International Science Index
Ethno-Botanical Diversity and Conservation Status of Medicinal Flora at High Terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya, India: A Case Study in Context to Multifarious Tourism Growth and Peri-Urban Encroachments
The high terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya are the niches of a number of rare and endemic plant species of great therapeutic importance. However, the wild flora of the area is still under a constant threat due to rapid upsurge in human interferences, especially through multifarious tourism growth and peri-urban encroachments. After getting the status of a ‘Special State’ of the country since its inception in the year 2000, this newly borne State led to very rapid infrastructural growth and development. Consequently, its townships started expanding in an unmanaged way grabbing nearby agricultural lands and forest areas into peri-urban landscapes. Simultaneously, a boom in tourism and pilgrimage in the state and the infrastructural facilities raised by the government for tourists/pilgrims are destroying its biodiversity. Field survey revealed 242 plant species of therapeutic significance naturally growing in the area and being utilized by local inhabitants as traditional medicines. On conservation scale, 6 species (2.2%) were identified as critically endangered, 19 species (7.1%) as the endangered ones, 8 species (3.0%) under rare category, 17 species (6.4%) as threatened and 14 species (5.2%) as vulnerable. The Government of India has brought mega-biodiversity hot spots of the state under Biosphere Reserve, National Parks, etc. restricting all kinds of human interferences; however, the two most sacred shrines of Hindus and Sikhs viz. Shri Badrinath and Shri Hemkunt Sahib, and two great touristic attractions viz. Valley of Flowers and Auli-Joshimath Skiing Track oblige the government to maintain equilibrium between entries of visitors vis-à-vis biodiversity conservation in high terrains of Uttarakhand Himalaya.
Yield and Sward Composition Responses of Natural Grasslands to Treatments Meeting Sustainability
An outstanding part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be managed, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition, these ecosystems have an important role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but, looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. Three rates of compost (10 t/ha, 20 t/ha, 30 t/ha) were tested on 3 m X 10 m experimental plots. Every treatment had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots, measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield of pasture showed positive responses to the rates of composts. The increase in dry matter yield was partly due to some positive changes in sward composition. It means that the proportions of grass species with higher yield potential increased in ground cover of the sward without depressing out valuable native species of diverse natural grasslands. The research results indicate that the use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.
Calculation of Methane Emissions from Wetlands in Slovakia via IPCC Methodology
Wetlands are a main natural source of methane emissions, but they also represent the important biodiversity reservoirs in the landscape. There are about 26 thousands hectares of wetlands in Slovakia identified via the wetlands monitoring program. Created database of wetlands in Slovakia allows to analyze several ecological processes including also the methane emissions estimate. Based on the information from the database, the first estimate of the methane emissions from wetlands in Slovakia has been done. The IPCC methodology (Tier 1 approach) has been used with proposed emission factors for the ice-free period derived from the climatic data. The highest methane emissions of nearly 550 Gg are associated with the category of fens. Almost 11 Gg of methane is emitted from bogs, and emissions from flooded lands represent less than 8 Gg.
Changes in Fish and Shellfish in Thondamanaru Lagoon, Jaffna, Sri Lanka
Current study was conducted for one year from June 2014 to May 2015, with an objective of identification of fish and shellfish diversity in the Thondamanaru lagoon ecosystem. In this study, 11 species were identified from Thondamanaru lagoon, Jaffna, Sri Lanka. There are four fishes, Chanos chanos, Hemirhamphus sp., Nematalosa sp. and Mugil cephalus and seven shell fishes, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus latisulcatus, Penaeus semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros, Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrata. Species composition of Mugil cephalus, Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros was high during rainy seasons. However, lagoon is being subjected to adverse environmental conditions that threaten its fish and shellfish biodiversity due to lack of saline water availability and changes in rainfall pattern.
Modelling Forest Fire Risk in the Goaso Forest Area of Ghana: Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Approach
Forest fire, which is, an uncontrolled fire occurring in nature has become a major concern for the Forestry Commission of Ghana (FCG). The forest fires in Ghana usually result in massive destruction and take a long time for the firefighting crews to gain control over the situation. In order to assess the effect of forest fire at local scale, it is important to consider the role fire plays in vegetation composition, biodiversity, soil erosion, and the hydrological cycle. The occurrence, frequency and behaviour of forest fires vary over time and space, primarily as a result of the complicated influences of changes in land use, vegetation composition, fire suppression efforts, and other indigenous factors. One of the forest zones in Ghana with a high level of vegetation stress is the Goaso forest area. The area has experienced changes in its traditional land use such as hunting, charcoal production, inefficient logging practices and rural abandonment patterns. These factors which were identified as major causes of forest fire, have recently modified the incidence of fire in the Goaso area. In spite of the incidence of forest fires in the Goaso forest area, most of the forest services do not provide a cartographic representation of the burned areas. This has resulted in significant amount of information being required by the firefighting unit of the FCG to understand fire risk factors and its spatial effects. This study uses Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop a fire risk hazard model using the Goaso Forest Area (GFA) as a case study. From the results of the study, natural forest, agricultural lands and plantation cover types were identified as the major fuel contributing loads. However, water bodies, roads and settlements were identified as minor fuel contributing loads. Based on the major and minor fuel contributing loads, a forest fire risk hazard model with a reasonable accuracy has been developed for the GFA to assist decision making.
Biodiversity and Climate Change: Consequences for Norway Spruce Mountain Forests in Slovakia
Study of the effects of climate change on Norway
Spruce (Picea abies) forests has mainly focused on the diversity of
tree species diversity of tree species as a result of the ability of
species to tolerate temperature and moisture changes as well as some
effects of disturbance regime changes. The tree species’ diversity
changes in spruce forests due to climate change have been analyzed
via gap model. Forest gap model is a dynamic model for calculation
basic characteristics of individual forest trees. Input ecological data
for model calculations have been taken from the permanent research
plots located in primeval forests in mountainous regions in Slovakia.
The results of regional scenarios of the climatic change for the
territory of Slovakia have been used, from which the values are
according to the CGCM3.1 (global) model, KNMI and MPI
(regional) models. Model results for conditions of the climate change
scenarios suggest a shift of the upper forest limit to the region of the
present subalpine zone, in supramontane zone. N. spruce
representation will decrease at the expense of beech and precious
broadleaved species (Acer sp., Sorbus sp., Fraxinus sp.). The most
significant tree species diversity changes have been identified for the
upper tree line and current belt of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo)
occurrence. The results have been also discussed in relation to most
important disturbances (wind storms, snow and ice storms) and
phenological changes which consequences are little known. Special
discussion is focused on biomass production changes in relation to
carbon storage diversity in different carbon pools.
The Impact of Water Reservoirs on Biodiversity and Food Security and the Creation of Adaptation Mechanisms
Problems of food security and the preservation of
reserved zones in the region of Central Asia under the conditions of
the climate change induced by the placement and construction of
large reservoirs are considered. The criteria for the optimum
placement and construction of reservoirs that entail the minimum
impact on the environment are established. The need for the
accounting of climatic parameters is shown by the calculation of the
water quantity required for the irrigation of agricultural lands.
Bridging the Gap: Living Machine in Educational Nature Preserve Center
Pressure on freshwater systems comes from removing too much water to grow crops; contamination from economic activities, land use practices, and human waste. The paper will be focusing on how water management can influence the design, implementation, and impacts of the ecological principles of biomimicry as sustainable methods in recycling wastewater. At Texas State, United States of America, in particular the lower area of the Trinity River refuge, there is a true example of the diversity to be found in that area, whether when exploring the lands or the waterways. However, as the Trinity River supplies water to the state’s residents, the lower part of the river at Liberty County presents several problem of wastewater discharge in the river. Therefore, conservation efforts are particularly important in the Trinity River basin. Clearly, alternative ways must be considered in order to conserve water to meet future demands. As a result, there should be another system provided rather than the conventional water treatment. Mimicking ecosystem's technologies out of context is not enough, but if we incorporate plants into building architecture, in addition to their beauty, they can filter waste, absorb excess water, and purify air. By providing an architectural proposal center, a living system can be explored through several methods that influence natural resources on the micro-scale in order to impact sustainability on the macro-scale. The center consists of an ecological program of Plant and Water Biomimicry study which becomes a living organism that purifies the river water in a natural way through architecture. Consequently, a rich beautiful nature could be used as an educational destination, observation and adventure, as well as providing unpolluted fresh water to the major cities of Texas. As a result, these facts raise a couple of questions: Why is conservation so rarely practiced by those who must extract a living from the land? Are we sufficiently enlightened to realize that we must now challenge that dogma? Do architects respond to the environment and reflect on it in the correct way through their public projects? The method adopted in this paper consists of general research into careful study of the system of the living machine, in how to integrate it at architectural level, and finally, the consolidation of the all the conclusions formed into design proposal. To summarise, this paper attempts to provide a sustainable alternative perspective in bridging physical and mental interaction with biodiversity to enhance nature by using architecture.
Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies
Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.
Landscape Assessment of the Dam and Motorway Networks that Provide Visual and Recreational Opportunities: Case Study of Artvin, Turkey
Nature constantly changes as a result of human
necessities. This change mostly feels in natural water sources which
are reconstructed with an effect of dams and motorways. In other
respects, visual quality of the landscape gets a new and different
character during and after the construction of dams and motorways.
Changing and specialization new landscapes will be very important
to protection-usage balance to explore sustainable usage facilities.
The main cause of the selection of Artvin city is that it has very
important geographical location and one of the most attraction points
in the World with its biodiversity, conservation areas and natural
landscape characteristics. Many hydroelectric station and 7 dams are
situated, 3 of them have already been built on the Çoruh River in the
province of Artvin. As a result of dams, motorways route were reshaped
and the ways which have already changed because of
elevation is directly affected several of natural destruction. In
contrast, many different reservoirs in Coruh Basin provide new vista
point that has high visual quality. In this study, we would like to
evaluate with sustainable landscape design in 76 km river corridor,
which is mainly based on Deriner, Borçka and Muratlı Dams and
determination of their basin-lakes recreational potential and
opportunities. Lastly, we are going to give some suggestion about the
potential of the corridor.
The Influence of Forest Management Histories on Dead Wood and Habitat Trees in the Old Growth Forest in Northern Iran
Dead wood and habitat tree such as fallen logs, snags,
stumps and cracks and loos bark etc. are regarded as an important
ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling
species depend on presence of them within forest ecosystems.
Meanwhile its relation to management history in Caspian forest has
gone unreported. The aim of research was to compare the amounts of
dead wood and habitat trees in the forests with historically different
intensities of management, including: forests with the long term
implication of management (PS), the short term implication of
management (NS) which were compared with semi virgin forest
(GS). The number of 405 individual dead and habitat trees were
recorded and measured at 109 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed
volume of dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ
within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly
higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead and
habitat tree in three sites showed that, dead tree volume related with
management history and significantly differ in three study sites.
Meanwhile, frequency of habitat trees was significantly different
within sites. The highest amount of habitat trees including cavities,
cracks and loose bark and fork split trees was recorded in virgin site
and lowest recorded in the sites with the long term implication of
management. It can be concluded that forest management cause
reduction of the amount of dead and habitat tree specially in a large
size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable
principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that
allow, continued generation of dead trees in a full range of size.
The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire, and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia
A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony
amongst economic development, community development, and
environmental protection, through partnership between human and
nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR)
in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil
dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood,
high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve
covering privately managed production forest areas. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation
and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We
used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5
Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use
changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from
each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear
regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission
potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition
area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of
land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014
revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from
natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types,
such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas,
and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at
the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife
Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to
garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land,
open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area,
changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden,
mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural
land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated
that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had
reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the
biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the
area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone
and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2
emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.
Temporal Variation of Shorebirds Population in Two Different Mudflats Areas
A study was conducted to determine the diversity and
abundance of shorebird species habituating the mudflat area of Jeram
Beach and Remis Beach, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Direct
observation technique (using binoculars and video camera) was
applied to record the presence of bird species in the sampling sites
from August 2013 until July 2014. A total of 32 species of shorebird
were recorded during both migratory and non-migratory seasons. Of
these, eleven species (48%) are migrants, six species (26%) have both
migrant and resident populations, four species (17%) are vagrants and
two species (9%) are residents. The compositions of the birds
differed significantly in all months (χ2 = 84.35, p < 0.001). There is a
significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and
non-migratory seasons (Mann-Whitney, t = 2.39, p = 0.036). The
avian abundance were differed significantly in Jeram and Remis
Beaches during migratory periods (t = 4.39, p = 0.001) but not during
non-migratory periods (t = 0.78, p = 0.456). Shorebird diversity was
also affected by tidal cycle. There is a significance difference
between high tide and low tide (Mann-Whitney, t = 78.0, p < 0.005).
Frequency of disturbance also affected the shorebird distribution
(Mann-Whitney, t = 57.0, p = 0.0134). Therefore, this study
concluded that tides and disturbances are two factors that affecting
temporal distribution of shorebird in mudflats area.
Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment
The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about
20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an
area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of
wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up
7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones
in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp
forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly
naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the
highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to
supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act
known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas
that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the
ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region
of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure
to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated
gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is
practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health
challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and
health implication associated with the practice, the role of
Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local
communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.
Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa
(Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term
ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica
napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil
content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the
population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of
bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the
amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It
was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas
and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and
rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was
more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of
various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants.
Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of
hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical
were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus
genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.
Inhibitory Effects of Ambrosia trifida L. on the Development of Root Hairs and Protein Patterns of Radicles
Ambrosia trifida L. is designated as invasive alien
species by the Act on the Conservation and Use of Biodiversity by the
Ministry of Environment, Korea. The purpose of present paper was to
investigate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of A.trifida on the
development of root hairs of Triticum aestivum L., and Allium
tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng and the electrophoretic protein patterns of
their radicles. The development of root hairs was inhibited by
increasing of aqueous extract concentrations. Through SDS-PAGE,
the electrophoretic protein bands of extracted proteins from their
radicles were appeared in controls, but protein bands of specific
molecular weight disappeared or weakened in treatments. In
conclusion, inhibitory effects of A. trifida made two receptor species
changed morphologically, and at the molecular level in early growth
Evaluation of Nutritional Potential of Five Unexplored Wild Edible Food Plants from Eastern Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspot Region (India)
Wild edible food plants contain a number of organic phytochemical that have been linked to the promotion of good health. These plants used by the local people of Arunachal Pradesh (Northeast India) are found to have high nutritional potential to maintain general balance diet. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of five commonly found, unexplored wild food plants namely, Piper pedicellatum C. DC (leaves), Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq. (leaves), Mussaenda roxburghii Hook.f (leaves), Solanum spirale Roxb. (leaves and fruits) and Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook. (pith portion and tender rachis) from East Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh Northeast (India) for ascertaining their suitability for utilization as supplementary food. Results of study revealed that P. pedicellatum, C. spinulosa, and S. spirale (leaves) are the most promising species which have high nutritional content out of the five wild food plants investigated which is required for the normal growth and development of human.
Nutritional Potential and Traditional Uses of High Altitude Wild Edible Plants in Eastern Himalayas, India
The food security issues and its relevance in High Mountain regions of the world have been often neglected. Wild edible plants have been playing a major role in livelihood security among the tribal Communities of East Himalayan Region of the world since time immemorial. The Eastern Himalayan Region of India is one of the mega diverse regions of world and rated as top 12th Global Biodiversity Hotspots by IUCN and recognized as one of the 200 significant eco-regions of the Globe. The region supports one of the world’s richest alpine floras and about one-third of them are endemic to the region. There are at least 7,500 flowering plants, 700 orchids, 58 bamboo species, 64 citrus species, 28 conifers, 500 mosses, 700 ferns and 728 lichens. The region is the home of more than three hundred different ethnic communities having diverse knowledge on traditional uses of flora and fauna as food, medicine and beverages. Monpa, Memba and Khamba are among the local communities residing in high altitude region of Eastern Himalaya with rich traditional knowledge related to utilization of wild edible plants. The Monpas, Memba and Khamba are the followers Mahayana sect of Himalayan Buddhism and they are mostly agrarian by primary occupation and also heavily relaying on wild edible plants for their livelihood security during famine since millennia. In the present study, we have reported traditional uses of 40 wild edible plant species and out of which 6 species were analyzed at biochemical level for nutrients contents and free radical scavenging activities. The results have shown significant free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity and nutritional potential of the selected 6 wild edible plants used by the local communities of Eastern Himalayan Region of India.
Intertidal Fixed Stake Net Trap (Hadrah) Fishery in Kuwait: Distribution, Catch Rate and Species Composition
Intertidal fixed stake net trap (Hadrah) is one of the oldest fishing gears used throughout the Arabian Gulf countries since the 1800s and also one of most the efficient methods of capturing fish from the intertidal area. This study describes the hadrah fishery in Kuwait.
From October 2001 to December 2002, more than 37,372 specimens representing 95 species (89 fish, 2 mollusks and 4 crustaceans) were measured from hadrah, located in three different areas along Kuwait's coast. In Kuwait Bay, catch rates averaged 62 kg/sir-day (from 14 kg/sir-day in February to 160 kg/sir-day in October 2002). Commercial species accounted for 41% of the catches. Catches from Failakah Island averaged 96 kg/sir-day from June to September, with 61% of the catch being commercial species. In the southern area, catches averaged only 32 kg/sir-day and only 34% were commercially important.
Forty percent of the hadrah catches were juveniles, which shows that Kuwait’s shallow intertidal waters, particularly in Kuwait Bay, served as prime nursery habitat,. To maintain ecosystem biodiversity and recruitment success of the fishes, we recommended that all hadrah should be removed from Kuwait Bay. In the future, removal of hadrah from other locations should be considered.
Bio-Ecological Monitoring of Potatoes Stem Nematodes (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945) in Four Major Potato-Planter Municipalities of Kvemo Kartli (Eastern Georgia) Accompanying Fauna Biodiversity
There has been studied the distribution character of potato stem nematode (Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945) on the potato fields in four municipalities (Tsalka, Bolnisi, Marneuli, Gardabani) of Kvemo Kartli (Eastern Georgia).
As a result of scientific research there is stated the extensiveness of pathogens invasion, accompanying composition of fauna species, environmental groups of populations and quantity.
During the research process in the studied ecosystems there were registered 160 forms of free-living and Phyto-parasitic nematodes, from which 118 forms are determined as species and 42 as genus.
It was found that in almost the entire studied ecosystem there is dominated pathogenic nematodes Ditylenchus destructor. The large number of exemplars (almost uncountable) was found in tubers material of Bolnisi and Gardabani.
Biodiversity of Micromycetes Isolated from Soils of Different Agricultures in Kazakhstan and Their Plant Growth Promoting Potential
The comparative analysis of different taxonomic
groups of microorganisms isolated from dark chernozem soils under
different agricultures (alfalfa, melilot, sainfoin, soybean, rapeseed) at
Almaty region of Kazakhstan was conducted. It was shown that the
greatest number of micromycetes was typical to the soil planted with
alfalfa and canola. Species diversity of micromycetes markedly
decreases as it approaches the surface of the root, so that the species
composition in the rhizosphere is much more uniform than in the
virgin soil. Promising strains of microscopic fungi and yeast with
plant growth-promoting activity to agricultures were selected. Among
the selected fungi there are representatives of Penicillium bilaiae,
Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium equiseti, Aspergillus ustus. The
highest rates of growth and development of seedlings of plants
observed under the influence of yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans,
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Metschnikovia pulcherrima. Using
molecular - genetic techniques confirmation of the identification
results of selected micromycetes was conducted.
Estimating the Costs of Conservation in Multiple Output Agricultural Setting
Scarcity of resources for biodiversity conservation gives rise to the need of strategic investment with priorities given to the cost of conservation. While the literature provides abundant methodological options for biodiversity conservation; estimating true cost of conservation remains abstract and simplistic, without recognising dynamic nature of the cost. Some recent works demonstrate the prominence of economic theory to inform biodiversity decisions, particularly on the costs and benefits of biodiversity however, the integration of the concept of true cost into biodiversity actions and planning are very slow to come by, and specially on a farm level. Conservation planning studies often use area as a proxy for costs neglecting different land values as well as protected areas. These literature consider only heterogeneous benefits while land costs are considered homogenous. Analysis with the assumption of cost homogeneity results in biased estimation; since not only it doesn’t address the true total cost of biodiversity actions and plans, but also it fails to screen out lands that are more (or less) expensive and/or difficult (or more suitable) for biodiversity conservation purposes, hindering validity and comparability of the results. Economies of scope” is one of the other most neglected aspects in conservation literature. The concept of economies of scope introduces the existence of cost complementarities within a multiple output production system and it suggests a lower cost during the concurrent production of multiple outputs by a given farm. If there are, indeed, economies of scope then simplistic representation of costs will tend to overestimate the true cost of conservation leading to suboptimal outcomes. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to provide first road review of the various theoretical ways in which economies of scope are likely to occur of how they might occur in conservation. Consequently, the paper addresses gaps that have to be filled in future analysis.
Sustainable and Ecological Designs of the Built Environment
This paper reviews designs of the built environment
from a sustainability perspective, emphasizing their importance in
achieving ecological and sustainable economic objectives. The built
environment has traditionally resulted in loss of biodiversity,
extinction of some species, climate change, excessive water use, land
degradation, space depletion, waste accumulation, energy
consumption and environmental pollution. Materials used like
plastics, metals, bricks, concrete, cement, natural aggregates, glass
and plaster have wreaked havoc on the earth´s resources, since they
have high levels of embodied energy hence not sustainable.
Additional resources are consumed during use and disposal phases.
Proposed designs for sustainability solutions include: ecological
sanitation and eco-efficiency systems that ensure social, economic,
environmental and technical sustainability. Renewable materials and
energy systems, passive cooling and heating systems and material
and energy reduction, reuse and recycling can improve the sector.
These ideas are intended to inform the field of ecological design of
the built environment.
Challenges and Opportunities for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development of Ecotourism in Lalzi Bay, Durres County, Albania - Today's Science for Tomorrow's Management. A Methodology Guide with a Concrete Example by Lalzi Bay, Durres County, Albania
Tourism and coastal lines are the business sectors
since centuries especially in the European Nations and Albania is one
such spots. However, in recent decades tourism is experienced as
vulnerability of the surrounding ecological conditions of air, soil,
water, land and the communities that are dependant and sharing the
ecosystem among flora and fauna. Experts opine that apart from the
maintenance of near-originality of ecological biodiversity the tourism
rather known as ecotourism an indigenous socio-cultural
maintenance of indigenous/traditional knowledge of the local people
must be well cared in order to sustain on sustainable grounds. As a
general tendency, growth of tourism has been affected by the deterioration in the economic conditions on one aspect and unsustainable ecological areas affected since human interventions
earlier to this has negative impact on futuristic tourist spots. However, tourism in Albania as of now is 11% of GDP and coastal regions accounting to 2-4%. An amicable Mediterranean
climate with 300 sunny days similar parameters of Greece and Spain
throws up sustainable ecotourism in future decades provided public services namely, transportation, road safety, lodging, food
availability, recreational regiments, banking accessibility are as per
the World Tourism Organizations- protocols. Thus as of Albanian
situation, classification of ecotourism activities to safe-guard the localities with its maintenance of ecological land, water and climate
has become a paramount importance with a wanting and satisfactory options through harnessing human energy for profit and fitness of
ecological flora and fauna. A check on anthropogenic wastes and
their safer utilizations inclusive of agricultural and industrial
operations in line with Lalzi Bay Coastal Line are of utmost importance for the reason that the Adriatic Sea Coast is the one long
stretch of Albanian Lifeline. The present work is based on the methodology of the sustainable management of the same issue.
Evaluation of Market Limitations in the Case of Ecosystem Services
Biodiversity crisis is one of the many crises that
started at the turn of the millennia. Concrete form of expression is
still disputed, but there is a relatively high consensus regarding the
high rate of degradation and the urgent need for action. The strategy
of action outlines a strong economic component, together with the
recognition of market mechanisms as the most effective policies to
protect biodiversity. In this context, biodiversity and ecosystem
services are natural assets that play a key role in economic strategies
and technological development to promote development and
prosperity. Developing and strengthening policies for transition to an
economy based on efficient use of resources is the way forward.
To emphasize the co-viability specific to the connection economyecosystem
services, scientific approach aimed on one hand how to
implement policies for nature conservation and on the other hand, the
concepts underlying the economic expression of ecosystem services-
value, in the context of current technology. Following the analysis of
business opportunities associated with changes in ecosystem services
was concluded that development of market mechanisms for nature
conservation is a trend that is increasingly stronger individualized
within recent years. Although there are still many controversial issues
that have already given rise to an obvious bias, international
organizations and national governments have initiated and
implemented in cooperation or independently such mechanisms.
Consequently, they created the conditions for convergence between
private interests and social interests of nature conservation, so there
are opportunities for ongoing business development which leads,
among other things, the positive effects on biodiversity. Finally,
points out that markets fail to quantify the value of most ecosystem
services. Existing price signals reflect at best, only a proportion of the
total amount corresponding provision of food, water or fuel.
The New Approach to Sustainability in the Design of Urban and Architectural Interiors – Elements of Composition Revised
Today we tend to go back to the past to our root
relation to nature. Therefore in search of friendly spaces there are
elements of natural environment introduced as elements of spatial
composition. Though reinvented through the use of the new
substance such as greenery, water etc. made possible by state of the
art technologies, still, in principal, they remain the same. As a result,
sustainable design, based upon the recognized means of composition
in addition to the relation of architecture and urbanism vs. nature
introduces a new aesthetical values into architectural and urban
Network Analysis in a Natural Perturbed Ecosystem
The objective of this work is to explicit knowledge on the interactions between the chlorophyll-a and nine meroplankton larvae of epibenthonic fauna. The studied case is the Arraial do Cabo upwelling system, Southeastern of Brazil, which provides different environmental conditions. To assess this information a network approach based in probability estimative was used. Comparisons among the generated graphs are made in the light of different water masses, application of Shannon biodiversity index, and the closeness and betweenness centralities measurements. Our results show the main pattern among different water masses and how the core organisms belonging to the network skeleton are correlated to the main environmental variable. We conclude that the approach of complex networks is a promising tool for environmental diagnostic.
Automatic Recognition of an Unknown and Time-Varying Number of Simultaneous Environmental Sound Sources
The present work faces the problem of automatic enumeration and recognition of an unknown and time-varying number of environmental sound sources while using a single microphone. The assumption that is made is that the sound recorded is a realization of sound sources belonging to a group of audio classes which is known a-priori. We describe two variations of the same principle which is to calculate the distance between the current unknown audio frame and all possible combinations of the classes that are assumed to span the soundscene. We concentrate on categorizing environmental sound sources, such as birds, insects etc. in the task of monitoring the biodiversity of a specific habitat.
Design and Control of PEM Fuel Cell Diffused Aeration System using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
Fuel cells have become one of the major areas of
research in the academia and the industry. The goal of most fish
farmers is to maximize production and profits while holding labor
and management efforts to the minimum. Risk of fish kills, disease
outbreaks, poor water quality in most pond culture operations,
aeration offers the most immediate and practical solution to water
quality problems encountered at higher stocking and feeding rates.
Many units of aeration system are electrical units so using a
continuous, high reliability, affordable, and environmentally friendly
power sources is necessary. Aeration of water by using PEM fuel cell
power is not only a new application of the renewable energy, but
also, it provides an affordable method to promote biodiversity in
stagnant ponds and lakes. This paper presents a new design and
control of PEM fuel cell powered a diffused air aeration system for a
shrimp farm in Mersa Matruh in Egypt. Also Artificial intelligence
(AI) techniques control is used to control the fuel cell output power
by control input gases flow rate. Moreover the mathematical
modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell is introduced. A
comparison study is applied between the performance of fuzzy logic
control (FLC) and neural network control (NNC). The results show
the effectiveness of NNC over FLC.
Quantifying Landscape Connectivity: A GIS-based Approach
Landscape connectivity combines a description of the
physical structure of the landscape with special species- response to
that structure, which forms the theoretical background of applying
landscape connectivity principles in the practices of landscape
planning and design. In this study, a residential development project in
the southern United States was used to explore the meaning of
landscape connectivity and its application in town planning. The vast
rural landscape in the southern United States is conspicuously
characterized by the hedgerow trees or groves. The patchwork
landscape of fields surrounded by high hedgerows is a traditional and
familiar feature of the American countryside. Hedgerows are in effect
linear strips of trees, groves, or woodlands, which are often critical
habitats for wildlife and important for the visual quality of the
landscape. Based on geographic information system (GIS) and
statistical analysis (FRAGSTAT), this study attempts to quantify the
landscape connectivity characterized by hedgerows in south Alabama
where substantial areas of authentic hedgerow landscape are being
urbanized due to the ever expanding real estate industry and high
demand for new residential development. The results of this study
shed lights on how to balance the needs of new urban development and
biodiversity conservation by maintaining a higher level of landscape
connectivity, thus will inform the design intervention.