International Science Index

9
10005821
Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns
Abstract:

Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Paper Detail
336
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8
10004318
Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface
Abstract:

By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

Paper Detail
616
downloads
7
10004387
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency
Abstract:
Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.
Paper Detail
1731
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6
10001958
Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives
Authors:
Abstract:
The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.
Paper Detail
1134
downloads
5
10002276
Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle
Abstract:
Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.
Paper Detail
1755
downloads
4
9999247
3D Numerical Studies on Jets Acoustic Characteristics of Chevron Nozzles for Aerospace Applications
Abstract:

The present environmental issues have made aircraft jet noise reduction a crucial problem in aero-acoustics research. Acoustic studies reveal that addition of chevrons to the nozzle reduces the sound pressure level reasonably with acceptable reduction in performance. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on acoustic characteristics of different types of chevron nozzles have been carried out with non-reacting flows for the shape optimization of chevrons in supersonic nozzles for aerospace applications. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated steady 3D density based, k-ε turbulence model. In this paper chevron with sharp edge, flat edge, round edge and U-type edge are selected for the jet acoustic characterization of supersonic nozzles. We observed that compared to the base model a case with round-shaped chevron nozzle could reduce 4.13% acoustic level with 0.6% thrust loss. We concluded that the prudent selection of the chevron shape will enable an appreciable reduction of the aircraft jet noise without compromising its overall performance. It is evident from the present numerical simulations that k-ε model can predict reasonably well the acoustic level of chevron supersonic nozzles for its shape optimization.

Paper Detail
2348
downloads
3
2776
The Applicability of the Zipper Strut to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures
Abstract:
Chevron frames (Inverted-V-braced frames or Vbraced frames) have seismic disadvantages, such as not good exhibit force redistribution capability and compression brace buckles immediately. Researchers developed new design provisions on increasing both the ductility and lateral resistance of these structures in seismic areas. One of these new methods is adding zipper columns, as proposed by Khatib et al. (1988) [2]. Zipper columns are vertical members connecting the intersection points of the braces above the first floor. In this paper applicability of the suspended zipper system to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures is investigated. The models are 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-story Inverted-V-braced frames. In this case, it is assumed that the structures must be rehabilitated. For rehabilitation of structures, zipper column is used. The result of researches showed that the suspended zipper system is effective in case of 3-, 6-, and 9-story Inverted-V-braced frames and it would increase lateral resistance of structure up to life safety level. But in case of high-rise buildings (such as 12 story frame), it doesn-t show good performance. For solving this problem, the braced bay can consist of small “units" over the height of the entire structure, which each of them is a zipper-braced bay with a few stories. By using this method the lateral resistance of 12 story Inverted-V-braced frames is increased up to safety life level.
Paper Detail
1381
downloads
2
12482
Seismic Behaviour of Steel Frames Investigation with Knee Brace Based on Pushover Analysis
Abstract:

The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. In this framing system, a special form of diagonal brace connected to a knee element instead of beam-column joint, is investigated. Recently, a similar system was proposed and named as chevron knee bracing system (CKB) which in comparison with the former system has a better energy absorption characteristic and at the same time retains the elastic nature of the structures. Knee bracing can provide a stiffer bracing system but reduces the ductility of the steel frame. Chevron knee bracing can be employed to provide the desired ductility level for a design. In this article, relation between seismic performance and structural parameters of the two above mentioned systems are investigated and compared. Frames with similar dimensions but various heights in both systems are designed according to Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of building, and then based on a non-linear push over static analysis; the seismic parameters such as behavior factor and performance levels are compared.

Paper Detail
3118
downloads
1
12377
Asymmetric and Kind of Bracing Effects on Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads
Abstract:

Because of architectural condition and structure application, sometimes mass source and stiffness source are not coincidence, and the structure is irregular. The structure is also might be asymmetric as an asymmetric bracing in plan which leads to unbalance distribution of stiffness or because of unbalance distribution of the mass. Both condition lead to eccentricity and torsion in the structure. The deficiency of ordinary code to evaluate the performance of steel structures against earthquake has been caused designing based on performance level or capacity spectrum be used. By using the mentioned methods it is possible to design a structure that its behavior against different earthquakes be predictive. In this article 5- story buildings with different percentage of asymmetric which is because of stiffness changes and kind of bracing (x and chevron bracing) have been designed. The static and dynamic nonlinear analysis under three acceleration recording has been done. Finally performance level of the structure has been evaluated.

Paper Detail
971
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