International Science Index


Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V


A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.

[1] El Baradie, M.A., Cutting fluids: Part I. Characterisation. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 1996. 56(1–4): p. 786-797.
[2] Sharma, A.K., A.K. Tiwari, and A.R. Dixit, Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in machining processes using conventional and nanofluid based cutting fluids: A comprehensive review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2016. 127: p. 1-18.
[3] Veiga, C., J. Davim, and A. Loureiro, Review on machinability of titanium alloys: the process perspective. Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 2013. 34(2): p. 148-164.
[4] Ezugwu, E.O., J. Bonney, and Y. Yamane, An overview of the machinability of aeroengine alloys. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2003. 134(2): p. 233-253.
[5] S. A. Lawal, I.A.C., I. Q. Sadiq and A. Oyewole, Vegetable-oil based metalworking fluids research developments for machining processes: survey, applications and challenges. 2014, Manufacturing Review.
[6] Srikant, R.R. and V.S.N.V. Ramana, Performance evaluation of vegetable emulsifier based green cutting fluid in turning of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1040 steel – an initiative towards sustainable manufacturing. Journal of Cleaner Production.
[7] Kuram, E., B. Ozcelik, and E. Demirbas, Environmentally friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids, in Green Manufacturing Processes and Systems. 2013, Springer. p. 23-47.
[8] Debnath, S., M.M. Reddy, and Q.S. Yi, Environmental friendly cutting fluids and cooling techniques in machining: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2014. 83(0): p. 33-47.
[9] Jayal, A.D. and A.K. Balaji, Effects of cutting fluid application on tool wear in machining: Interactions with tool-coatings and tool surface features. Wear, 2009. 267(9–10): p. 1723-1730.
[10] Babic, D., D.B. Murray, and A.A. Torrance, Mist jet cooling of grinding processes. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2005. 45(10): p. 1171-1177.
[11] Ginting, A. and M. Nouari, Surface integrity of dry machined titanium alloys. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2009. 49(3–4): p. 325-332.
[12] Ezugwu, E.O., et al., Surface integrity of finished turned Ti–6Al–4V alloy with PCD tools using conventional and high pressure coolant supplies. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2007. 47(6): p. 884-891.
[13] Antonialli, A.Í.S., A.E. Diniz, and H.K. Neto, Tool Life and Machined Surface Damage on Titanium Alloy Milling Using Different Cooling-Lubrication Conditions. 2009.
[14] De Angelo Sanchez, L.E., et al., Effect of different methods of cutting fluid application on turning of a difficult-to-machine steel (SAE EV-8). Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2013. 227(2): p. 220-234.
[15] Webster, J., Improving surface integrity and economics of grinding by optimum coolant application, with consideration of abrasive tool and process regime. Proceedings of the institution of mechanical engineers, Part B: journal of engineering manufacture, 2007. 221(12): p. 1665-1675.
[16] Morgan, M.N. and V. Baines-Jones, On the coherent length of fluid nozzles in grinding. Key Engineering Materials, 2009. 404: p. 61-67.
[17] Boothroyd, G. and W.A. Knight, Fundamental of Machining and Machine Tool. 2005, USA: CRC Press and Francis & Taylor.
[18] David A. Stephenson, J.S.A., Metal cutting Theory and Practice. 2005, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 425.
[19] Shaw, M.C., in Metal Cutting Principles. 1954, 1957, M.I.T Press Massachusetts Institute of Technology: USA. p. 12-1.
[20] Metzger, J.L., Superabrasive Grinding. 1986, UK: Butterworths. pp134.
[21] Luchesi, V.M. and R.T. Coelho, Experimental investigations of heat transfer coefficients of cutting fluids in metal cutting processes: analysis of workpiece phenomena in a given case study. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2012: p. 0954405412442459.
[22] Kennametal. Titanium Machining Guide. 2016 (cited 2016 28 April).
[23] Webster, J.A., Coolant Calculus, in Cutting Tool Engineering. 2008, Cutting Tool Engineering: USA. p. 8.