International Science Index

International Journal of Mathematical and Computational Sciences

1541
10006659
Sensitivity Analysis during the Optimization Process Using Genetic Algorithms
Abstract:
Genetic algorithms (GA) are applied to the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems. Additionally, sensitivity analysis (SA) is usually carried out to determine the effect on optimal solutions of changes in parameter values of the objective function. These two analyses (i.e., optimization and sensitivity analysis) are computationally intensive when applied to high-dimensional functions. The approach presented in this paper consists in performing the SA during the GA execution, by statistically analyzing the data obtained of running the GA. The advantage is that in this case SA does not involve making additional evaluations of the objective function and, consequently, this proposed approach requires less computational effort than conducting optimization and SA in two consecutive steps.
Paper Detail
26
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1540
10006544
Simulation of the Large Hadrons Collisions Using Monte Carlo Tools
Authors:
Abstract:
In many cases, theoretical treatments are available for models for which there is no perfect physical realization. In this situation, the only possible test for an approximate theoretical solution is to compare with data generated from a computer simulation. In this paper, Monte Carlo tools are used to study and compare the elementary particles models. All the experiments are implemented using 10000 events, and the simulated energy is 13 TeV. The mean and the curves of several variables are calculated for each model using MadAnalysis 5. Anomalies in the results can be seen in the muons masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the two Higgs doublet model.
Paper Detail
51
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1539
10006595
Mathematical Study for Traffic Flow and Traffic Density in Kigali Roads
Abstract:

This work investigates a mathematical study for traffic flow and traffic density in Kigali city roads and the data collected from the national police of Rwanda in 2012. While working on this topic, some mathematical models were used in order to analyze and compare traffic variables. This work has been carried out on Kigali roads specifically at roundabouts from Kigali Business Center (KBC) to Prince House as our study sites. In this project, we used some mathematical tools to analyze the data collected and to understand the relationship between traffic variables. We applied the Poisson distribution method to analyze and to know the number of accidents occurred in this section of the road which is from KBC to Prince House. The results show that the accidents that occurred in 2012 were at very high rates due to the fact that this section has a very narrow single lane on each side which leads to high congestion of vehicles, and consequently, accidents occur very frequently. Using the data of speeds and densities collected from this section of road, we found that the increment of the density results in a decrement of the speed of the vehicle. At the point where the density is equal to the jam density the speed becomes zero. The approach is promising in capturing sudden changes on flow patterns and is open to be utilized in a series of intelligent management strategies and especially in noncurrent congestion effect detection and control.

Paper Detail
83
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1538
10006600
A Comparative Study of Additive and Nonparametric Regression Estimators and Variable Selection Procedures
Abstract:
One of the biggest challenges in nonparametric regression is the curse of dimensionality. Additive models are known to overcome this problem by estimating only the individual additive effects of each covariate. However, if the model is misspecified, the accuracy of the estimator compared to the fully nonparametric one is unknown. In this work the efficiency of completely nonparametric regression estimators such as the Loess is compared to the estimators that assume additivity in several situations, including additive and non-additive regression scenarios. The comparison is done by computing the oracle mean square error of the estimators with regards to the true nonparametric regression function. Then, a backward elimination selection procedure based on the Akaike Information Criteria is proposed, which is computed from either the additive or the nonparametric model. Simulations show that if the additive model is misspecified, the percentage of time it fails to select important variables can be higher than that of the fully nonparametric approach. A dimension reduction step is included when nonparametric estimator cannot be computed due to the curse of dimensionality. Finally, the Boston housing dataset is analyzed using the proposed backward elimination procedure and the selected variables are identified.
Paper Detail
45
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1537
10006682
Development of a Paediatric Head Model for the Computational Analysis of Head Impact Interactions
Abstract:

Head injury in childhood is a common cause of death or permanent disability from injury. However, despite its frequency and significance, there is little understanding of how a child’s head responds during injurious loading. Whilst Infant Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) experimentation is a logical approach to understand injury biomechanics, it is the authors’ opinion that a lack of subject availability is hindering potential progress. Computer modelling adds great value when considering adult populations; however, its potential remains largely untapped for infant surrogates. The complexities of child growth and development, which result in age dependent changes in anatomy, geometry and physical response characteristics, present new challenges for computational simulation. Further geometric challenges are presented by the intricate infant cranial bones, which are separated by sutures and fontanelles and demonstrate a visible fibre orientation. This study presents an FE model of a newborn infant’s head, developed from high-resolution computer tomography scans, informed by published tissue material properties. To mimic the fibre orientation of immature cranial bone, anisotropic properties were applied to the FE cranial bone model, with elastic moduli representing the bone response both parallel and perpendicular to the fibre orientation. Biofiedility of the computational model was confirmed by global validation against published PMHS data, by replicating experimental impact tests with a series of computational simulations, in terms of head kinematic responses. Numerical results confirm that the FE head model’s mechanical response is in favourable agreement with the PMHS drop test results.

Paper Detail
17
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1536
10006683
An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation
Abstract:

In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

Paper Detail
24
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1535
10006276
Effects of Thermal Radiation on Mixed Convection in a MHD Nanofluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet Using a Spectral Relaxation Method
Abstract:
The effects of thermal radiation, Soret and Dufour parameters on mixed convection and nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field are investigated. The flow is subject to temperature dependent viscosity and a chemical reaction parameter. It is assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The physical problem is modelled using systems of nonlinear differential equations which have been solved numerically using a spectral relaxation method. In addition to the discussion on heat and mass transfer processes, the velocity, nanoparticles volume fraction profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient are determined for different important physical parameters. A comparison of current findings with previously published results for some special cases of the problem shows an excellent agreement.
Paper Detail
173
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1534
10006483
Jointly Learning Python Programming and Analytic Geometry
Abstract:
The paper presents an original Python-based application that outlines the advantages of combining some elementary notions of mathematics with the study of a programming language. The application support refers to some of the first lessons of analytic geometry, meaning conics and quadrics and their reduction to a standard form, as well as some related notions. The chosen programming language is Python, not only for its closer to an everyday language syntax – and therefore, enhanced readability – but also for its highly reusable code, which is of utmost importance for a mathematician that is accustomed to exploit already known and used problems to solve new ones. The purpose of this paper is, on one hand, to support the idea that one of the most appropriate means to initiate one into programming is throughout mathematics, and reciprocal, one of the most facile and handy ways to assimilate some basic knowledge in the study of mathematics is to apply them in a personal project. On the other hand, besides being a mean of learning both programming and analytic geometry, the application subject to this paper is itself a useful tool for it can be seen as an independent original Python package for analytic geometry.
Paper Detail
50
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1533
10006559
Transport of Analytes under Mixed Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow of Power Law Fluid
Abstract:
In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic (EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential, imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte concentration and flow behavior index.
Paper Detail
56
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1532
10006564
Mathematical Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System: A Lumped Parameter Approach and Simulation
Abstract:
The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of Human Cardiovascular System using lumped parameter method. The model is divided in three parts: Systemic Circulation, Pulmonary Circulation and the Heart. The established mathematical model has been simulated by MATLAB software. The innovation of this study is in describing the system based on the vessel diameters and simulating mathematical equations with active electrical elements. Terminology of human physical body and required physical data like vessel’s radius, thickness etc., which are required to calculate circuit parameters like resistance, inductance and capacitance, are proceeds from well-known medical books. The developed model is useful to understand the anatomic of human cardiovascular system and related syndromes. The model is deal with vessel’s pressure and blood flow at certain time.
Paper Detail
70
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1531
10006588
Stability Analysis of a Human-Mosquito Model of Malaria with Infective Immigrants
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyse the stability of the SEIR model of malaria with infective immigrants which was recently formulated by the authors. The model consists of an SEIR model for the human population and SI Model for the mosquitoes. Susceptible humans become infected after they are bitten by infectious mosquitoes and move on to the Exposed, Infected and Recovered classes respectively. The susceptible mosquito becomes infected after biting an infected person and remains infected till death. We calculate the reproduction number R0 using the next generation method and then discuss about the stability of the equilibrium points. We use the Lyapunov function to show the global stability of the equilibrium points.
Paper Detail
41
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1530
10005973
Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die
Abstract:
The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.
Paper Detail
188
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1529
10006198
A Hyperexponential Approximation to Finite-Time and Infinite-Time Ruin Probabilities of Compound Poisson Processes
Abstract:
This article considers the problem of evaluating infinite-time (or finite-time) ruin probability under a given compound Poisson surplus process by approximating the claim size distribution by a finite mixture exponential, say Hyperexponential, distribution. It restates the infinite-time (or finite-time) ruin probability as a solvable ordinary differential equation (or a partial differential equation). Application of our findings has been given through a simulation study.
Paper Detail
214
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1528
10006334
Topological Sensitivity Analysis for Reconstruction of the Inverse Source Problem from Boundary Measurement
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a geometric inverse source problem for the heat equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data. We will reconstruct the exact form of the unknown source term from additional boundary conditions. Our motivation is to detect the location, the size and the shape of source support. We present a one-shot algorithm based on the Kohn-Vogelius formulation and the topological gradient method. The geometric inverse source problem is formulated as a topology optimization one. A topological sensitivity analysis is derived from a source function. Then, we present a non-iterative numerical method for the geometric reconstruction of the source term with unknown support using a level curve of the topological gradient. Finally, we give several examples to show the viability of our presented method.
Paper Detail
147
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1527
10006367
Warning about the Risk of Blood Flow Stagnation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
Abstract:

In this work, the hemodynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is numerically examined. We focus on the physical results in the two-dimensional case. We use a finite element methodology based on a Lagrange multiplier technique that enables to couple the dynamics of blood flow and the leaflets’ movement. A massively parallel implementation of a monolithic and fully implicit solver allows more accuracy and significant computational savings. The elastic properties of the aortic valve are disregarded, and the numerical computations are performed under physiologically correct pressure loads. Computational results depict that blood flow may be subject to stagnation in the lower domain of the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Paper Detail
115
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1526
10006556
Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution
Abstract:
In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.
Paper Detail
37
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1525
10006623
Consensus of Multi-Agent Systems under the Special Consensus Protocols
Authors:
Abstract:
Two consensus problems are considered in this paper. One is the consensus of linear multi-agent systems with weakly connected directed communication topology. The other is the consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems with strongly connected directed communication topology. For the first problem, a simplified consensus protocol is designed: Each child agent can only communicate with one of its neighbors. That is, the real communication topology is a directed spanning tree of the original communication topology and without any cycles. Then, the necessary and sufficient condition is put forward to the multi-agent systems can be reached consensus. It is worth noting that the given conditions do not need any eigenvalue of the corresponding Laplacian matrix of the original directed communication network. For the second problem, the feedback gain is designed in the nonlinear consensus protocol. Then, the sufficient condition is proposed such that the systems can be achieved consensus. Besides, the consensus interval is introduced and analyzed to solve the consensus problem. Finally, two numerical simulations are included to verify the theoretical analysis.
Paper Detail
29
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1524
10006686
Group Invariant Solutions of Nonlinear Time-Fractional Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation
Abstract:
In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) for its symmetries and invariance properties. With the application of this method, we have tried to reduce it to time-fractional ordinary differential equation (ODE) which has been further studied for exact solutions.
Paper Detail
30
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1523
10005813
Normalizing Logarithms of Realized Volatility in an ARFIMA Model
Authors:
Abstract:

Modelling realized volatility with high-frequency returns is popular as it is an unbiased and efficient estimator of return volatility. A computationally simple model is fitting the logarithms of the realized volatilities with a fractionally integrated long-memory Gaussian process. The Gaussianity assumption simplifies the parameter estimation using the Whittle approximation. Nonetheless, this assumption may not be met in the finite samples and there may be a need to normalize the financial series. Based on the empirical indices S&P500 and DAX, this paper examines the performance of the linear volatility model pre-treated with normalization compared to its existing counterpart. The empirical results show that by including normalization as a pre-treatment procedure, the forecast performance outperforms the existing model in terms of statistical and economic evaluations.

Paper Detail
325
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1522
10005817
Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling
Abstract:

A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

Paper Detail
236
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1521
10005864
Variational Evolutionary Splines for Solving a Model of Temporomandibular Disorders
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to modelize the occlusion of a person with temporomandibular disorders as an evolutionary equation and approach its solution by the construction and characterizing of discrete variational splines. To formulate the problem, certain boundary conditions have been considered. After showing the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of such a problem, a convergence result of a discrete variational evolutionary spline is shown. A stress analysis of the occlusion of a human jaw with temporomandibular disorders by finite elements is carried out in FreeFem++ in order to prove the validity of the presented method.
Paper Detail
274
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1520
10006134
Implicit Eulerian Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for the Modeling of Highly Deformable Elastic Membranes
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the development of a fully implicit and purely Eulerian fluid-structure interaction method tailored for the modeling of the large deformations of elastic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a simplified model for the mechanical properties of the membrane, in which the surface strain energy depends on the membrane stretching. The fully Eulerian description is based on the advection of a modified surface tension tensor, and the deformations of the membrane are tracked using a level set strategy. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson method, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the presented method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps.
Paper Detail
337
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1519
10006183
Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
Abstract:

Calibration of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has a crucial role for the accurate determination of fault locations and the accurate calculation of loss budget of long-haul optical fibre links during installation and repair. A comparison has been made between the Egyptian National Institute for Standards (NIS-Egypt) and the National Metrology institute of South Africa (NMISA-South Africa) for the calibration of an OTDR. The distance and the attenuation scales of a transfer OTDR have been calibrated by both institutes using their standards according to the standard IEC 61746-1 (2009). The results of this comparison have been compiled in this report.

Paper Detail
82
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1518
10006185
An Implicit Methodology for the Numerical Modeling of Locally Inextensible Membranes
Abstract:
We present in this paper a fully implicit finite element method tailored for the numerical modeling of inextensible fluidic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a highly simplified version of the Canham-Helfrich model for phospholipid membranes, in which the bending force and spontaneous curvature are disregarded. The coupled problem is formulated in a fully Eulerian framework and the membrane motion is tracked using the level set method. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson strategy, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the proposed method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps with respect to an explicit decoupling method.
Paper Detail
291
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1517
10006191
Algorithms for Computing of Optimization Problems with a Common Minimum-Norm Fixed Point with Applications
Abstract:
This research is aimed to study a two-step iteration process defined over a finite family of σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings. The strong convergence is guaranteed under the framework of Banach spaces with some additional structural properties including strict and uniform convexity, reflexivity, and smoothness assumptions. With similar projection technique for nonself-mapping in Hilbert spaces, we hereby use the generalized projection to construct a point within the corresponding domain. Moreover, we have to introduce the use of duality mapping and its inverse to overcome the unavailability of duality representation that is exploit by Hilbert space theorists. We then apply our results for σ-asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive nonself-mappings to solve for ideal efficiency of vector optimization problems composed of finitely many objective functions. We also showed that the obtained solution from our process is the closest to the origin. Moreover, we also give an illustrative numerical example to support our results.
Paper Detail
130
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1516
10006216
Analysis of Multilayer Neural Network Modeling and Long Short-Term Memory
Abstract:
This paper analyzes fundamental ideas and concepts related to neural networks, which provide the reader a theoretical explanation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks operation classified as Deep Learning Systems, and to explicitly present the mathematical development of Backward Pass equations of the LSTM network model. This mathematical modeling associated with software development will provide the necessary tools to develop an intelligent system capable of predicting the behavior of licensed users in wireless cognitive radio networks.
Paper Detail
112
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1515
10006607
Travel Time Model for Cylinder Type Parking System
Abstract:
In this paper, we mainly analyze an automated parking system where the storage and retrieval requests are performed by a tower crane. In this parking system, the S/R crane which is located at the middle of the bottom of the cylinder parking area can rotate in both clockwise and counterclockwise and three kinds of movements can be done simultaneously. We develop some mathematical travel time models for the single command cycle under the random storage assignment using the characteristics of this system. Finally, we compare these travel models with discrete case and it is shown that these travel models display a good satisfactory performance.
Paper Detail
18
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1514
10005660
A Study of Numerical Reaction-Diffusion Systems on Closed Surfaces
Abstract:
The diffusion-reaction equations are important Partial Differential Equations in mathematical biology, material science, physics, and so on. However, finding efficient numerical methods for diffusion-reaction systems on curved surfaces is still an important and difficult problem. The purpose of this paper is to present a convergent geometric method for solving the reaction-diffusion equations on closed surfaces by an O(r)-LTL configuration method. The O(r)-LTL configuration method combining the local tangential lifting technique and configuration equations is an effective method to estimate differential quantities on curved surfaces. Since estimating the Laplace-Beltrami operator is an important task for solving the reaction-diffusion equations on surfaces, we use the local tangential lifting method and a generalized finite difference method to approximate the Laplace-Beltrami operators and we solve this reaction-diffusion system on closed surfaces. Our method is not only conceptually simple, but also easy to implement.
Paper Detail
432
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1513
10005661
A Numerical Method for Diffusion and Cahn-Hilliard Equations on Evolving Spherical Surfaces
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a simple effective numerical geometric method to estimate the divergence of a vector field over a curved surface. The conservation law is an important principle in physics and mathematics. However, many well-known numerical methods for solving diffusion equations do not obey conservation laws. Our presented method in this paper combines the divergence theorem with a generalized finite difference method and obeys the conservation law on discrete closed surfaces. We use the similar method to solve the Cahn-Hilliard equations on evolving spherical surfaces and observe stability results in our numerical simulations.
Paper Detail
435
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1512
10005690
Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean
Abstract:

Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.

Paper Detail
260
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