International Science Index


10002684

Wicking and Evaporation of Liquids in Knitted Fabrics: Analytic Solution of Capillary Rise Restrained by Gravity and Evaporation

Abstract:Wicking and evaporation of water in porous knitted fabrics is investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches: The standard wicking model from Lucas and Washburn is enhanced to account for evaporation and gravity effects. The goal is to model the effect of gravity and evaporation on wicking using simple analytical expressions and investigate the influence of fabrics geometrical parameters, such as porosity and thickness on evaporation impact on maximum reachable height values. The results show that fabric properties have a significant influence on evaporation effect. In this paper, an experimental study of determining water kinetics from different knitted fabrics were gravimetrically investigated permitting the measure of the mass and the height of liquid rising in fabrics in various atmospheric conditions. From these measurements, characteristic pore parameters (capillary radius and permeability) can be determined.
References:
[1] S. V. Tissoires, S. Geoffroy, M. Marcoux, and M. Prat, “Evaporation and wicking,” Toulouse..
[2] A. Gat, A. Vahdani, H. Navaz, A. Nowakowski and M. Gharib, “Asymmetric Wicking and Reduced Evaporation Time of Droplets. Penetrating a Thin Double-Layered Porous Material,” Applied Phy Letter, vol. 103, 2013.
[3] Z. Romdhani, A. Baffoun, M. Hamdaoui and S. Roudesli, “Drying Morphologies and Emport Rate Effect on Wetting and Spreading Behaviours,” Fibers and Polymers, vol. 14,2013, pp. 1157-1164.
[4] D. A. Lockington, J. Y. Parlange, and M. Lenkopane, ”Capillary absorption in porous sheet and surfaces subject to evaporation,” Transport in porous Media, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 29-36.
[5] R. Stämpfli, P. A. Brühwiler, I. Rechsteiner, V. R. Meyer, and R. M. Rossi, “X-ray tomographic investigation of water distribution in textiles under compression – Possibilities for data presentation,” Measurement, vol. 46, no. 3, april 2013, pp. 1212-1219, Switzerland.
[6] J. Youngmin, H. P. Chung, and J .K. Tae, “Effect of heat and moisture transfer properties on microclimate and subjective thermal comfort of caps.” Textile research journal, vol. 80, no. 20, (2010), pp. 2195-2203.
[7] K. Atkins, and M. Thompson, “Effect of textile hygroscopicity on stratum corneum hydration, skin erythema and skin temperature during exercise in the presence of wind and no wind,” J. Exerc. Sci. Fit., Vol. 9, no. 2, December 2011, pp. 100-108, Australia.
[8] D. Saîhi, A. El-Achari, A. Ghenaim, and C. Cazé, “Wettability of grafted poly(ethylene terephtalate) fibers,” Polymer Testing, vol. 21, no. 6,2002, pp. 615-618.
[9] A. Marmur, “The radial Capillary,” J. Colloid and interface sci, vol. 124, no. 1, july 1988, pp. 301-308.
[10] F. A. Dullien, M. S. El-Sayed, and V. K. Batra, J. Colloid and interface sci, vol. 60, 1977.
[11] J. A. Wehner, B. Miller and L. Rebenfeld, “Dynamics of water vapor transmission through fabric barriers,” Text. Res. J., vol. 58, January 1988, pp. 581-592.
[12] Y. Li and Z. Luo, “An improved mathematical simulation of the coupled diffusion of moisture and heat in wool fabric,” Text. Res. J., vol. 69, pp. 760-768.
[13] A. Perwuelz, P. Mondon, and C. Cazé, “Experimental Study of Capillary Flow in Yarns,” Textile Res. J., vol. 70, no.4, 2000, pp. 333-339.
[14] A. Perwuelz, P. Mondon, and C. Cazé, “Liquid organization during capillary rise in yarns – influence of yarn torsion” Polymer Testing, vol. 20, 2001, pp. 553-561.
[15] M. Hamdaoui, F. Fayala, and S. Ben Nasrallah, “Experimental Apparatus and mathematical model for determination of parameters of capillary rise in fabrics,” Journal of Porous media, vol. 9, no. 4, 2006, pp. 381-392.
[16] M. Hamdaoui, F. Fayala, and S. Ben Nasrallah, “Dynamics of capillary Rise in Yarns: influence of Fiber and Liquid Characteristics,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci, vol.104, pp. 3050-3056.
[17] N. Fries, K. Odic, M. Conrath, and M. Dreyer, “The effect of evaporation on the wicking of liquids into a metallic weave,” J. Colloid Interface Sci, vol. 321, no. 1, may 2008, pp. 118–129.
[18] R, Massodi, K .M. Pillai, and P.P. Varanasi, “Darcy’s law based models for liquid absorption in polymer wicks,” AICHE J, vol. 53, no. 11, November 2007, pp. 2769-2782.
[19] S. Beyhaghi, K. M. Pillai, D. T. Qadeh, and M. L. Dietz, “Evaporation and transport of non-dilute, multi-componentliquid mixturesin porous wicks: Simulation and experimental validation,” Int J Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 54, 2011, pp. 5216-5230.
[20] S. Beyhaghi, S. Geoffroy, M. Prat, and K. M. Pillai, “Wicking and evaporation of liquids in porous Wicks: A simple Analytical Approach to Optimization of Wick Design,” AICHE J, vol. 60, no. 5, May 2014, pp. 1930-1940.
[21] A. D. Gat, A. Vahdani, H. Navaz, A. Nowakowski and M. Gharib. “Asymmetric Wicking and Reduced Evaporation Time of Droplets. Penetrating a Thin Double-Layered Porous Material”. Applied Physics Letters, vol. 103, no. 13, 2013.
[22] A. W. Adamson, “Physical Chemistry of surfaces,” 5th ed, Wiley Intersciences, New York, 1990.
[23] E. Raphael, J. Phys, vol. 50, 1989, pp. 485.
[24] F. K. Cameron and J. M. Bell, J. phys. Chem, vol. 10, 1906, pp. 658.
[25] R. Lucas, Kolloid-Z, vol. 23, 1918, pp. 15–22.
[26] A. Siebold, A. walliser, M. Nardin, M.Oppliger and J. Schultz, “Capillary Rise for thermodynamic characterization of solid Particle Surface,” Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 186, no. 1, february 1997, pp. 60-70.
[27] A. Majumdar, S. Mukhopadhyay, and R. Yadav, “Thermal properties of knitted fabrics made from cotton and regenerated bamboo cellulosic fibres,” International journal of thermal sciences, vol. 49, no. 10, October 2010, pp. 2042-2048, India.
[28] E.W. Washburn, Phys. Rev, vol. 17, no. 3, 1921, pp. 273–283.
[29] N. Ozdil, A. Marmarah, and S. D. Kretzschmar, “Effect of yarn properties on thermal comfort of knitted fabrics,” International journal of thermal sciences, vol. 46, no. 12, December 2007, pp. 1318-1322, Turkie.
[30] S. S. Bhattacharya, and J. R. Ajmeri, “Investigation of Air Permeability of Cotton & Modal Knitted Fabrics,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, vol. 6, no. 12, May 2013, pp. 01-06.
[31] M. Hamdaoui, N.S. Achour, and S. Ben Nasrallah, “The Influence of woven fabric structures on Kinetics of Water Sorption”. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, vol. 9, no. 1, March 2014.
[32] P. G. De Gennes, F. B. Wyart, and D. Quéré, Gouttes, Bulles, Perles et ondes, Ed Berlin, 2002, pp. 100.