International Science Index
International Journal of Marine and Environmental Sciences
Design Development of Floating Performance Structure for Coastal Areas in the Maltese Islands
Background: Islands in the Mediterranean region offer
opportunities for various industries to take advantage of the
facilitation and use of versatile floating structures in coastal areas. In
the context of dense land use, marine structures can contribute to
ensure both terrestrial and marine resource sustainability. Objective:
The aim of this paper is to present and critically discuss an array of
issues that characterize the design process of a floating structure for
coastal areas and to present the challenges and opportunities of
providing such multifunctional and versatile structures around the
Maltese coastline. Research Design: A three-tier research design
commenced with a systematic literature review. Semi-structured
interviews with stakeholders including a naval architect, a marine
engineer and civil designers were conducted. A second stage
preceded a focus group with stakeholders in design and construction
of marine lightweight structures. The three tier research design
ensured triangulation of issues. All phases of the study were
governed by research ethics. Findings: Findings were grouped into
three main themes: excellence, impact and implementation. These
included design considerations, applications and potential impacts on
local industry. Literature for the design and construction of marine
structures in the Maltese Islands presented multiple gaps in the
application of marine structures for local industries. Weather
conditions, depth of sea bed and wave actions presented limitations
on the design capabilities of the structure. Conclusion: Water
structures offer great potential and conclusions demonstrate the
applicability of such designs for Maltese waters. There is still no such
provision within Maltese coastal areas for multi-purpose use. The
introduction of such facilities presents a range of benefits for visiting
tourists and locals thereby offering wide range of services to tourism
and marine industry. Costs for construction and adverse weather
conditions were amongst the main limitations that shaped design
capacities of the water structures.
Estimating Affected Croplands and Potential Crop Yield Loss of an Individual Farmer Due to Floods
Farmers who are living in flood-prone areas such as coasts are exposed to storm surges increased due to climate change. Crop cultivation is the most important economic activity of farmers, and in the time of flooding, agricultural lands are subject to inundation. Additionally, overflow saline water causes more severe damage outcomes than riverine flooding. Agricultural crops are more vulnerable to salinity than other land uses for which the economic damages may continue for a number of years even after flooding and affect farmers’ decision-making for the following year. Therefore, it is essential to assess what extent the agricultural areas are flooded and how much the associated flood damage to each individual farmer is. To address these questions, we integrated farmers’ decision-making at farm-scale with flood risk management. The integrated model includes identification of hazard scenarios, failure analysis of structural measures, derivation of hydraulic parameters for the inundated areas and analysis of the economic damages experienced by each farmer. The present study has two aims; firstly, it attempts to investigate the flooded cropland and potential crop damages for the whole area. Secondly, it compares them among farmers’ field for three flood scenarios, which differ in breach locations of the flood protection structure. To achieve its goal, the spatial distribution of fields and cultivated crops of farmers were fed into the flood risk model, and a 100-year storm surge hydrograph was selected as the flood event. The study area was Pellworm Island that is located in the German Wadden Sea National Park and surrounded by North Sea. Due to high salt content in seawater of North Sea, crops cultivated in the agricultural areas of Pellworm Island are 100% destroyed by storm surges which were taken into account in developing of depth-damage curve for analysis of consequences. As a result, inundated croplands and economic damages to crops were estimated in the whole Island which was further compared for six selected farmers under three flood scenarios. The results demonstrate the significance and the flexibility of the proposed model in flood risk assessment of flood-prone areas by integrating flood risk management and decision-making.
Sea Level Characteristics Referenced to Specific Geodetic Datum in Alexandria, Egypt
Two geo-referenced sea level datasets (September 2008 – November 2010) and (April 2012 – January 2014) were recorded at Alexandria Western Harbour (AWH). Accurate re-definition of tidal datum, referred to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-2014), was discussed and updated to improve our understanding of the old predefined tidal datum at Alexandria. Tidal and non-tidal components of sea level were separated with the use of Delft-3D hydrodynamic model-tide suit (Delft-3D, 2015). Tidal characteristics at AWH were investigated and harmonic analysis showed the most significant 34 constituents with their amplitudes and phases. Tide was identified as semi-diurnal pattern as indicated by a “Form Factor” of 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Principle tidal datums related to major tidal phenomena were recalculated referred to a meaningful geodetic height datum. The portion of residual energy (surge) out of the total sea level energy was computed for each dataset and found 77% and 72%, respectively. Power spectral density (PSD) showed accurate resolvability in high band (1–6) cycle/days for the nominated independent constituents, except some neighbouring constituents, which are too close in frequency. Wind and atmospheric pressure data, during the recorded sea level time, were analysed and cross-correlated with the surge signals. Moderate association between surge and wind and atmospheric pressure data were obtained. In addition, long-term sea level rise trend at AWH was computed and showed good agreement with earlier estimated rates.
Tidal Current Behaviors and Remarkable Bathymetric Change in the South-Western Part of Khor Abdullah, Kuwait
A study of the tidal current behavior and bathymetric changes was undertaken in order to establish an information base for future coastal management. The average velocity for tidal current was 0.46 m/s and the maximum velocity was 1.08 m/s during ebb tide. During spring tides, maximum velocities range from 0.90 m/s to 1.08 m/s, whereas maximum velocities vary from 0.40 m/s to 0.60 m/s during neap tides. Despite greater current velocities during flood tide, the bathymetric features enhance the dominance of the ebb tide. This can be related to the abundance of fine sediments from the ebb current approaching the study area, and the relatively coarser sediment from the approaching flood current. Significant bathymetric changes for the period from 1985 to 1998 were found with dominance of erosion process. Approximately 96.5% of depth changes occurred within the depth change classes of -5 m to 5 m. The high erosion processes within the study area will subsequently result in high accretion processes, particularly in the north, the location of the proposed Boubyan Port and its navigation channel.
A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of COSMO and WRF Models in Quantitative Rainfall Prediction
The Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are
considered powerful tools for guiding quantitative rainfall prediction.
A couple of NWP models exist and are used at many operational
weather prediction centers. This study considers two models namely
the Consortium for Small–scale Modeling (COSMO) model and the
Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It compares the
models’ ability to predict rainfall over Uganda for the period 21st
April 2013 to 10th May 2013 using the root mean square (RMSE)
and the mean error (ME). In comparing the performance of the
models, this study assesses their ability to predict light rainfall events
and extreme rainfall events. All the experiments used the default
parameterization configurations and with same horizontal resolution
(7 Km). The results show that COSMO model had a tendency of
largely predicting no rain which explained its under–prediction. The
COSMO model (RMSE: 14.16; ME: -5.91) presented a significantly
(p = 0.014) higher magnitude of error compared to the WRF
model (RMSE: 11.86; ME: -1.09). However the COSMO model
(RMSE: 3.85; ME: 1.39) performed significantly (p = 0.003) better
than the WRF model (RMSE: 8.14; ME: 5.30) in simulating light
rainfall events. All the models under–predicted extreme rainfall events
with the COSMO model (RMSE: 43.63; ME: -39.58) presenting
significantly higher error magnitudes than the WRF model (RMSE:
35.14; ME: -26.95). This study recommends additional diagnosis of
the models’ treatment of deep convection over the tropics.
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Channel in the Curved Plane Oil Skimmer
Oil spills at sea can cause severe marine environmental damage, including bringing huge hazards to living resources and human beings. In situ burning or chemical dispersant methods can be used to handle the oil spills sometimes, but these approaches will bring secondary pollution and fail in some situations. Oil recovery techniques have also been developed to recover oil using oil skimmer equipment installed on ships, while the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is very complicated and important for evaluating the recovery efficiency. Based on this, a two-dimensional numerical simulation platform for simulating the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations for viscous, incompressible fluid. Finally, the influence of the design of the flow channel in the curved plane oil skimmer on the hydrodynamic process of the oil flowing through the oil skimmer is investigated based on the established simulation platform.
Study of the Process of Climate Change According to Data Simulation Using LARS-WG Software during 2010-2030: Case Study of Semnan Province
Temperature rise on Earth has had harmful effects on the Earth's surface and has led to change in precipitation patterns all around the world. The present research was aimed to study the process of climate change according to the data simulation in future and compare these parameters with current situation in the studied stations in Semnan province including Garmsar, Shahrood and Semnan. In this regard, LARS-WG software, HADCM3 model and A2 scenario were used for the 2010-2030 period. In this model, climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and radiation were used daily. The obtained results indicated that there will be a 4.4% increase in precipitation in Semnan province compared with the observed data, and in general, there will be a 1.9% increase in temperature. This temperature rise has significant impact on precipitation patterns. Most of precipitation will be raining (torrential rains in some cases). According to the results, from west to east, the country will experience more temperature rise and will be warmer.
Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment
To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.
Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda
Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting
many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its
quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters
although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being
used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective
parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the
Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D
scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the
weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative
rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean
square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM
2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over
Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall
amount (200–500 mm); western Uganda (270–550 mm); eastern
Uganda (400–900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400–650 mm). A
spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective
parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme
over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300–750
mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern
Uganda (400–900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny,
and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most
parts of the country especially the eastern region (300–600 mm).
The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region
(250–450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria
Basin (150–300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated
rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall
prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction
over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended
over eastern region.
Performance Analysis of Artificial Neural Network Based Land Cover Classification
Landcover classification using automated classification techniques, while employing remotely sensed multi-spectral imagery, is one of the promising areas of research. Different land conditions at different time are captured through satellite and monitored by applying different classification algorithms in specific environment. In this paper, a SPOT-5 image provided by SUPARCO has been studied and classified in Environment for Visual Interpretation (ENVI), a tool widely used in remote sensing. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classification technique is used to detect the land cover changes in Abbottabad district. Obtained results are compared with a pixel based Distance classifier. The results show that ANN gives the better overall accuracy of 99.20% and Kappa coefficient value of 0.98 over the Mahalanobis Distance Classifier.
Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data
It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.
Fuzzy Inference System for Determining Collision Risk of Ship in Madura Strait Using Automatic Identification System
Madura Strait is considered as one of the busiest shipping channels in Indonesia. High vessel traffic density in Madura Strait gives serious threat due to navigational safety in this area, i.e. ship collision. This study is necessary as an attempt to enhance the safety of marine traffic. Fuzzy inference system (FIS) is proposed to calculate risk collision of ships. Collision risk is evaluated based on ship domain, Distance to Closest Point of Approach (DCPA), and Time to Closest Point of Approach (TCPA). Data were collected by utilizing Automatic Identification System (AIS). This study considers several ships’ domain models to give the characteristic of marine traffic in the waterways. Each encounter in the ship domain is analyzed to obtain the level of collision risk. Risk level of ships, as the result in this study, can be used as guidance to avoid the accident, providing brief description about safety traffic in Madura Strait and improving the navigational safety in the area.
Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as a Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures
The corrosion is natural chemical phenomenon that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.
Experimental Analyses of Thermoelectric Generator Behavior Using Two Types of Thermoelectric Modules for Marine Application
Thermal power technology such as the TEG (Thermo-Electric Generator) arouses significant attention worldwide for waste heat recovery. Despite the potential benefits of marine application due to the permanent heat sink from sea water, no significant studies on this application were to be found. In this study, a test rig has been designed and built to test the performance of the TEG on engine operating points. The TEG device is built from commercially available materials for the sake of possible economical application. Two types of commercial TEM (thermo electric module) have been studied separately on the test rig. The engine data were extracted from a commercial Diesel engine since it shares the same principle in terms of engine efficiency and exhaust with the marine Diesel engine. An open circuit water cooling system is used to replicate the sea water cold source. The characterization tests showed that the silicium-germanium alloys TEM proved a remarkable reliability on all engine operating points, with no significant deterioration of performance even under sever variation in the hot source conditions. The performance of the bismuth-telluride alloys was 100% better than the first type of TEM but it showed a deterioration in power generation when the air temperature exceeds 300 °C. The temperature distribution on the heat exchange surfaces revealed no useful combination of these two types of TEM with this tube length, since the surface temperature difference between both ends is no more than 10 °C. This study exposed the perspective of use of TEG technology for marine engine exhaust heat recovery. Although the results suggested non-sufficient power generation from the low cost commercial TEM used, it provides valuable information about TEG device optimization, including the design of heat exchanger and the types of thermo-electric materials.
Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed
In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.
Numerical Analysis of the Turbulent Flow around DTMB 4119 Marine Propeller
This article presents a numerical analysis of a turbulent flow past DTMB 4119 marine propeller by the means of RANS approach; the propeller designed at David Taylor Model Basin in USA. The purpose of this study is to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the marine propeller, it aims also to compare the results obtained with the experiment carried out in open water tests; a periodical computational domain was created to reduce the unstructured mesh size generated. The standard kw turbulence model for the simulation is selected; the results were in a good agreement. Therefore, the errors were estimated respectively to 1.3% and 5.9% for KT and KQ.
The Ecological Role of Loligo forbesii in the Moray Firth Ecosystem, Northeast Scotland
The squid Loligo forbesii is suspected to be an important species in marine food webs, as it can strongly impact its prey and be impacted upon by predation, competition, fishing and/or climate variability. To quantify these impacts in the food web, the measurement of its trophic position and ecological role within well-studied ecosystems is essential. An Ecopath model was balanced and run for the Moray Firth ecosystem and was used to investigate the significance of this squid’s trophic roles. The network analysis routine included in Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) was used to estimate trophic interaction, system indicators (health condition and developmental stage) and food web features. Results indicated that within the Moray Firth squid occupy a top trophic position in the food web and also a major prey item for many other species. Results from Omnivory Index (OI) showed that squid is a generalized feeder transferring energy across wide trophic levels and is more important as a predator than that as a prey in the Moray Firth ecosystem. The results highlight the importance of taking squid into account in the management of Europe’s living marine resources.
PhilSHORE: Development of a WebGIS-Based Marine Spatial Planning Tool for Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment and Site Suitability Analysis
PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multicriteria
decision support tool designed to support the development of
tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the
collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial
data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development
applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial
planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs
of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis.
It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of
tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability
analyses. Results of the initial development show that PhilSHORE is
a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.
Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France
This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.
A Review on Marine Search and Rescue Operations Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
There have been rigorous research and development
of unmanned aerial vehicles in the field of search and rescue (SAR)
operation recently. UAVs reduce unnecessary human risks while
assisting rescue efforts through aerial imagery, topographic mapping
and emergency delivery. The application of UAVs in offshore and
nearshore marine SAR missions is discussed in this paper. Projects
that integrate UAV technology into their systems are introduced to
highlight the great advantages and capabilities of UAVs. Scenarios
where UAVs could provide invaluable assistance are also suggested.
The Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of Marine Actinomycete Strain HP411 Isolated in the Northern Coast of Vietnam
Since the marine environmental conditions are
extremely different from the other ones, marine actinomycetes might
produce novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, actinomycete strains
were screened from marine water and sediment samples collected
from the coastal areas of Northern Vietnam. Ninety-nine
actinomycete strains were obtained on starch-casein agar media by
dilution technique, only seven strains, named HP112, HP12, HP411,
HPN11, HP 11, HPT13 and HPX12, showed significant antibacterial
activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
(Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus epidemidis ATCC
12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 11105). Further studies were carried
out with the most active HP411 strain against Candida albicans
ATCC 10231. This strain could grow rapidly on starch casein agar
and other media with high salt containing 7-10% NaCl at 28-30oC.
Spore-chain of HP411 showed an elongated and circular shape with
10 to 30 spores/chain. Identification of the strain was carried out by
employing the taxonomical studies including the 16S rRNA
sequence. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is
proposed that HP411 to be belongs to species Streptomyces
variabilis. The potent of the crude extract of fermentation broth of
HP411 that are effective against wide range of pathogens: both grampositive,
gram-negative and fungi. Further studies revealed that the
crude extract HP411 could obtain the anticancer activity for cancer
cell lines: Hep-G2 (liver cancer cell line); RD (cardiac and skeletal
muscle letters cell line); FL (membrane of the uterus cancer cell line).
However, the actinomycetes from marine ecosystem will be useful
for the discovery of new drugs in the future.
The Use of Scuba Diving Tourism for Marine Protected Area Management
Marine Protected Areas can benefit from nature based
tourism, monitoring environmental impacts and also become target
for human presence. From more than 3 million tourists visiting
Cozumel Island every year, an average of 2,8 million arrive by cruise
ship, and 41% are estimated to have motivation for water activities.
The destination is relying so much on the tourism activity, that scuba
diving and snorkeling in the National Park Reef of Cozumel sustain
the major economic activity. In order to achieve the sustainable
development indicator designed for regional environmental
development, the PNAC offers a training course to tourism providers
to access the protected area. This way, the update of the last 5 years
of such training is directed to diving staff, boat crew and
professionals, making them able to assist in managing the natural
resource. Moreover, the case study is an example to be used for
raising awareness among tourists visiting protected areas.
Fish Locomotion for Innovative Marine Propulsion Systems
There is an essential need for obtaining the mathematical representation of fish body undulations, which can be used for designing and building new innovative types of marine propulsion systems with less environmental impact. This research work presents a case study to derive the mathematical model for fish body movement. Observation and capturing image methods were used in this study in order to obtain a mathematical representation of Clariasbatrachus fish (catfish). An experiment was conducted by using an aquarium with dimension 0.609 m x 0.304 m x 0.304 m, and a 0.5 m ruler was attached at the base of the aquarium. Progressive Scan Monochrome Camera was positioned at 1.8 m above the base of the aquarium to provide swimming sequences. Seven points were marked on the fish body using white marker to indicate the fish movement and measuring the amplitude of undulation. Images from video recordings (20 frames/s) were analyzed frame by frame using local coordinate system, with time interval 0.05 s. The amplitudes of undulations were obtained for image analysis from each point that has been marked on fish body. A graph of amplitude of undulations versus time was plotted by using computer to derive a mathematical fit. The function for the graph is polynomial with nine orders.
The Contribution of Sulfate and Oxidized Organics in Climatically Important Ultrafine Particles at a Coral Reef Environment
In order to investigate the properties of coral reef origin secondary aerosol and especially the contribution of secondary organic aerosol, ethanol affinity to atmospheric nucleation mode particles (diameter<15nm) was measured at the Heron reef marine environment in the South Pacific Ocean during the first coral reef aerosol characterization experiment in May-June 2011 using an ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer.
Our campaign study at Heron reef showed that the nucleation mode size particles (diameter =10nm) composition contain internally mixed sulfate and oxidized organic components in approximately equal proportion in sunny and still conditions around low tide time, indicating local biogenic sources. The produced secondary compounds and aerosols have potential to contribute to cloud condensation nuclei formation and properties that may affect local low-level cloud formation over the GBR. Additionally, primary marine sea-salt and organic material during windy conditions and anthropogenic/biogenic sources during continental air masses can affect the properties of these particles.
Experimental Study of Open Water Non-Series Marine Propeller Performance
Later marine propeller is the main component of ship
propulsion system. For a non-series propeller, it is difficult to
indicate the open water marine propeller performance without an
experimental study to measure the marine propeller parameters.
In the present study, the open water performance of a non-series
marine propeller has been carried out experimentally. The
geometrical aspects of a commercial non-series marine propeller
have been measured for a propeller blade area ratio of 0.3985. The
measured propeller performance parameters were the thrust and
torque coefficients for different propeller rotational speed and
different water channel flow velocity, then the open water
performance for the propeller has been plotted.
In addition, a direct comparison between the obtained
experimental results and a theoretical study of a B-series marine
propeller of the same blade area ratio has been carried out. A
correction factor has been introduced to apply the operating
conditions of the experimental results to that of the theoretical study
for the studied marine propeller.
Could Thermal Oceanic Hotspot Increase Climate Changes Activities in North Tropical Atlantic: Example of the 2005 Caribbean Coral Bleaching Hotspot and Hurricane Katrina Interaction
This paper reviews recent studies and particularly the
effects of Climate Change in the North Tropical Atlantic by studying
atmospheric conditions that prevailed in 2005 ; Coral Bleaching
HotSpot and Hurricane Katrina. In the aim to better understand and
estimate the impact of the physical phenomenon, i.e. Thermal
Oceanic HotSpot (TOHS), isotopic studies of δ18O and δ13C on
marine animals from Guadeloupe (French Caribbean Island) were
carried out. Recorded measures show Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
up to 35°C in August which is much higher than data recorded by
NOAA satellites 32°C. After having reviewed the process that led to
the creation of Hurricane Katrina which hit New Orleans in August
29, 2005, it will be shown that the climatic conditions in the
Caribbean from August to October 2005 have influenced Katrina
evolution. This TOHS is a combined effect of various phenomenon
which represent an additional factor to estimate future climate
Tourists, on Marine Sport Tourism Attraction, Travel Experiences and Perceived Values
The purpose of this study is to analyze the cognitive
and travel experience the situation of the tourist attraction of the sport
tourism in Penghu. This study used a questionnaires, the main island
of Taiwan to Penghu in the way of marine sports tourists adopted the
designated convenience sampling method, a total of 1447 valid
questionnaires. After statistical analysis, this study found that: 1.
Tourists to Penghu sports tourism attraction cognitive as “good air
quality, suitable for water activities". 2. Tourists in Penghu's tourism
experience, “Let me taste the delicious specialties and snacks". 3. The
attraction of the sport tourism, travel experience and perceived value
are correlated, and both the perceived value with a high degree of
predictive ability. Based on the findings of this study not only for
Penghu's tourism industry with the unit in charge of the proposed
operating and suggestions for future research to other researchers.
Floristic Richness of the Tropical Coast of Northern Andhra Pradesh along Bay of Bengal, a Treasure to be Conserved
Coastal zone combines terrestrial, marine and atmospheric factors and gives rise to unique landforms that play an important role in long-term sustainability of the hinterland and economy of maritime nations. World over, efforts have been put forth to understand plants of the seacoasts. In India also, plants of several geographical entities have been well documented, but works devoted to plant communities of the vast tropical coast of India and its States are still insufficient. Therefore, an inventory of plants flourishing in a stretch of ~450km of the Coastal Regulatory Zone I encompassing a total of 84 villages in 6 revenue Districts of northern Andhra Pradesh (15o42’06”N, 80o51’03”E to 19o05’51”N, 84o47’44”E) along Bay of Bengal was carried out. The study revealed presence of a total of 364 species belonging to 225 genera under 71 families. In addition to inventory, zonation pattern, ethnobotany, and certain interesting ecological facts are included.
In Vitro and Experimental Screening of Mangrove Herbal Extract against Vibrio Alginolyticus in Marine Ornamental Fish
Present study summarizes the control of Vibrio
alginolyticus infection in hatchery reared Clownfish, Amphiprion
sebae with the extract of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina.
Fishes with visible symptoms of hemorrhagic spots were chosen and
the genomic DNA of the causative bacterium was isolated and
sequenced based on 16S rDNA gene. The in vitro assay revealed that
a fraction of A. marina leaf extract elucidated with ethyl acetate:
methanol (6:4) showed a high activity (28 mm) at 125 μg/ml
concentrations. About 4 % of the fraction fed along with live V.
alginolyticus was significantly decreased the cumulative mortality
The Advent of Electronic Logbook Technology - Reducing Cost and Risk to Both Marine Resources and the Fishing Industry
Fisheries management all around the world is
hampered by the lack, or poor quality, of critical data on fish
resources and fishing operations. The main reasons for the chronic
inability to collect good quality data during fishing operations is the
culture of secrecy common among fishers and the lack of modern
data gathering technology onboard most fishing vessels. In response,
OLRAC-SPS, a South African company, developed fisheries datalogging
software (eLog in short) and named it Olrac. The Olrac eLog
solution is capable of collecting, analysing, plotting, mapping,
reporting, tracing and transmitting all data related to fishing
operations. Olrac can be used by skippers, fleet/company managers,
offshore mariculture farmers, scientists, observers, compliance
inspectors and fisheries management authorities. The authors believe
that using eLog onboard fishing vessels has the potential to
revolutionise the entire process of data collection and reporting
during fishing operations and, if properly deployed and utilised,
could transform the entire commercial fleet to a provider of good
quality data and forever change the way fish resources are managed.
In addition it will make it possible to trace catches back to the actual
individual fishing operation, to improve fishing efficiency and to
dramatically improve control of fishing operations and enforcement
of fishing regulations.