International Science Index
International Journal of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
X-Ray Energy Release in the Solar Eruptive Flare from 6th of September 2012
The M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th of September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered.
Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.
Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles
The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.
The Establishment of RELAP5/SNAP Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant
After the measurement uncertainty recapture (MUR) power uprates, Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) was uprated the power from 2894 MWt to 2943 MWt. For power upgrade, several codes (e.g., TRACE, RELAP5, etc.) were applied to assess the safety of Kuosheng NPP. Hence, the main work of this research is to establish a RELAP5/MOD3.3 model of Kuosheng NPP with SNAP interface. The establishment of RELAP5/SNAP model was referred to the FSAR, training documents, and TRACE model which has been developed and verified before. After completing the model establishment, the startup test scenarios would be applied to the RELAP5/SNAP model. With comparing the startup test data and TRACE analysis results, the applicability of RELAP5/SNAP model would be assessed.
Effect of Spatially Correlated Disorder on Electronic Transport Properties of Aperiodic Superlattices (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs)
We examine the electronic transport properties in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices. Using the transfer-matrix technique and the exact Airy function formalism, we investigate theoretically the effect of structural parameters on the electronic energy spectra of trimer thickness barrier (TTB). Our numerical calculations showed that the localization length of the states becomes more extended when the disorder is correlated (trimer case). We have also found that the resonant tunneling time (RTT) is of the order of several femtoseconds.
Discontinuous Spacetime with Vacuum Holes as Explanation for Gravitation, Quantum Mechanics and Teleportation
Hole Vacuum theory is based on discontinuous spacetime that contains vacuum holes. Vacuum holes can explain gravitation, some laws of quantum mechanics and allow teleportation of matter. All massive bodies emit a flux of holes which curve the spacetime; if we increase the concentration of holes, it leads to length contraction and time dilation because the holes do not have the properties of extension and duration. In the limited case when space consists of holes only, the distance between every two points is equal to zero and time stops - outside of the Universe, the extension and duration properties do not exist. For this reason, the vacuum hole is the only particle in physics capable of describing gravitation using its own properties only. All microscopic particles must 'jump' continually and 'vibrate' due to the appearance of holes (impassable microscopic 'walls' in space), and it is the cause of the quantum behavior. Vacuum holes can explain the entanglement, non-locality, wave properties of matter, tunneling, uncertainty principle and so on. Particles do not have trajectories because spacetime is discontinuous and has impassable microscopic 'walls' due to the simple mechanical motion is impossible at small scale distances; it is impossible to 'trace' a straight line in the discontinuous spacetime because it contains the impassable holes. Spacetime 'boils' continually due to the appearance of the vacuum holes. For teleportation to be possible, we must send a body outside of the Universe by enveloping it with a closed surface consisting of vacuum holes. Since a material body cannot exist outside of the Universe, it reappears instantaneously in a random point of the Universe. Since a body disappears in one volume and reappears in another random volume without traversing the physical space between them, such a transportation method can be called teleportation (or Hole Teleportation). It is shown that Hole Teleportation does not violate causality and special relativity due to its random nature and other properties. Although Hole Teleportation has a random nature, it can be used for colonization of extrasolar planets by the help of the method called 'random jumps': after a large number of random teleportation jumps, there is a probability that the spaceship may appear near a habitable planet. We can create vacuum holes experimentally using the method proposed by Descartes: we must remove a body from the vessel without permitting another body to occupy this volume.
Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots
Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.
Numerical Example of Aperiodic Diffraction Grating
Diffraction grating is periodic module used in many
engineering fields, its geometrical conception gives interesting
properties of diffraction and interferences, a uniform and periodic
diffraction grating consists of a number of identical apertures that are
equally spaced, in this case, the amplitude of intensity distribution
in the far field region is generally modulated by diffraction pattern
of single aperture. In this paper, we study the case of aperiodic
diffraction grating with identical rectangular apertures where theirs
coordinates are modeled by square root function, we elaborate a
computer simulation comparatively to the periodic array with same
length and we discuss the numerical results.
Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides
This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.
A Statistical Model for the Dynamics of Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum Cylindrical Cathode
Dynamics of cathode spot has become a major part
of vacuum arc discharge with its high academic interest and
wide application potential. In this article, using a three-dimensional
statistical model, we simulate the distribution of the ignition
probability of a new cathode spot occurring in different magnetic
pressure on old cathode spot surface and at different arcing time.
This model for the ignition probability of a new cathode spot was
proposed in two typical situations, one by the pure isotropic random
walk in the absence of an external magnetic field, other by the
retrograde motion in external magnetic field, in parallel with the
cathode surface. We mainly focus on developed relationship between
the ignition probability density distribution of a new cathode spot and
the external magnetic field.
Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method
The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.
Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams
Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.
Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source
Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.
Axiomatic Systems as an Alternative to Teach Physics
In the last few years, students from higher education have difficulties in grasping mathematical concepts which support physical matters, especially those in the first years of this education. Classical Physics teaching turns to be complex when students are not able to make use of mathematical tools which lead to the conceptual structure of Physics. When derivation and integration rules are not used or developed in parallel with other disciplines, the physical meaning that we attempt to convey turns to be complicated. Due to this fact, it could be of great use to see the Classical Mechanics from an axiomatic approach, where the correspondence rules give physical meaning, if we expect students to understand concepts clearly and accurately. Using the Minkowski point of view adapted to a two-dimensional space and time where vectors, matrices, and straight lines (worked from an affine space) give mathematical and physical rigorosity even when it is more abstract. An interesting option would be to develop the disciplinary contents from an axiomatic version which embraces the Classical Mechanics as a particular case of Relativistic Mechanics. The observation about the increase in the difficulties stated by students in the first years of education allows this idea to grow as a possible option to improve performance and understanding of the concepts of this subject.
Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Homogeneous Scalar Field in Deformed Phase Space
In the present work, we revisit the collapse process of a spherically symmetric homogeneous scalar field (in FRW background) minimally coupled to gravity, when the phase-space deformations are taken into account. Such a deformation is mathematically introduced as a particular type of noncommutativity between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such deformation, the collapse culminates in a spacetime singularity. However, when the phase-space is deformed, we find that the singularity is removed by a non-singular bounce, beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the appearance of a negative pressure, which decelerates the collapse to finally avoid the singularity formation. While in the un-deformed case, the horizon curve monotonically decreases to finally cover the singularity, in the deformed case the horizon has a minimum value that this value depends on deformation parameter and initial configuration of the collapse. Such a setting predicts a threshold mass for black hole formation in stellar collapse and manifests the role of non-commutative geometry in physics and especially in stellar collapse and supernova explosion.
The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Effective Atomic Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Halides
The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.
An Experimental Study of Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Lithium Ferrite
Nanomaterials ferrites have applications in making permanent magnets, high density information devices, color imaging etc. In the present examination, lithium ferrite is synthesized by sol-gel process. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that the structure of lithium ferrite is monoclinic structure. The average particle size 22 nm is calculated by Scherer formula. The lattice parameters and dislocation density (δ) are calculated from XRD data. Strain (ε) values are evaluated from Williamson – hall plot. The FT-IR study reveals the formation of ferrites showing the significant absorption bands. The VU-VIS spectroscopic data is used to calculate direct and indirect optical band gap (Eg) of 1.57eV and 1.01eV respectively for lithium ferrite by using Tauc plot at the edge of the absorption band. The energy dispersive x-ray analysis spectra showed that the expected elements exist in the material. The magnetic behaviour of the materials studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).
Improved Multi–Objective Firefly Algorithms to Find Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences for Optimal Golomb Ruler Channel Allocation
Recently nature–inspired algorithms have widespread use throughout the tough and time consuming multi–objective scientific and engineering design optimization problems. In this paper, we present extended forms of firefly algorithm to find optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences. The OGRs have their one of the major application as unequally spaced channel–allocation algorithm in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems in order to minimize the adverse four–wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk effect. The simulation results conclude that the proposed optimization algorithm has superior performance compared to the existing conventional computing and nature–inspired optimization algorithms to find OGRs in terms of ruler length, total optical channel bandwidth and computation time.
Describing the Fine Electronic Structure and Predicting Properties of Materials with ATOMIC MATTERS Computation System
We present the concept and scientific methods and algorithms of our computation system called ATOMIC MATTERS. This is the first presentation of the new computer package, that allows its user to describe physical properties of atomic localized electron systems subject to electromagnetic interactions. Our solution applies to situations where an unclosed electron 2p/3p/3d/4d/5d/4f/5f subshell interacts with an electrostatic potential of definable symmetry and external magnetic field. Our methods are based on Crystal Electric Field (CEF) approach, which takes into consideration the electrostatic ligands field as well as the magnetic Zeeman effect. The application allowed us to predict macroscopic properties of materials such as: Magnetic, spectral and calorimetric as a result of physical properties of their fine electronic structure. We emphasize the importance of symmetry of charge surroundings of atom/ion, spin-orbit interactions (spin-orbit coupling) and the use of complex number matrices in the definition of the Hamiltonian. Calculation methods, algorithms and convention recalculation tools collected in ATOMIC MATTERS were chosen to permit the prediction of magnetic and spectral properties of materials in isostructural series.
Speaker Identification by Atomic Decomposition of Learned Features Using Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Principals in Noisy Environments
Speaker recognition is performed in high Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) environments using principals of Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA). CASA methods often classify sounds from images in the time-frequency (T-F) plane using spectrograms or cochleargrams as the image. In this paper atomic decomposition implemented by matching pursuit performs a transform from time series speech signals to the T-F plane. The atomic decomposition creates a sparsely populated T-F vector in “weight space” where each populated T-F position contains an amplitude weight. The weight space vector along with the atomic dictionary represents a denoised, compressed version of the original signal. The arraignment or of the atomic indices in the T-F vector are used for classification. Unsupervised feature learning implemented by a sparse autoencoder learns a single dictionary of basis features from a collection of envelope samples from all speakers. The approach is demonstrated using pairs of speakers from the TIMIT data set. Pairs of speakers are selected randomly from a single district. Each speak has 10 sentences. Two are used for training and 8 for testing. Atomic index probabilities are created for each training sentence and also for each test sentence. Classification is performed by finding the lowest Euclidean distance between then probabilities from the training sentences and the test sentences. Training is done at a 30dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Testing is performed at SNR’s of 0 dB, 5 dB, 10 dB and 30dB. The algorithm has a baseline classification accuracy of ~93% averaged over 10 pairs of speakers from the TIMIT data set. The baseline accuracy is attributable to short sequences of training and test data as well as the overall simplicity of the classification algorithm. The accuracy is not affected by AWGN and produces ~93% accuracy at 0dB SNR.
Non-Coplanar Nuclei in Heavy-Ion Reactions
In recent times, we noticed an interesting and important
role of non-coplanar degree-of-freedom (Φ = 00) in heavy ion
reactions. Using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with
Φ degree-of-freedom included, we have studied three compound
systems 246Bk∗, 164Yb∗ and 105Ag∗. Here, within the DCM with
pocket formula for nuclear proximity potential, we look for the
effects of including compact, non-coplanar configurations (Φc = 00)
on the non-compound nucleus (nCN) contribution in total fusion
cross section σfus. For 246Bk∗, formed in 11B+235U and 14N+232Th
reaction channels, the DCM with coplanar nuclei (Φc = 00) shows
an nCN contribution for 11B+235U channel, but none for 14N+232Th
channel, which on including Φ gives both reaction channels as
pure compound nucleus decays. In the case of 164Yb∗, formed in
64Ni+100Mo, the small nCN effects for Φ=00 are reduced to almost
zero for Φ = 00. Interestingly, however, 105Ag∗ for Φ = 00 shows a
small nCN contribution, which gets strongly enhanced for Φ = 00,
such that the characteristic property of PCN presents a change of
behaviour, like that of a strongly fissioning superheavy element to a
weakly fissioning nucleus; note that 105Ag∗ is a weakly fissioning
nucleus and Psurv behaves like one for a weakly fissioning nucleus
for both Φ = 00 and Φ = 00. Apparently, Φ is presenting itself like
a good degree-of-freedom in the DCM.
Coding Considerations for Standalone Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Atomistic Structures
The laws of Newtonian mechanics allow ab-initio
molecular dynamics to model and simulate particle trajectories in
material science by defining a differentiable potential function. This
paper discusses some considerations for the coding of ab-initio
programs for simulation on a standalone computer and illustrates
the approach by C language codes in the context of embedded
metallic atoms in the face-centred cubic structure. The algorithms use
velocity-time integration to determine particle parameter evolution
for up to several thousands of particles in a thermodynamical
ensemble. Such functions are reusable and can be placed in a
redistributable header library file. While there are both commercial
and free packages available, their heuristic nature prevents dissection.
In addition, developing own codes has the obvious advantage of
teaching techniques applicable to new problems.
Status Report of the GERDA Phase II Startup
The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment,
located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of
INFN, searches for 0νββ of 76Ge. Germanium diodes enriched to
∼ 86 % in the double beta emitter 76Ge(enrGe) are exposed being
both source and detectors of 0νββ decay. Neutrinoless double beta
decay is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues
in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle
Physics. Since 2013, just after the completion of the first part of its
experimental program (Phase I), the GERDA setup has been upgraded
to perform its next step in the 0νββ searches (Phase II). Phase II aims
to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half-life larger than 1026 yr
in about 3 years of physics data taking. This exposing a detector
mass of about 35 kg of enrGe and with a background index of about
10^−3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). One of the main new implementations is the
liquid argon scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only
partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr.
In this paper, the GERDA Phase II expected goals, the upgrade work
and few selected features from the 2015 commissioning and 2016
calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements
will be also reviewed.
First-Principles Density Functional Study of Nitrogen-Doped P-Type ZnO
We present a theoretical investigation on the structural,
electronic properties and vibrational mode of nitrogen impurities
in ZnO. The atomic structures, formation and transition energies
and vibrational modes of (NO3)i interstitial or NO4 substituting
on an oxygen site ZnO were computed using ab initio total energy
methods. Based on Local density functional theory, our calculations
are in agreement with one interpretation of bound-excition
photoluminescence for N-doped ZnO. First-principles calculations
show that (NO3)i defects interstitial or NO4 substituting on an
Oxygen site in ZnO are important suitable impurity for p-type doping
in ZnO. However, many experimental efforts have not resulted in
reproducible p-type material with N2 and N2O doping. by means of
first-principle pseudo-potential calculation we find that the use of NO
or NO2 with O gas might help the experimental research to resolve
the challenge of achieving p-type ZnO.
Combined Effect of Moving and Open Boundary Conditions in the Simulation of Inland Inundation Due to Far Field Tsunami
Tsunami and inundation modelling due to far field tsunami propagation in a limited area is a very challenging numerical task because it involves many aspects such as the formation of various types of waves and the irregularities of coastal boundaries. To compute the effect of far field tsunami and extent of inland inundation due to far field tsunami along the coastal belts of west coast of Malaysia and Southern Thailand, a formulated boundary condition and a moving boundary condition are simultaneously used. In this study, a boundary fitted curvilinear grid system is used in order to incorporate the coastal and island boundaries accurately as the boundaries of the model domain are curvilinear in nature and the bending is high. The tsunami response of the event 26 December 2004 along the west open boundary of the model domain is computed to simulate the effect of far field tsunami. Based on the data of the tsunami source at the west open boundary of the model domain, a boundary condition is formulated and applied to simulate the tsunami response along the coastal and island boundaries. During the simulation process, a moving boundary condition is initiated instead of fixed vertical seaside wall. The extent of inland inundation and tsunami propagation pattern are computed. Some comparisons are carried out to test the validation of the simultaneous use of the two boundary conditions. All simulations show excellent agreement with the data of observation.
Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field
Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional
polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence
length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the
wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical
current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static
magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown
that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes
large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current
I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The
cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the
electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases
with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection
of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus
provides highly coherent electrical conduction.
Hydrodynamic Performance of a Moored Barge in Irregular Wave
Motion response of floating structures is of great
concern in marine engineering. Nonlinearity is an inherent property
of any floating bodies subjected to irregular waves. These floating
structures are continuously subjected to environmental loadings from
wave, current, wind etc. This can result in undesirable motions of the
vessel which may challenge the operability. For a floating body to
remain in its position, it should be able to induce a restoring force
when displaced. Mooring is provided to enable this restoring force.
This paper discusses the hydrodynamic performance and motion
characteristics of an 8 point spread mooring system applied to a pipe
laying barge operating in the West African sea. The modelling of the
barge is done using a computer aided-design (CAD) software
RHINOCEROS. Irregular waves are generated using a suitable wave
spectrum. Both frequency domain and time domain analysis is done.
Numerical simulations based on potential theory are carried out to
find the responses and hydrodynamic performance of the barge in
both free floating as well as moored conditions. Initially, potential
flow frequency domain analysis is done to obtain the Response
Amplitude Operator (RAO) which gives an idea about the structural
motion in free floating state. RAOs for different wave headings are
analyzed. In the following step, a time domain analysis is carried out
to obtain the responses of the structure in the moored condition. In
this study, wave induced motions are only taken into consideration.
Wind and current loads are ruled out and shall be included in further
studies. For the current study, 2000 seconds simulation is taken. The
results represent wave induced motion responses, mooring line
tensions and identify critical mooring lines.
Searching the Stabilizing Effects of Neutron Shell Closure via Fusion Evaporation Residue Studies
Searching the “Island of stability” is a topic of
extreme interest in theoretical as well as experimental modern
physics today. This “island of stability” is spanned by superheavy
elements (SHE's) that are produced in the laboratory. SHE's are
believed to exist primarily due to the “magic” stabilizing effects of
nuclear shell structure. SHE synthesis is extremely difficult due to
their very low production cross section, often of the order of pico
barns or less. Stabilizing effects of shell closures at proton number
Z=82 and neutron number N=126 are predicted theoretically. Though
stabilizing effects of Z=82 have been experimentally verified, no
concluding observations have been made with N=126, so far. We
measured and analyzed the total evaporation residue (ER) cross
sections for a number of systems with neutron number around 126 to
explore possible shell closure effects in ER cross sections, in this
Dominant Correlation Effects in Atomic Spectra
High double excitation of two-electron atoms has been
investigated using hyperpherical coordinates within a modified
adiabatic expansion technique. This modification creates a novel
fictitious force leading to a spontaneous exchange symmetry breaking
at high double excitation. The Pauli principle must therefore be
regarded as approximation valid only at low excitation energy.
Threshold electron scattering from high Rydberg states shows an
unexpected time reversal symmetry breaking. At threshold for double
escape we discover a broad (few eV) Cooper pair.