International Science Index

International Journal of Urban and Civil Engineering

Liveability of the Urban Centre: Investigating the Key Performance Indicators [Kpis]
Rapid urbanization is arguably the most complex and important socio-economic phenomena of the 21st century. Majority of the world’s population live in the cities and that makes it relatively imperative to take a study that measures the built environment with focus on the urban centres. The centre chosen for this study is Ikeja, the capital of Lagos State which serves as the major commercial hub of the nation, Nigeria. Relevant data sprung from the secondary and primary sources with the latter adopting the survey method of data collection through the cluster and random sampling. Employing the frequency distribution and mean score, KPIs were ranked and the analysis revealed safety, environmental sustainability, physical, economic, functional, social and communication in descending order as the indicators that ensured liveability through the eyes of the respondents. Accordingly, having embarked on this research necessitate relevant conclusions and recommendations to policy makers and town planning authorities as it bothers on the dimensions of liveability issues to include some measure of advancement to the economic, functional, physical, social, safety and sustainability of the built environment.
From Vertigo to Verticality: An Example of Phenomenological Design in Architecture
Architects commonly attempt a depiction of organic forms when their works are inspired by nature, regardless of the building site. When aiming for affinity between structures and natural scenery, authors like Aravena, Holl, and Pallasmaa, among others, have conceived spatial operations by applying a phenomenological approach, in which they realise perceptions from nature through architectural aspects such as protection, views, and orientation. This method acknowledges a relationship between place and space, where intentions towards tangible facts then become design statements. Although spaces resulting from such a process may present an effective response to the environment, they can also offer further outcomes beyond the realm of form. The hypothesis is that, in addition to recognising a bond between architecture and nature, it is also plausible to associate such perceptions with the inner ambient of buildings, by analysing features such as daylight. The case study of a single-family house in a rainforest near Valdivia, Chilean Patagonia is presented, with the intention of addressing the above notions through a discussion of the actual effects of inhabiting a place, by way of a series of insights, including a revision of diagrams and photographs that assist in understanding the implications of this design practice. In addition, figures based on post-occupancy behaviour and daylighting performance relate both architectural and environmental issues to a decision-making process motivated by the observation of nature.
Optimization of Fenton Reaction via Response Surface Methodology for Leachate Treatment
Typically, to treat landfill leachate, biological techniques alone are not sufficient. In this study, Fenton process was found to be effective as a pretreatment method. In this study, response surface methodology was applied for modeling and optimizing COD as response. According to the statistical analysis, all suggested models were adequate (with above 0.91). The optimum condition was found to be pH=2.5, [H2O2]/[Fe2+]=20 mole ratio, [Fe2+]=210 mM, and reaction time=150 min. Also, impact of different factors was considered on responses; i.e. two factors including [H2O2]/[Fe2+] and [Fe2+] were more significant compared with other factors.
The Fashion Fiesta: An Approach for Creating an Environment of Celebration by Uniting Two Art Forms; Fashion and Dance
Fashion is the soul of styles. People of all times want to look trendy, eye catching and unique among all. For this reason, people always adopt different flairs in their outfits including their clothes, shoes, bags and other accessories. However, unfortunately, there is lack of opportunity for accommodating the fashion exposure activities expressed with the folk dances of different regions so as to exhibit the fashion of Pakistan to the world. The paper focuses on the vibrant setting of the whole building according to the social patterns, folk and local trends and existing environment of Lahore. This is done by studying each of the aspect obtained from objectives through research questions evolved from the objectives. The answers to these questions are found through case studies and the existing theories in the world in relevance to the topic. The paper finds out how the geometry of dance works with design principles to create transparent geometry of fashion building. This all creates the fiesta environment taken from the locality of the region from the local and cultural lifestyles of the locals and then assembling it together to create a full festivity experience throughout the building.
Study on Monitoring Techniques Developed for a City Railway Construction
Currently, sinkholes may occur due to natural or unknown causes. When the sinkhole is an instantaneous phenomenon, most accidents occur because of significant damage. Thus, methods of monitoring are being actively researched, such that the impact of the accident can be mitigated. A sinkhole can severely affect and wreak havoc in community-based facilities such as a city railway construction. Therefore, the development of a laser / scanning system and an image-based tunnel is one method of pre-monitoring that it stops the accidents. The laser scanning is being used but this has shortcomings as it involves the development of expensive equipment. A laser / videobased scanning tunnel is being developed at Korea Railroad Research Institute. This is designed to automatically operate the railway. The purpose of the scanning is to obtain an image of the city such as of railway structures (stations, tunnel). At the railway structures, it has developed 3D laser scanning that can find a micro-crack can not be distinguished by the eye. An additional aim is to develop technology to monitor the status of the railway structure without the need for expensive post-processing of 3D laser scanning equipment, by developing corresponding software.
Preference of Primary School Students in the Built Environment: A Case Study of Schools in Tamilnadu, India
Built environments influence the users both physically and psychologically. The physical environment has both positive and negative impacts on the users in terms of physical and mental well being. A classroom’s built environment has to provide good thermal comfort and visual comfort to aid effective learning and enhance the development of cognition and academic performance of the students. There has been a wide range of research on the attributes of learning environment: healthy, creative, stimulating, symbolic, etc. In this study of assessing the classroom environment, a study of preferences of the students in third to fifth grade was carried out. Context: Schools are growing in numbers rapidly during the last fifteen years in Tamilnadu, India. As per the State Report Cards, there were 45,902 schools in Tamilnadu in 2002-03 and 57153 in 2014-2015. The number includes the schools run by government and private organizations in rural and urban areas. Number of primary schools alone is 353017. There are various boards of education and each specifies mandatory standards to conform to, with respect to physical infrastructure like site extent, built up area, furniture, library, lab and playground. The requirement for lighting and ventilation has been mentioned as ‘adequate’ instead of quantitative levels, which creates ambiguity. Since lighting is of utmost importance in a learning environment, the study was undertaken to assess the illumination levels in classrooms and how the students perceived the environment. Limitations: This study pertains to the students in the third to fifth grade of four primary schools in the state of Tamilnadu, India. The samples are chosen based on the following: classrooms in schools designed by architects, similar socio economic background of the students, age of the children from eight to ten during which the brain development is significant; the children are normal and are able to read and respond well in group assessments. The medium of instruction is English in the schools; and the questionnaire was designed in English covering the aspects of students’ perception of the furniture layout, color, visual comfort, classroom climate, outdoor spaces, openings and noise. Research methods: literature review, documentation of the school, interview with architects, teachers, students and management, survey using questionnaire, analysis, summary. Findings from the questionnaire shows that even though the illuminance levels are much lesser level, the students have suggested that there is visual comfort in reading and writing. This might be because the eye has been accommodated to years of lesser illuminance. The children were proud of the school because of the student teacher relationship more than the physical infrastructure.
Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles
In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.
Model Updating-Based Approach for Damage Prognosis in Frames via Modal Residual Force
This paper presents an effective model updating strategy for damage localization and quantification in frames by defining damage detection problem as an optimization issue. A generalized version of the Modal Residual Force (MRF) is employed for presenting a new damage-sensitive cost function. Then, Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm is utilized for solving suggested inverse problem and the global extremums are reported as damage detection results. The applicability of the presented method is investigated by studying different damage patterns on the benchmark problem of the IASC-ASCE, as well as a planar shear frame structure. The obtained results emphasize good performance of the method not only in free-noise cases, but also when the input data are contaminated with different levels of noises.
Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement
The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.
A Brief Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns
The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.
Necessity of Using Cellular Lightweights Concrete in Construction Sector
Recently, the using of lightweights concretes in construction sector is rapidly increasing all over the world. Faster construction, low density and thermal transmitting coefficient and high fire resistance are the remarkable characteristics of the lightweight concretes. Lightweight concrete can be described as a type of concrete which enhance the volume of the mixture while giving additional advantages such as to reduce the dead weight of the structures. It is lighter than the conventional concrete. The use of lightweight concrete has been widely spread across countries such as USA, United Kingdom, and Sweden. In this study, the necessity of the using of lightweights concretes in the construction sector is emphasized and evaluated briefly for the architectures and civil engineers.
Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes
Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.
Risk Assessment in Construction of K-Span Buildings in United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Investigations as a part of the academic study were undertaken to identify and evaluate the significant risks associated with the construction of K-span buildings in the region of UAE. Primary field data was collected through questionnaires obtaining specific open and close-ended questions from carefully selected construction firms, civil engineers and, construction manager regarding risks associated to K-span building construction. Historical data available for other regions of the same construction technique was available which was compared for identifying various non-critical and critical risk parameters by comparative evaluation techniques to come up with important risks and potential sources for their control and minimization in K-Span buildings that is increasing in the region. The associated risks have been determined with their Relative Importance Index (RII) values of which Risk involved in Change of Design required by Owners carries the highest value (RII=0.79) whereas, Delayed Payment by Owner to Contractor is one of the least (RII=0.42) value. The overall findings suggest that most relative risks as quantified originate or associated with the contractors. It may be concluded that project proponents undertaking K-span projects in planning and budgeting the cost and delays should take into account of risks on high account if changes in design are also required any delays in the material by the supplier would then be a major risk in K-span project delay. Since projects are, less costly, so owners have limited budgets, then they hire small contractors, which are not highly competent contractors. So study suggests that owner should be aware of these types of risks associated with the construction of K-span buildings in order to make it cost effective.
Comparative Settlement Analysis on the under of Embankment with Empirical Formulas and Settlement Plate Measurement for Reducing Building Crack around of Embankments
In road construction on the soft soil, we need a soil improvement method to improve the soil bearing capacity of the land base so that the soil can withstand the traffic loads. Most of the land in Indonesia has a soft soil, where soft soil is a type of clay that has the consistency of very soft to medium stiff, undrained shear strength, Cu
Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment
On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.
Seismic Performance of Micropiles in Sand with Predrilled Oversized Holes
Full scale tests of six micropiles with different predrilled-hole parameters under low frequency cyclic lateral loading in-sand were carried out using the MTS hydraulic loading system to analyze the seismic performance of micropiles. Hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, energy dissipation capacity and ductility of micropiles were investigated. The experimental results show the hysteresis curves appear like plump bows in the elastic–plastic stage and failure stage which exhibit good hysteretic characteristics without pinching phenomena and good energy dissipating capacities. The ductility coefficient varies from 2.51 to 3.54 and the depth and loose backfill of oversized holes can improve ductility, but the diameter of predrilled-hole has a limited effect on enhancing its ductility. These findings and conclusions could make contribution to the practical application of the semi-integral abutment bridges and provide a reference for the predrilled oversized hole technology in integral abutment bridges.
Impact of Organic Architecture in Building Design
Physical fitness, as one of the most important keys to a healthy wellbeing, is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. As a result, the fitness world is expanding every day. It is believed that a fitness centre is a place of healing and also the natural environment is vital to speedy recovery. The aim of this paper is to propose and designs a suitable location for a fitness centre in Batagarawa metropolis. Batagarawa city is enriched with four tertiary institutions with diverse commerce and culture but lacks the facility of a well-equipped fitness centre. The proposed fitness centre intends to be an organically sound centre that will make use of principles of organic architecture to create a new pleasant environment between man and his environments. Organic architecture is the science of designing a building within pleasant natural resources and features surrounding the environment. It is regarded as visual poetry and reinterpretation of nature’s principles; as well as embodies a settlement of person, place, and materials. Using organic architecture, the design was interlaced with the dynamic, organic and monumental features surrounding the environment. The city has inadequate/no facility that is considered organic where one can keep fit in a friendly, conducive and adequate location. Thus, the need for establishing a fitness centre to cater for this need cannot be over-emphasised. Conclusively, a fitness centre will be an added advantage to this fast growing centre of learning.
Finite Element Analysis of the Drive Shaft and Jacking Frame Interaction in Micro-Tunneling Method: Case Study of Tehran Sewerage
The ever-increasing development of civic demands on one hand; and the urban constrains for newly establish of infrastructures, on the other hand, perforce the engineering committees to apply non-conflicting methods in order to optimize the results. One of these optimized procedures to establish the main sewerage networks is the pipe jacking and micro-tunneling method. The raw information and researches are based on the experiments of the slurry micro-tunneling project of the Tehran main sewerage network that it has executed by the KAYSON co. The 4985 meters route of the mentioned project that is located nearby the Azadi square and the most vital arteries of Tehran is faced to 45% physical progress nowadays. The boring machine is made by the Herrenknecht and the diameter of the using concrete-polymer pipes are 1600 and 1800 millimeters. Placing and excavating several shafts on the ground and direct Tunnel boring between the axes of issued shafts is one of the requirements of the micro-tunneling. Considering the stream of the ground located shafts should care the hydraulic circumstances, civic conditions, site geography, traffic cautions and etc. The profile length has to convert to many shortened segment lines so the generated angle between the segments will be based in the manhole centers. Each segment line between two continues drive and receive the shaft, displays the jack location, driving angle and the path straight, thus, the diversity of issued angle causes the variety of jack positioning in the shaft. The jacking frame fixing conditions and it's associated dynamic load direction produces various patterns of Stress and Strain distribution and creating fatigues in the shaft wall and the soil surrounded the shaft. This pattern diversification makes the shaft wall transformed, unbalanced subsidence and alteration in the pipe jacking Stress Contour. This research is based on experiments of the Tehran's west sewerage plan and the numerical analysis the interaction of the soil around the shaft, shaft walls and the Jacking frame direction and finally, the suitable or unsuitable location of the pipe jacking shaft will be determined.
Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines
In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.
Deterioration Prediction of Pavement Load Bearing Capacity from FWD Data
Expressways in Japan have been built in an accelerating manner since the 1960s with the aid of rapid economic growth. About 40 percent in length of expressways in Japan is now 30 years and older and has become superannuated. Time-related deterioration has therefore reached to a degree that administrators, from a standpoint of operation and maintenance, are forced to take prompt measures on a large scale aiming at repairing inner damage deep in pavements. These measures have already been performed for bridge management in Japan and are also expected to be embodied for pavement management. Thus, planning methods for the measures are increasingly demanded. Deterioration of layers around road surface such as surface course and binder course is brought about at the early stages of whole pavement deterioration process, around 10 to 30 years after construction. These layers have been repaired primarily because inner damage usually becomes significant after outer damage, and because surveys for measuring inner damage such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) survey and open-cut survey are costly and time-consuming process, which has made it difficult for administrators to focus on inner damage as much as they have been supposed to. As expressways today have serious time-related deterioration within them deriving from the long time span since they started to be used, it is obvious the idea of repairing layers deep in pavements such as base course and subgrade must be taken into consideration when planning maintenance on a large scale. This sort of maintenance requires precisely predicting degrees of deterioration as well as grasping the present situations of pavements. Methods for predicting deterioration are determined to be either mechanical or statistical. While few mechanical models have been presented, as far as the authors know of, previous studies have presented statistical methods for predicting deterioration in pavements. One describes deterioration process by estimating Markov deterioration hazard model, while another study illustrates it by estimating Proportional deterioration hazard model. Both of the studies analyze deflection data obtained from FWD surveys and present statistical methods for predicting deterioration process of layers around road surface. However, layers of base course and subgrade remain unanalyzed. In this study, data collected from FWD surveys are analyzed to predict deterioration process of layers deep in pavements in addition to surface layers by a means of estimating a deterioration hazard model using continuous indexes. This model can prevent the loss of information of data when setting rating categories in Markov deterioration hazard model when evaluating degrees of deterioration in roadbeds and subgrades. As a result of portraying continuous indexes, the model can predict deterioration in each layer of pavements and evaluate it quantitatively. Additionally, as the model can also depict probability distribution of the indexes at an arbitrary point and establish a risk control level arbitrarily, it is expected that this study will provide knowledge like life cycle cost and informative content during decision making process referring to where to do maintenance on as well as when.
Design Forms Urban Space
Thoughtful and sequential design strategies will shape the future of human being’s lifestyle. Design, as a product, either being for small furniture on sidewalk or a multi-story structure in urban scale, will be important in creating the sense of quality for citizens of a city. Technology besides economy has played a major role in improving design process and increasing awareness of clients about the character of their required design product. Architects along with other design professionals benefited from improvements in aesthetics and technology in building industry. Accordingly, the expectation platforms of people about the quality of habitable space have risen. However, the question is if the quality of architectural design product has increased with the same speed as technology and client’s expectations. Is it behind or a head of technological and economical improvements? This study will work on developing a model of planning for New York City, from the past to present to future. The role of thoughtful thinking at design stage regardless of where or when it is for; may result in a positive or negative aspect. However, considering design objectives based on the need of human being may help in developing a successful design plan. Technology, economy, culture and people’s support may be other parameters in designing a good product. ‘Design Forms Urban Space’ is going to be done in an analytical, qualitative and quantitative work frame, where it will study cases from all over the world and their achievements compared to New York City’s development. Technology, Organic Design, Materiality, Urban forms, city politics and sustainability will be discussed in different cases in international scale. From design professional’s interest in doing a high quality work for a particular answer to importance of being a follower, the ‘Zero-Carbon City’ in Persian Gulf to ‘Polluted City’ in China, from ‘Urban Scale Furniture’ in cities to ‘Seasonal installations’ of a Megacity, will all be studied with references and detailed look to analysis of each case in order to propose the most resourceful, practical and realistic solutions to questions on ‘A Good Design in a City’, ‘New City Planning and social activities’ and ‘New Strategic Architecture for better Cities’.
Recycled Asphalt Pavement with Warm Mix Additive for Sustainable Road Construction
The recent hike in raw materials costs and the quest for preservation of the environment has prompted asphalt industries to adopt greener road construction technology. This paper presents a study on such technology by means of asphalt recycling and use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive. It evaluates the effects of a WMA named RH-WMA on binder rheological properties and asphalt mixture performance. The recycled asphalt, obtained from local roads, was processed, fractionated, and incorporated with virgin aggregate and binder. For binder testing, the recycled asphalt was extracted and blended with virgin binder. The binder and mixtures specimen containing 30 % and 50 % recycled asphalt contents were mixed with 3 % RH-WMA. The rheological properties of the binder were evaluated based on fundamental, viscosity, and frequency sweep tests. Indirect tensile strength and resilient modulus tests were carried out to assess the mixture’s performances. The rheological properties and strength performance results showed that the addition of RH-WMA slightly reduced the binder and mixtures stiffness. The percentage of recycled asphalt increased the stiffness of binder and mixture, and thus improves the resistance to rutting. Therefore, the integration of recycled asphalt and RH-WMA can be an alternative material for road sustainable construction for countries in the tropics.
Designing Creative Events with Deconstructivism Approach
Deconstruction is an approach that is entirely incompatible with the traditional prevalent architecture. Considering the fact that this approach attempts to put architecture in sharp contrast with its opposite events and transpires with attending to the neglected and missing aspects of architecture and deconstructing its stable structures. It also recklessly proceeds beyond the existing frameworks and intends to create a different and more efficient prospect for space. The aim of deconstruction architecture is to satisfy both the prospective and retrospective visions as well as takes into account all tastes of the present in order to transcend time. Likewise, it ventures to fragment the facts and symbols of the past and extract new concepts from within their heart, which coincide with today’s circumstances. Since this approach is an attempt to surpass the limits of the prevalent architecture, it can be employed to design places in which creative events occur and imagination and ambition flourish. Thought-provoking artistic events can grow and mature in such places and be represented in the best way possible to all people. The concept of event proposed in the plan grows out of the interaction between space and creation. In addition to triggering surprise and high impressions, it is also considered as a bold journey into the suspended realms of the traditional conflicts in architecture such as architecture-landscape, interior-exterior, center-margin, product-process, and stability-instability. In this project, at first, through interpretive-historical research method and examining the inputs and data collection, recognition and organizing takes place. After evaluating the obtained data using deductive reasoning, the data is eventually interpreted. Given the fact that the research topic is in its infancy and there is not a similar case in Iran with limited number of corresponding instances across the world, the selected topic helps to shed lights on the unrevealed and neglected parts in architecture. Similarly, criticizing, investigating and comparing specific and highly prized cases in other countries with the project under study can serve as an introduction into this architecture style.
Effects of Wind Load on the Tank Structures with Various Shapes and Aspect Ratios
There are several wind load provisions to evaluate the wind response on tank structures such as API, Euro-code, etc. the assessment of wind action applying these provisions is made by performing the finite element analysis using both linear bifurcation analysis and geometrically nonlinear analysis. By comparing the pressure patterns obtained from the analysis with the results of wind tunnel test, most appropriate wind load criteria will be recommended.
Failure Mechanism of Slip-Critical Connections on Curved Surface
Variation of slip coefficient in slip-critical connections of curved plates. This paper presents the results of analytical investigations of slip coefficients in slip-critical bolted connections of curved plates. It may depend on the contact stress distribution at interface and the flexibility of spliced plate. Non-linear FEM analyses have been made to simulate the behavior of bolted connections of curved plates with various radiuses of curvature and thicknesses.
Empirical Investigations on Speed Differentiations of Traffic Flow: A Case Study on a Basic Freeway Segment of O-2 in Istanbul
Speed is one of the fundamental variables of road traffic flow that stands as an important evaluation criterion for traffic analyses in several aspects. In particular, varieties of speed variable, such as average speed, free flow speed, optimum speed (capacity speed), acceleration/deceleration speed and so on, have been explicitly considered in the analysis of not only road safety but also road capacity. In the purpose of realizing 'road speed – maximum speed difference across lanes' and 'road flow rate – maximum speed difference across lanes' relations on freeway traffic, this study presents a case study conducted on a basic freeway segment of O-2 in Istanbul. The traffic data employed in this study have been obtained from 5 remote traffic microwave sensors operated by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The study stretch is located between two successive freeway interchanges: Ümraniye and Kavacık. Daily traffic data of 4 years (2011-2014) summer months, July and August are used. The speed data are analyzed into two main flow areas such as uncongested and congested flows. In this study, the regression analyses were carried out in order to examine the relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road speed. These investigations were implemented at uncongested and congested flows, separately. Moreover, the relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road flow rate were evaluated by applying regression analyses for both uncongested and congested flows separately. It is concluded that there is the moderate relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road speed in 50% cases. Additionally, it is indicated that there is the moderate relationship between maximum speed difference across lanes and road flow rate in 30% cases. The maximum speed difference across lanes decreases as the road flow rate increases.
Protection of the Object of the Critical Infrastructure in the Czech Republic
With the increasing dependence of countries on the critical infrastructure, it increases their vulnerability. Big threat is primarily in the human factor (personnel of the critical infrastructure) and in terrorist attacks. It emphasizes the development of methodology for searching of weak points and their subsequent elimination. This article discusses methods for the analysis of safety in the objects of critical infrastructure. It also contains proposal for methodology for training employees of security services in the objects of the critical infrastructure and developing scenarios of attacks on selected objects of the critical infrastructure.
Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater
The study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in waste water using Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood as a bio-sorbent. The heavy metals considered include; zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, iron, selenium, nickel, and manganese. The physiochemical properties of carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was obtained from a felled trunk of matured pawpaw tree. Waste water for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of ph, contact time and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the carica papaya stem biomass. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating waste water.
Seismic Response Mitigation of Structures Using Base Isolation System Considering Uncertain Parameters
The present study deals with the performance of Linear base isolation system to mitigate seismic response of structures characterized by random system parameters. This involves optimization of the tuning ratio and damping properties of the base isolation system considering uncertain system parameters. However, the efficiency of base isolator may reduce if it is not tuned to the vibrating mode it is designed to suppress due to unavoidable presence of system parameters uncertainty. With the aid of matrix perturbation theory and first order Taylor series expansion, the total probability concept is used to evaluate the unconditional response of the primary structures considering random system parameters. For this, the conditional second order information of the response quantities are obtained in random vibration framework using state space formulation. Subsequently, the maximum unconditional root mean square displacement of the primary structures is used as the objective function to obtain optimum damping parameters Numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of parameters uncertainties on the optimization of parameters of linear base isolator and system performance.
Urban Impervious and its Impact on Storm Water Drainage Systems
Surface imperviousness in urban area brings significant changes in storm water drainage systems and some recent studies reveals that the impervious surfaces that passes the storm water runoff directly to drainage systems through storm water collection systems, called directly connected impervious area (DCIA) is an effective parameter rather than total impervious areas (TIA) for computation of surface runoff. In the present study, extension of DCIA and TIA were computed for a small sub-urban area of Agartala, the capital of state Tripura. Total impervious surfaces covering the study area were identified on the existing storm water drainage map from landuse map of the study area in association with field assessments. Also, DCIA assessed through field survey were compared to DCIA computed by empirical relationships provided by other investigators. For the assessment of DCIA in the study area two methods were adopted. First, partitioning the study area into four drainage sub-zones based on average basin slope and laying of existing storm water drainage systems. In the second method, the entire study area was divided into small grids. Each grid or parcel comprised of 20m× 20m area. Total impervious surfaces were delineated from landuse map in association with on-site assessments for efficient determination of DCIA within each sub-area and grid. There was a wide variation in percent connectivity of TIA across each sub-drainage zone and grid. In the present study, total impervious area comprises 36.23% of the study area, in which 21.85% of the total study area is connected to storm water collection systems. Total pervious area (TPA) and others comprise 53.20% and 10.56% of the total area, respectively. TIA recorded by field assessment (36.23%) was considerably higher than that calculated from the available land use map (22%). From the analysis of recoded data, it is observed that the average percentage of connectivity (% DCIA with respect to TIA) is 60.31 %. The analysis also reveals that the observed DCIA lies below the line of optimal impervious surface connectivity for a sub-urban area provided by other investigators and which indicate the probable reason of water logging conditions in many parts of the study area during monsoon period.