Hyperspectral Imaging and Nonlinear Fukunaga-Koontz Transform Based Food Inspection
Abstract:Nowadays, food safety is a great public concern;
therefore, robust and effective techniques are required for detecting
the safety situation of goods. Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is an
attractive material for researchers to inspect food quality and safety
estimation such as meat quality assessment, automated poultry
carcass inspection, quality evaluation of fish, bruise detection of
apples, quality analysis and grading of citrus fruits, bruise detection
of strawberry, visualization of sugar distribution of melons,
measuring ripening of tomatoes, defect detection of pickling
cucumber, and classification of wheat kernels. HSI can be used to
concurrently collect large amounts of spatial and spectral data on the
objects being observed. This technique yields with exceptional
detection skills, which otherwise cannot be achieved with either
imaging or spectroscopy alone. This paper presents a nonlinear
technique based on kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform (KFKT) for
detection of fat content in ground meat using HSI. The KFKT which
is the nonlinear version of FKT is one of the most effective
techniques for solving problems involving two-pattern nature. The
conventional FKT method has been improved with kernel machines
for increasing the nonlinear discrimination ability and capturing
higher order of statistics of data. The proposed approach in this paper
aims to segment the fat content of the ground meat by regarding the
fat as target class which is tried to be separated from the remaining
classes (as clutter). We have applied the KFKT on visible and nearinfrared
(VNIR) hyperspectral images of ground meat to determine
fat percentage. The experimental studies indicate that the proposed
technique produces high detection performance for fat ratio in ground
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