The Threats of Deforestation, Forest Fire, and CO2 Emission toward Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve in Riau, Indonesia
Abstract:A biosphere reserve is developed to create harmony
amongst economic development, community development, and
environmental protection, through partnership between human and
nature. Giam Siak Kecil Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve (GSKBB BR)
in Riau Province, Indonesia, is unique in that it has peat soil
dominating the area, many springs essential for human livelihood,
high biodiversity. Furthermore, it is the only biosphere reserve
covering privately managed production forest areas. In this research, we aimed at analyzing the threat of deforestation
and forest fire, and the potential of CO2 emission at GSKBB BR. We
used Landsat image, arcView software, and ERDAS IMAGINE 8.5
Software to conduct spatial analysis of land cover and land use
changes, calculated CO2 emission based on emission potential from
each land cover and land use type, and exercised simple linear
regression to demonstrate the relation between CO2 emission
potential and deforestation. The result showed that, beside in the buffer zone and transition
area, deforestation also occurred in the core area. Spatial analysis of
land cover and land use changes from years 2010, 2012, and 2014
revealed that there were changes of land cover and land use from
natural forest and industrial plantation forest to other land use types,
such as garden, mixed garden, settlement, paddy fields, burnt areas,
and dry agricultural land. Deforestation in core area, particularly at
the Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve and Bukit Batu Wildlife
Reserve, occurred in the form of changes from natural forest in to
garden, mixed garden, shrubs, swamp shrubs, dry agricultural land,
open area, and burnt area. In the buffer zone and transition area,
changes also happened, what once swamp forest changed into garden,
mixed garden, open area, shrubs, swamp shrubs, and dry agricultural
land. Spatial analysis on land cover and land use changes indicated
that deforestation rate in the biosphere reserve from 2010 to 2014 had
reached 16 119 ha/year. Beside deforestation, threat toward the
biosphere reserve area also came from forest fire. The occurrence of forest fire in 2014 had burned 101 723 ha of the
area, in which 9 355 ha of core area, and 92 368 ha of buffer zone
and transition area. Deforestation and forest fire had increased CO2
emission as much as 24 903 855 ton/year.
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