6 CSR practices have been considered and analyzed using expert’s preference rating (EPR) approach. The considered CSR practices are namely, Top management and employee awareness about CSR (P1), Employee involvement in social and environmental problems (P2), Protection of human rights (P3), Waste reduction, energy saving and water conservation (P4), Proper visibility of CSR guidelines (P5) and Broad perception towards CSR initiatives (P6). The outcomes of this research may help mangers in decision making processes and framing polices for SCP implementation under CSR context.
Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar-Powered Triple-Effect Absorption Chiller for Air-Conditioning Applications
In this paper, a detailed simulation model of a solar-powered triple-effect LiBr–H2O absorption chiller is developed to supply both cooling and heating demand of a large-scale building, aiming to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in building sector. TRNSYS 17 is used to simulate the performance of the system over a typical year. A combined energetic-economic-environmental analysis is conducted to determine the system annual primary energy consumption and the total cost, which are considered as two conflicting objectives. A multi-objective optimization of the system is performed using a genetic algorithm to minimize these objectives simultaneously. The optimization results show that the final optimal design of the proposed plant has a solar fraction of 72% and leads to an annual primary energy saving of 0.69 GWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of ~166 tonnes, as compared to a conventional HVAC system. The economics of this design, however, is not appealing without public funding, which is often the case for many renewable energy systems. The results show that a good funding policy is required in order for these technologies to achieve satisfactory payback periods within the lifetime of the plant.
Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings
The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.
A Study to Assess the Energy Saving Potential and Economic Analysis of an Agro Based Industry in Karnataka, India
Agro based industries in India are considered as the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME). In India, MSMEs contribute approximately 8 percent of the country’s GDP, 42 percent of the manufacturing output and 40 percent of exports. The toor dal (scientific name Cajanus cajan, commonly known as yellow gram, pigeon pea) is the second largest pulse crop in India accounting for about 20% of total pulse production. The toor dal milling industry in India is one of the major agro-processing industries in the country. Most of the dal mills are concentrated in pulse producing areas, which are spread all over the country. In Karnataka state, Gulbarga is a district, where toor dal is the main crop and is grown extensively. There are more than 500 dal mills in and around the Gulbarga district to process dal. However, the majority of these dal milling units use traditional methods of processing which are energy and capital intensive. There exists a huge energy saving potential in these mills. An energy audit is conducted on a dal mill in Gulbarga to understand the energy consumption pattern to assess the energy saving potential, and an economic analysis is conducted to identify energy conservation opportunities.
Analysis of Heat Exchanger Network of Distillation Unit of Shiraz Oil Refinery
The reduction of energy consumption through improvements in energy efficiency has become an important goal for all industries, in order to improve the efficiency of the economy, and to reduce the emissions of Co2 caused by power generation. The objective of this paper is to investigate opportunities to increase process energy efficiency at the distillation unit of Shiraz oil refinery in south of Iran. The main aim of the project is to locate energy savings by use of pinch technology and to assess them. At first all the required data of hot and cold streams in preheating section of distillation unit has been extracted from the available flow sheets and then pinch analysis has been conducted. The present case study is a threshold one which does not need any utilities. After running range, targeting several heat exchanger networks were designed with respect to operating conditions and different ΔTmin. The optimal value of ΔTmin was calculated to be 22.3 °C. Based on this optimal value, there will be 5% reduction in annual total cost of heat exchanger network.
Minimization Entropic Applied to Rotary Dryers to Reduce the Energy Consumption
The drying process is an important operation in the chemical industry and it is widely used in the food, grain industry and fertilizer industry. However, for demanding a considerable consumption of energy, such a process requires a deep energetic analysis in order to reduce operating costs. This paper deals with thermodynamic optimization applied to rotary dryers based on the entropy production minimization, aiming at to reduce the energy consumption. To do this, the mass, energy and entropy balance was used for developing a relationship that represents the rate of entropy production. The use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential because it takes into account constraints of nature. Since the entropy production rate is minimized, optimals conditions of operations can be established and the process can obtain a substantial gain in energy saving. The minimization strategy had been led using classical methods such as Lagrange multipliers and implemented in the MATLAB platform. As expected, the preliminary results reveal a significant energy saving by the application of the optimal parameters found by the procedure of the entropy minimization It is important to say that this method has shown easy implementation and low cost.
Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants Part I: Expander Development
The amount of the electrical power required by refrigeration systems is relevant worldwide. It is evaluated in the order of 15% of the total electricity production taking refrigeration and air-conditioning into consideration. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been proposed to reduce the power demand of such plants. The paper deals with the development of an innovative internal recovery system for cryogenic cooling plants. Such a system consists in a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG) designed on the basis of the automotive turbocharging technology. In particular, the paper is focused on the design of the expander, the critical component of the CEG system. Due to the low volumetric flow entering the expander and the high expansion ratio, a commercial turbocharger expander wheel was strongly modified. It was equipped with a transonic nozzle, designed to have a radially inflow full admission. To verify the performance of such a machine and suggest improvements, two different set of nozzles have been designed and modelled by means of the commercial Ansys-CFX software. steady-state 3D CFD simulations of the second-generation prototype are presented and compared with the initial ones.
Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea
Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.
Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions
Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.
Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions
In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.
Energy Saving of the Paint with Mineral Insulators: Simulation and Study on Different Climates
By using an adequate thermal barrier coating in
buildings the energy saving will be happened. In this study, a range
of wall paints with different absorption coefficient in different
climates has been investigated. In order to study these effects, heating
and cooling loads of a common building with different ordinary
paints and paint with mineral coating have been calculated. The
effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied
and comparison was done between ordinary paints and paint with
mineral insulators in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy
consumption. The results have been shown that coatings with
inorganic micro particles as insulation reduce the energy
consumption of buildings around 14%.
Towards the Use of Software Product Metrics as an Indicator for Measuring Mobile Applications Power Consumption
Maintaining factory default battery endurance rate
over time in supporting huge amount of running applications on
energy-restricted mobile devices has created a new challenge for
mobile applications developer. While delivering customers’
unlimited expectations, developers are barely aware of efficient use
of energy from the application itself. Thus, developers need a set of
valid energy consumption indicators in assisting them to develop
energy saving applications. In this paper, we present a few software
product metrics that can be used as an indicator to measure energy
consumption of Android-based mobile applications in the early of
design stage. In particular, Trepn Profiler (Power profiling tool for
Qualcomm processor) has used to collect the data of mobile
application power consumption, and then analyzed for the 23
software metrics in this preliminary study. The results show that
McCabe cyclomatic complexity, number of parameters, nested block
depth, number of methods, weighted methods per class, number of
classes, total lines of code and method lines have direct relationship
with power consumption of mobile application.
Decomposing the Impact Factors of Energy Consumption of Hotel through LMDI
Energy consumption of a hotel can be a hot topic in
smart city; it is difficult to evaluate the contribution of impact factors
to energy consumption of a hotel. Therefore, grasping the key impact
factors has great effect on the energy saving management of a hotel.
Based on the SPIRTPAT model, we establish the identity with the
impact factors of occupancy rate, unit area of revenue, temperature
factor, unit revenue of energy consumption. In this paper, we use the
LMDI (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index) to decompose the impact
factors of energy consumption of hotel from Jan. to Dec. in 2001. The
results indicate that the occupancy rate and unit area of revenue are the
main factors that can increase unit area of energy consumption, and the
unit revenue of energy consumption is the main factor to restrain the
growth of unit area of energy consumption. When the energy
consumption of hotel can appear abnormal, the hotel manager can
carry out energy saving management and control according to the
contribution value of impact factors.
A Comparative Case Study of the Impact of Square and Yurt-Shape Buildings on Energy Efficiency
Regions with extreme climate conditions such as
Astana city require energy saving measures to increase energy
performance of buildings which are responsible for more than 40% of
total energy consumption. Identification of optimal building
geometry is one of key factors to be considered. Architectural form of
a building has impact on space heating and cooling energy use,
however the interrelationship between the geometry and resultant
energy use is not always readily apparent. This paper presents a
comparative case study of two prototypical buildings with compact
building shape to assess its impact on energy performance.
Photocatalytic Cleaning Performance of Air Filters for a Binary Mixture
Ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UV-PCO)
technology has been recommended as a green approach to health
indoor environment when it is integrated into mechanical ventilation
systems for inorganic and organic compounds removal as well as
energy saving due to less outdoor air intakes. Although much research
has been devoted to UV-PCO, limited information is available on the
UV-PCO behavior tested by the mixtures in literature. This project
investigated UV-PCO performance and by-product generation using a
single and a mixture of acetone and MEK at 100 ppb each in a
single-pass duct system in an effort to obtain knowledge associated
with competitive photochemical reactions involved in. The
experiments were performed at 20 % RH, 22 °C, and a gas flow rate of
128 m3/h (75 cfm). Results show that acetone and MEK mutually
reduced each other’s PCO removal efficiency, particularly negative
removal efficiency for acetone. These findings were different from
previous observation of facilitatory effects on the adsorption of
acetone and MEK on photocatalyst surfaces.
Smart Energy Consumers: An Empirical Investigation on the Intention to Adopt Innovative Consumption Behaviour
The aim of the present study is to investigate
consumers' determinants of intention toward the adoption of Smart
Grid solutions and technologies. Ajzen's Theory of Planned
Behaviour (TPB) model is applied and tested to explain the formation
of such adoption intention. An exogenous variable, taking into
account the resistance to change of individuals, was added to the
basic model. The elicitation study allowed obtaining salient modal
beliefs, which were used, with the support of literature, to design the
questionnaire. After the screening phase, data collected from the
main survey were analysed for evaluating measurement model's
reliability and validity. Consistent with the theory, the results of
structural equation analysis revealed that attitude, subjective norm,
and perceived behavioural control positively, which affected the
adoption intention. Specifically, the variable with the highest estimate
loading factor was found to be the perceived behavioural control,
and, the most important belief related to each construct was
determined (e.g., energy saving was observed to be the most
significant belief linked with attitude). Further investigation indicated
that the added exogenous variable has a negative influence on
intention; this finding confirmed partially the hypothesis, since this
influence was indirect: such relationship was mediated by attitude.
Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Using Jumping Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Operation of Pump in Water Distribution Networks
Carefully scheduling the operations of pumps can be
resulted to significant energy savings. Schedules can be defined
either implicit, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank
levels, or explicit by specifying the time during which each pump is
on/off. In this study, two new explicit representations based on timecontrolled
triggers were analyzed, where the maximum number of
pump switches was established beforehand, and the schedule may
contain fewer switches than the maximum. The optimal operation of
pumping stations was determined using a Jumping Particle Swarm
Optimization (JPSO) algorithm to achieve the minimum energy cost.
The model integrates JPSO optimizer and EPANET hydraulic
network solver. The optimal pump operation schedule of VanZyl
water distribution system was determined using the proposed model
and compared with those from Genetic and Ant Colony algorithms.
The results indicate that the proposed model utilizing the JPSO
algorithm is a versatile management model for the operation of realworld
water distribution system.
Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada
Residential buildings consume significant amounts of
energy and produce large amount of emissions and waste. However,
there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which
needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life
Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study
the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of
different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and
beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different
alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with
a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise
Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family
Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH).
Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied
energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy,
operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total
life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy
and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena
Impact estimator software respectively.
The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings,
the relationship between the energy use and the environmental
impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms
of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while,
HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum
energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also
been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan
over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied
energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements
for SDH are found to be a significant component among the four
types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary
operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle
energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects
between the buildings.
Development of Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) in Hong Kong
This study addresses a concept of the Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) developed to optimize energy consumption in air conditioning and ventilation (ACV) systems without any deterioration of indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The SBEM incorporates two main components: an adaptive comfort temperature control module (ACT) and a new carbon dioxide demand control module (nDCV). These two modules take an innovative approach to maintain satisfaction of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) with optimum energy consumption; they provide a rational basis of effective control. A total of 2133 sets of measurement data of indoor air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (Rh) and carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) were conducted in some Hong Kong offices to investigate the potential of integrating the SBEM. A simulation was used to evaluate the dynamic performance of the energy and air conditioning system with the integration of the SBEM in an air-conditioned building. It allows us make a clear picture of the control strategies and performed any pre-tuned of controllers before utilized in real systems. With the integration of SBEM, it was able to save up to 12.3% in simulation of overall electricity consumption, and maintain the average carbon dioxide concentration within 1000ppm and occupant dissatisfaction in 20%.
Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving Evaluation of a Combined System in an Office Room Using Displacement Ventilation
In this paper, the energy saving and human thermal
comfort in a typical office room are investigated. The impact of a
combined system of exhaust inlet air with light slots located at the
ceiling level in a room served by displacement ventilation system is
numerically modelled. Previous experimental data are used to
validate the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. A case
study of simulated office room includes two seating occupants, two
computers, two data loggers and four lamps. The combined system is
located at the ceiling level above the heat sources. A new method of
calculation for the cooling coil load in Stratified Air Distribution
(STRAD) system is used in this study. The results show that 47.4%
energy saving of space cooling load can be achieved by combing the
exhaust inlet air with light slots at the ceiling level above the heat
Contribution of the Cogeneration Systems to Environment and Sustainability
A lower consumption of thermal energy will
contribute not only to a reduction in the running costs, but also in the
reduction of pollutant emissions that contribute to the greenhouse
effect. Cogeneration or CHP (Combined Heat and Power) is the
system that produces power and usable heat simultaneously by
decreasing the pollutant emissions and increasing the efficiency.
Combined production of mechanical or electrical and thermal energy
using a simple energy source, such as oil, coal, natural or liquefied
gas, biomass or the sun; affords remarkable energy savings and
frequently makes it possible to operate with greater efficiency when
compared to a system producing heat and power separately. This
study aims to bring out the contributions of cogeneration systems to
the environment and sustainability by saving the energy and reducing
the emissions. In this way we made a comprehensive investigation in
the literature by focusing on the environmental aspects of the
cogeneration systems. In the light of these studies we reached that,
cogeneration systems must be consider in sustainability and their
benefits on protecting the ecology must be investigated.
Sustainable Energy Supply in Social Housing
The final energy use can be divided mainly in four sectors: commercial, industrial, residential, and transportation. The trend in final energy consumption by sector plays as a most straightforward way to provide a wide indication of progress for reducing energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by different end use sectors. The average share of end use energy for residential sector in the world was nearly 20% until 2011, in Germany a higher proportion is between 25% and 30%. However, it remains less studied than energy use in other three sectors as well its impacts on climate and environment. The reason for this involves a wide range of fields, including the diversity of residential construction like different housing building design and materials, living or energy using behavioral patterns, climatic condition and variation as well other social obstacles, market trend potential and financial support from government.
This paper presents an extensive and in-depth analysis of the manner by which projects researched and operated by authors in the fields of energy efficiency primarily from the perspectives of both technical potential and initiative energy saving consciousness in the residential sectors especially in social housing buildings.