Color Characteristics of Dried Cocoa Using Shallow Box Fermentation Technique
Abstract:Fermentation is well known as an essential process to
develop chocolate flavor in dried cocoa beans. Besides developing
the precursor of cocoa flavor, it also induces the color changes in the
beans. The fermentation process is influenced by various factors such
as planting material, preconditioning of cocoa pod and fermentation
technique. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate color of
Malaysian cocoa beans and how the duration of pods storage and
fermentation technique using shallow box will effect on its color
characteristics. There are two factors being studied i.e. duration of
cocoa pod storage (0, 2, 4 and 6 days) and duration of cocoa
fermentation (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). The experiment is arranged in
4 x 6 factorial designs with 24 treatments and arrangement is in a
Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The produced beans are
inspected for color changes under artificial light during cut test and
divided into four groups of color namely fully brown, purple brown,
fully purple and slaty. Cut tests indicated that cocoa beans which are
directly dried without undergone fermentation has the highest slaty
percentage. However, application of pods storage before fermentation
process is found to decrease the slaty percentage. In contrast, the
percentages of fully brown beans start to dominate after two days of
fermentation, especially from four and six days of pods storage batch.
Whereas, almost all batches of cocoa beans have a percentage of fully
purple less than 20%. Interestingly, the percentage of purple brown
beans are scattered in the entire beans batch regardless any specific
trend. Meanwhile, statistical analysis using General Linear Model
showed that the pods storage has a significant effect on the color
characteristic of the Malaysian dried beans compared to fermentation
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