International Science Index

22
10001544
The Nature of the Complicated Fabric Textures: How to Represent in Primary Visual Cortex
Abstract:
Fabric textures are very common in our daily life. However, the representation of fabric textures has never been explored from neuroscience view. Theoretical studies suggest that primary visual cortex (V1) uses a sparse code to efficiently represent natural images. However, how the simple cells in V1 encode the artificial textures is still a mystery. So, here we will take fabric texture as stimulus to study the response of independent component analysis that is established to model the receptive field of simple cells in V1. We choose 140 types of fabrics to get the classical fabric textures as materials. Experiment results indicate that the receptive fields of simple cells have obvious selectivity in orientation, frequency and phase when drifting gratings are used to determine their tuning properties. Additionally, the distribution of optimal orientation and frequency shows that the patch size selected from each original fabric image has a significant effect on the frequency selectivity.
Paper Detail
800
downloads
21
10000742
System of Innovation: Comparing Savings of Brazil and South Africa
Abstract:

This article discusses issues related to the System of Innovation: Comparing economies of Brazil and South Africa. Having as this study aimed at comparing the Innovation System of the countries mentioned. Then briefly describe the process of Venture Capital and present the industry innovation in Brazil and South Africa. The methodological approach described in this article is descriptive and the approach is qualitative, taking as a basis secondary data relating to research articles. The main results are related to the different forms of financing of Venture Capital used by countries compared, in addition to the training and economic policy. And finally, it was highlighted the importance of implementation of policy reforms for the Brazil and Africa in the innovation process.

Paper Detail
1113
downloads
20
10000350
Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination
Abstract:

In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non- Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitchfree method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxy-fluorination was used. The modification of carbonfibres by oxy-fluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.

Paper Detail
1232
downloads
19
9999180
Innovative Techniques for Characterization of Nonwoven Insulation Materials Embedded with Aerogel
Abstract:

The major objective of this study is to understand the potential of a newly fabricated equipment to study the thermal properties of nonwoven textile fabrics treated with aerogel at subzero temperatures. Thermal conductivity was calculated by using the empirical relation Fourier’s law, The relationship between the thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of the samples were studied at various environmental temperatures (which was set in the clima temperature system between +25oC to -25oC). The newly fabricated equipment was found to be a suitable for measuring at subzero temperatures. This field of measurements is being developed and will be the subject of further research which will be more suitable for measurement of the various thermal characteristics.

Paper Detail
2112
downloads
18
9999043
A Comparison Study of Fabric Objective Measurement (FOM) Using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter System on Warp Knitted Fabrics Handle – Smoothness, Stiffness and Softness
Abstract:

This paper conducts a comparison study using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter to measure 58 selected warp knitted fabric hand properties. Fabric samples were selected and measured by both KES-FB and PhabrOmeter. Results show differences between these two measurement methods. Smoothness and stiffness values obtained by KES-FB were found significant correlated (p value = 0.003 and 0.022) to the PhabrOmeter results while softness values between two measurement methods did not show significant correlation (p value = 0.828). Disagreements among these two measurement methods imply limitations on different mechanism principles when facing warp knitted fabrics. Subjective measurement methods and further studies are suggested in order to ascertain deeper investigation on the mechanisms of fabric hand perceptions.

Paper Detail
2112
downloads
17
9999138
Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers
Abstract:

The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb.

The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.

Paper Detail
999
downloads
16
9999193
Surface Flattening Assisted with 3D Mannequin Based On Minimum Energy
Abstract:

The topic of surface flattening plays a vital role in the field of computer aided design and manufacture. Surface flattening enables the production of 2D patterns and it can be used in design and manufacturing for developing a 3D surface to a 2D platform, especially in fashion design. This study describes surface flattening based on minimum energy methods according to the property of different fabrics. Firstly, through the geometric feature of a 3D surface, the less transformed area can be flattened on a 2D platform by geodesic. Then, strain energy that has accumulated in mesh can be stably released by an approximate implicit method and revised error function. In some cases, cutting mesh to further release the energy is a common way to fix the situation and enhance the accuracy of the surface flattening, and this makes the obtained 2D pattern naturally generate significant cracks. When this methodology is applied to a 3D mannequin constructed with feature lines, it enhances the level of computer-aided fashion design. Besides, when different fabrics are applied to fashion design, it is necessary to revise the shape of a 2D pattern according to the properties of the fabric. With this model, the outline of 2D patterns can be revised by distributing the strain energy with different results according to different fabric properties. Finally, this research uses some common design cases to illustrate and verify the feasibility of this methodology.

Paper Detail
1579
downloads
15
9998877
Structural Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade
Abstract:

The design of an optimised horizontal axis 5-meter-long wind turbine rotor blade in according with IEC 61400-2 standard is a research and development project in order to fulfil the requirements of high efficiency of torque from wind production and to optimise the structural components to the lightest and strongest way possible. For this purpose, a research study is presented here by focusing on the structural characteristics of a composite wind turbine blade via finite element modelling and analysis tools. In this work, first, the required data regarding the general geometrical parts are gathered. Then, the airfoil geometries are created at various sections along the span of the blade by using CATIA software to obtain the two surfaces, namely; the suction and the pressure side of the blade in which there is a hat shaped fibre reinforced plastic spar beam, so-called chassis starting at 0.5m from the root of the blade and extends up to 4 m and filled with a foam core. The root part connecting the blade to the main rotor differential metallic hub having twelve hollow threaded studs is then modelled. The materials are assigned as two different types of glass fabrics, polymeric foam core material and the steel-balsa wood combination for the root connection parts. The glass fabrics are applied using hand wet lay-up lamination with epoxy resin as METYX L600E10C-0, is the unidirectional continuous fibres and METYX XL800E10F having a tri-axial architecture with fibres in the 0,+45,-45 degree orientations in a ratio of 2:1:1. Divinycell H45 is used as the polymeric foam. The finite element modelling of the blade is performed via MSC PATRAN software with various meshes created on each structural part considering shell type for all surface geometries, and lumped mass were added to simulate extra adhesive locations. For the static analysis, the boundary conditions are assigned as fixed at the root through aforementioned bolts, where for dynamic analysis both fixed-free and free-free boundary conditions are made. By also taking the mesh independency into account, MSC NASTRAN is used as a solver for both analyses. The static analysis aims the tip deflection of the blade under its own weight and the dynamic analysis comprises normal mode dynamic analysis performed in order to obtain the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes focusing the first five in and out-of-plane bending and the torsional modes of the blade. The analyses results of this study are then used as a benchmark prior to modal testing, where the experiments over the produced wind turbine rotor blade has approved the analytical calculations.

Paper Detail
3541
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14
9997555
Factors Affecting the Ultimate Compressive Strength of the Quaternary Calcarenites, North Western Desert, Egypt
Abstract:

The calcarenites carbonate rocks of the Quaternary ridges, which extend along the northwestern Mediterranean coastal plain of Egypt, represent an excellent model for the transformation of loose sediments to real sedimentary rocks by the different stages of meteoric diagenesis. The depositional and diagenetic fabrics of the rocks, in addition to the strata orientation, highly affect their ultimate compressive strength and other geotechnical properties.

There is a marked increase in the compressive strength (UCS) from the first to the fourth ridge rock samples. The lowest values are related to the loose packing, weakly cemented aragonitic ooid sediments with high porosity, besides the irregularly distributed of cement, which result in decreasing the ability of these rocks to withstand crushing under direct pressure. The high (UCS) values are attributed to the low porosity, the presence of micritic cement, the reduction in grain size and the occurrence of micritization and calcretization processes.

The strata orientation has a notable effect on the measured (UCS). The lowest values have been recorded for the samples cored in the inclined direction; whereas the highest values have been noticed in most samples cored in the vertical and parallel directions to bedding plane. In case of the inclined direction, the bedding planes were oriented close to the plane of maximum shear stress. The lowest and highest anisotropy values have been recorded for the first and the third ridges rock samples, respectively, which may attributed to the relatively homogeneity and well sorted grainstone of the first ridge rock samples, and relatively heterogeneity in grain and pore size distribution and degree of cementation of the third ridge rock samples, besides, the abundance of shell fragments with intraparticle pore spaces, which may produce lines of weakness within the rock.

Paper Detail
2744
downloads
13
9997162
Rubric in Vocational Education
Abstract:

Rubric is a very important tool for teachers and students for a variety of purposes. Teachers use the rubric for evaluating student work while students use rubrics for self-assessment. Therefore, this paper was emphasized scoring rubric as a scoring tool for teachers in an environment of Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) in Malaysia Vocational College. A total of three teachers in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering were interviewed to identify how the use of rubrics practiced since vocational transformation implemented in 2012. Overall holistic rubric used to determine the performance of students in the skills area.

Paper Detail
2009
downloads
12
1225
Biaxial Testing of Fabrics - A Comparison of Various Testing Methodologies
Abstract:
In textile industry, besides the conventional textile products, technical textile goods, that have been brought external functional properties into, are being developed for technical textile industry. Especially these products produced with weaving technology are widely preferred in areas such as sports, geology, medical, automotive, construction and marine sectors. These textile products are exposed to various stresses and large deformations under typical conditions of use. At this point, sufficient and reliable data could not be obtained with uniaxial tensile tests for determination of the mechanical properties of such products due to mainly biaxial stress state. Therefore, the most preferred method is a biaxial tensile test method and analysis. These tests and analysis is applied to fabrics with different functional features in order to establish the textile material with several characteristics and mechanical properties of the product. Planar biaxial tensile test, cylindrical inflation and bulge tests are generally required to apply for textile products that are used in automotive, sailing and sports areas and construction industry to minimize accidents as long as their service life. Airbags, seat belts and car tires in the automotive sector are also subject to the same biaxial stress states, and can be characterized by same types of experiments. In this study, in accordance with the research literature related to the various biaxial test methods are compared. Results with discussions are elaborated mainly focusing on the design of a biaxial test apparatus to obtain applicable experimental data for developing a finite element model. Sample experimental results on a prototype system are expressed.
Paper Detail
2756
downloads
11
9252
Just-In-Time Implementation Status in the Middle East Industry
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the scale of implementation of Just-In-Time (JIT) in the different industrial sectors in the Middle East. This study analyzes the empirical data collected by a questionnaire survey distributed to companies in three main industrial sectors in the Middle East, which are: food, chemicals and fabrics. The following main hypotheses is formulated and tested: (The requirements of JIT application differ according to the type of industrial sector).Descriptive statistics and Box plot analysis were used to examine the hypotheses. This study indicates a reasonable evidence for accepting the main hypotheses. It reveals that there is no standard way to adopt JIT as a production system. But each industrial sector should concentrate in the investment on critical requirements that differ according to the nature and strategy of production followed in that sector.
Paper Detail
1326
downloads
10
15414
Towards a Sustainable Regeneration: The Case Study of the San Mateo Neighborhood, in Jerez de la Frontera (Andalusia)
Abstract:
Based on different experiences in the historic centers of Spain, we propose an global strategy for the regeneration of the pre-tertiary fabrics and its application to the specific case of San Mateo neighborhood, in Jerez de la Frontera (Andalusia), through a diagnosis that focus particularly on the punishments the last-decade economic situation (building boom and crisis) and shows the tragic transition from economic center to an imminent disappearance with an image similar to the ruins of war, due to the loss of their traditional roles. From it we will learn their historically-tested mechanisms of environment adaptation, which distill the vernacular architecture essence and that we will apply to our strategy of action based on a dotacional-and-free-space rhizome which rediscovers its hidden character. The architectural fact will be crystallized in one of the example-pieces proposed: The Artistic Revitalization Center.
Paper Detail
729
downloads
9
6025
Investigation of Shear Thickening Liquid Protection Fibrous Material
Abstract:
The stab resistance performance of newly developed fabric composites composed of hexagonal paper honeycombs, filled with shear thickening fluid (STF), and woven Kevlar® fabric or UHMPE was investigated in this study. The STF was prepared by dispersing submicron SiO2 particles into polyethylene glycol (PEG). Our results indicate that the STF-Kevlar composite possessed lower penetration depth than that of neat Kevlar. In other words, the STF-Kevlar composite can attain the same energy level in stab-resistance test with fewer layers of Kevlar fabrics than that of the neat Kevlar fabrics. It also indicates that STF can be used for the fabrication of flexible body armors and can provide improved protection against stab threats. We found that the stab resistance of the STF-Kevlar composite increases with the increase of SiO2 concentration in STF. Moreover, the silica particles functionalized with silane coupling agent can further improve the stab resistance.
Paper Detail
2209
downloads
8
237
Towards An Extended International HRM Model for Emerging Multinational Enterprises
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper critiques several exiting strategic international human resource management (SIHRM) frameworks and discusses their limitations to apply directly to emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs), especially those generated from China and other BRICS nations. To complement the existing SIHRM frameworks, key variables relevant to emerging economies are identified and the extended model with particular reference to EMNEs is developed with several research propositions. It is believed that the extended model would better capture the recent development of MNEs in transition, and alert emerging international managers to address several human resource management challenges in the global context
Paper Detail
2012
downloads
7
13821
Investigation on the Antimicrobial Effect of Ammonyx on Some Pathogenic Microbes Observed on Sweatshirt Sport
Abstract:
In this research, the main aim is to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of ammonyx solutions finishing on Sweatshirt Sport with immersion method. 60 Male healthy subjects (football player) participated in this study. They were dressed in a Sweatshirt for 14 days and some microbes found on them were investigated. The antimicrobial effect of different ammonyx solutions(1/100, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 v/v solutions of Ammonyx) on the identified microbes was studied by the zone inhabitation method in vitro. In the next step the Sweatshirt Sports were treated with the same different solutions of ammonyx and the antimicrobial effectiveness was assessed by colony count method in different times and the results were compared whit untreated ones. Some mechanical properties of treated cotton/polyester yarn that used in Sweatshirt Sport were measured after 30 days and were compared with untreated one. Finally after finishing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the surfaces of the finished and unfinished specimens. The results showed the presence of five pathogenic microbes on Sweatshirt Sports such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus, Mucor and Candida. The inhalation time for treated on Sweatshirt Sports improved. The amount of colony growth on treated clothes reduced considerably and moreover the mechanical tests results showed no significant deterioration effect of studies properties in comparison to the untreated yarn. The visual examination of the SEM indicated that the antimicrobial treatments were applied usefully to fabrics.
Paper Detail
1249
downloads
6
10157
Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method
Abstract:
Concerning the measurement of friction properties of textiles and fabrics using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES), whose output is constrained to the surface friction factor of fabric, and no other data would be generated; this research has been conducted to gain information about surface roughness regarding its surface friction factor. To assess roughness properties of light nonwovens, a 3-dimensional model of a surface has been simulated with regular sinuous waves through it as an ideal surface. A new factor was defined, namely Surface Roughness Factor, through comparing roughness properties of simulated surface and real specimens. The relation between the proposed factor and friction factor of specimens has been analyzed by regression, and results showed a meaningful correlation between them. It can be inferred that the new presented factor can be used as an acceptable criterion for evaluating the roughness properties of light nonwoven fabrics.
Paper Detail
1941
downloads
5
14100
Detecting and Measuring Fabric Pills Using Digital Image Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper a novel method was presented for evaluating the fabric pills using digital image processing techniques. This work provides a novel technique for detecting pills and also measuring their heights, surfaces and volumes. Surely, measuring the intensity of defects by human vision is an inaccurate method for quality control; as a result, this problem became a motivation for employing digital image processing techniques for detection of defects of fabric surface. In the former works, the systems were just limited to measuring of the surface of defects, but in the presented method the height and the volume of defects were also measured, which leads to a more accurate quality control. An algorithm was developed to first, find pills and then measure their average intensity by using three criteria of height, surface and volume. The results showed a meaningful relation between the number of rotations and the quality of pilled fabrics.
Paper Detail
1783
downloads
4
14555
Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements
Abstract:
Banyan networks are really attractive for serving as the optical switching architectures due to their unique properties of small depth and absolute signal loss uniformity. The fact has been established that the limitations of blocking nature and the nonavailability of proper connections due to non-rearrangeable property can be easily ruled out using electro-optic MZI switches as basic switching elements. Combination of the horizontal expansion and vertical stacking of optical banyan networks is an appropriate scheme for constructing non-blocking banyan-based optical switching networks. The interconnected banyan switching fabrics (IBSF) have been considered and analyzed to best serve the purpose of optical switching with electro-optic MZI basic elements. The cross/bar state interchange for the switches has been facilitated by appropriate voltage switching or the by the switching of operating wavelength. The paper is dedicated to the modification of the basic switching element being used as well as the architecture of the switching network.
Paper Detail
954
downloads
3
12833
Detecting Defects in Textile Fabrics with Optimal Gabor Filters
Abstract:
This paper investigates the problem of automated defect detection for textile fabrics and proposes a new optimal filter design method to solve this problem. Gabor Wavelet Network (GWN) is chosen as the major technique to extract the texture features from textile fabrics. Based on the features extracted, an optimal Gabor filter can be designed. In view of this optimal filter, a new semi-supervised defect detection scheme is proposed, which consists of one real-valued Gabor filter and one smoothing filter. The performance of the scheme is evaluated by using an offline test database with 78 homogeneous textile images. The test results exhibit accurate defect detection with low false alarm, thus showing the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme. To evaluate the detection scheme comprehensively, a prototyped detection system is developed to conduct a real time test. The experiment results obtained confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed detection scheme.
Paper Detail
1511
downloads
2
14631
Online Control of Knitted Fabric Quality: Loop Length Control
Abstract:
Circular knitting machine makes the fabric with more than two knitting tools. Variation of yarn tension between different knitting tools causes different loop length of stitches duration knitting process. In this research, a new intelligent method is applied to control loop length of stitches in various tools based on ideal shape of stitches and real angle of stitches direction while different loop length of stitches causes stitches deformation and deviation those of angle. To measure deviation of stitch direction against variation of tensions, image processing technique was applied to pictures of different fabrics with constant front light. After that, the rate of deformation is translated to needed compensation of loop length cam degree to cure stitches deformation. A fuzzy control algorithm was applied to loop length modification in knitting tools. The presented method was experienced for different knitted fabrics of various structures and yarns. The results show that presented method is useable for control of loop length variation between different knitting tools based on stitch deformation for various knitted fabrics with different fabric structures, densities and yarn types.
Paper Detail
2612
downloads
1
11309
On the Use of Image Processing Techniques for the Estimation of the Porosity of Textile Fabrics
Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach to assessing textile porosity by the application of the image analysis techniques. The images of different types of sample fabrics, taken through a microscope when the fabric is placed over a constant light source,transfer the problem into the image analysis domain. Indeed, porosity can thus be expressed in terms of a brightness percentage index calculated on the digital microscope image. Furthermore, it is meaningful to compare the brightness percentage index with the air permeability and the tightness indices of each fabric type. We have experimentally shown that there exists an approximately linear relation between brightness percentage and air permeability indices.

Paper Detail
1819
downloads