International Science Index

International Journal of Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock
This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.
An Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization for Airport Gate Assignment Problem
Gate Assignment Problem (GAP) is one of the most substantial issues in airport operation. In principle, GAP intends to maintain the maximum capacity of the airport through the best possible allocation of the resources (gates) in order to reach the optimum outcome. The problem involves a wide range of dependent and independent resources and their limitations, which add to the complexity of GAP from both theoretical and practical perspective. In this study, GAP was mathematically formulated as a three-objective problem. The preliminary goal of multi-objective formulation was to address a higher number of objectives that can be simultaneously optimized and therefore increase the practical efficiency of the final solution. The problem is solved by applying the second version of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). Results showed that the proposed mathematical model could address most of major criteria in the decision-making process in airport management in terms of minimizing both airport/airline cost and passenger walking distance time. Moreover, the proposed approach could properly find acceptable possible answers.
A Multi-Objective Gate Assignment Model Based on Airport Terminal Configuration
Assigning aircrafts’ activities to appropriate gates is one the most challenging issues in airport authorities’ multiple criteria decision making. The potential financial loss due to imbalances of demand and supply in congested airports, higher occupation rates of gates, and the existing restrictions to expand facilities provide further evidence for the need for an optimal supply allocation. Passengers walking distance, towing movements, extra fuel consumption (as a result of awaiting longer to taxi when taxi conflicts happen at the apron area), etc. are the major traditional components involved in GAP models. In particular, the total cost associated with gate assignment problem highly depends on the airport terminal layout. The study herein presents a well-elaborated literature review on the topic focusing on major concerns, applicable variables and objectives, as well as proposing a three-objective mathematical model for the gate assignment problem. The model has been tested under different concourse layouts in order to check its performance in different scenarios. Results revealed that terminal layout pattern is a significant parameter in airport and that the proposed model is capable of dealing with key constraints and objectives, which supports its practical usability for future decision making tools. Potential solution techniques were also suggested in this study for future works.
Low Cost Sensors for Rail-Side Tree Canopy Analysis
During the autumn season, leaf fall coupled with adverse weather conditions can create issues with low adhesion on the rail network. This can cause significant problems for the wheel-track interface resulting in delays for passengers. To help mitigate the problem, more information is needed regarding the spatial variation of canopy vegetation alongside railway lines. This research investigated the potential of a low-cost sensor that can capture hemispherical images of tree canopies at a high spatial and temporal resolution. The device comprises of a Raspberry Pi with a fish eye lens which is programmed to capture and analyse tree canopy images over time automatically. Importantly, the onboard PiNoir camera has been modified to capture near infrared imagery to take advantage of the spectral properties of vegetation and thus provide a clearer view of leaves. This waterproof automatic device can be left out in the field over autumn and relay data instantly back to the cloud. By collecting data in this way, daily leaf fall can be monitored along the track, with areas of high leaf fall being reported instantly and assimilated into models. This will allow adhesion management to become more efficient. The device also has potential for use in forested environments.
Study of Parameters Influencing Dwell Times for Trains
The work presented here shows a study on several parameters identified as influencing dwell times for trains. Three kinds of rolling stocks are studied for this project and the parameters presented are the number of passengers, the allocation of passengers, their priorities, the platform station height, the door width and the train design. In order to make this study, a lot of records have been done in several stations in Paris (France). Then, in order to study these parameters, numerical simulations are completed. The goal is to quantify the impact of each parameter on the dwelling times. For example, this study highlights the impact of platform height and the presence of steps between the platform and the train. Three types of station platforms are concerned by this study : ‘optimum’ station platform which is 920 mm high, standard station platform which is 550 mm high, and high station platform which is 1150 mm high and different kinds of steps exist in order to fill these gaps. To conclude, this study shows the impact of these parameters on dwell times and their impact in function of the size of population.
Use of Numerical Tools Dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock
This study shows the opportunity to use numerical tools dedicated to Fire Safety Engineering for the Rolling Stock. Indeed, some lawful requirements can now be demonstrated by using numerical tools. The first part of this study presents the use of modelling evacuation tool to satisfy the criteria of evacuation time for the rolling stock. The buildingEXODUS software is used to model and simulate the evacuation of rolling stock. Firstly, in order to demonstrate the reliability of this tool to calculate the complete evacuation time, a comparative study was achieved between a real test and simulations done with buildingEXODUS. Multiple simulations are performed to capture the stochastic variations in egress times. Then, a new study is done to calculate the complete evacuation time of a train with the same geometry but with a different interior architecture. The second part of this study shows some applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics. This work presents the approach of a multi scales validation of numerical simulations of standardized tests with Fire Dynamics Simulations software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This work highlights in first the cone calorimeter test, described in the standard ISO 5660, in order to characterize the fire reaction of materials. The aim of this process is to readjust measurement results from the cone calorimeter test in order to create a data set usable at the seat scale. In the second step, the modelisation concerns the fire seat test described in the standard EN 45545-2. The data set obtained thanks to the validation of the cone calorimeter test was set up in the fire seat test. To conclude with the third step, after controlled the data obtained for the seat from the cone calorimeter test, a larger scale simulation with a real part of train is achieved.
Minimizing Vehicular Traffic via Integrated Land Use Development: A Heuristic Optimization Approach
The current traffic impact assessment methodology and environmental quality review process for approval of land development project are conventional, stagnant, and one-dimensional. The environmental review policy and procedure lacks in providing the direction to regulate or seek alternative land uses and sizes that exploits the existing or surrounding elements of built environment (‘4 D’s’ of development – Density, Diversity, Design, and Distance to Transit) or smart growth principles which influence the travel behavior and have a significant effect in reducing vehicular traffic. Additionally, environmental review policy does not give directions on how to incorporate urban planning into the development in ways such as incorporating non-motorized roadway elements such as sidewalks, bus shelters, and access to community facilities. This research developed a methodology to optimize the mix of land uses and sizes using the heuristic optimization process to minimize the auto dependency development and to meet the interests of key stakeholders. A case study of Willets Point Mixed Use Development in Queens, New York, was used to assess the benefits of the methodology. The approved Willets Point Mixed Use project was based on maximum envelop of size and land use type allowed by current conventional urban renewal plans. This paper will also evaluate the parking accumulation for various land uses to explore the potential for shared parking to further optimize the mix of land uses and sizes. This research is very timely and useful to many stakeholders interested in understanding the benefits of integrated land uses and its development.
Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle
In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of 5 dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the CCS (Chinese Classification Society) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.
Modelling of Passengers Exchange Between Trains and Platforms
The evaluation of the passenger exchange time is necessary for railway operators in order to optimize and dimension rail traffic. Several influential parameters are identified and studied. Each parameter leads to a modeling completed with the buildingEXODUS software. The objective is the modelling of passenger exchanges measured by passenger counting. Population size is dimensioned using passenger counting files which are a report of the train service and contain following useful informations: number of passengers who get on and leave the train, exchange time. These information are collected by sensors placed at the top of each train door. With passenger counting files it is possible to know how many people are engaged in the exchange and how long is the exchange, but it is not possible to know passenger flow of the door. All the information about observed exchanges are thus not available. For this reason and in order to minimize inaccuracies, only short exchanges (less than 30 seconds) with a maximum of people are performed.
Territorial Analysis of the Public Transport Supply: Case Study of Recife City
This paper is part of an ongoing PhD thesis. It seeks to develop a model to identify the spatial failures of the public transportation supply. In the construction of the model, it also seeks to detect the social needs arising from the disadvantage in transport. The case study is carried out for the Brazilian city of Recife. Currently, Recife has a population density of 7,039.64 inhabitants per km². Unfortunately, only 46.9% of urban households on public roads have adequate urbanization. Allied to this reality, the trend of the occupation of the poorest population is that of the peripheries, a fact that has been consolidated in Brazil and Latin America, thus burdening the families' income, since the greater the distances covered for the basic activities and consequently also the transport costs. In this way, there have been great impacts caused by the supply of public transportation to locations with low demand or lack of urban infrastructure. The model under construction uses methods such as Currie’s Gap Assessment associated with the London’s Public Transport Access Level, and the Public Transport Accessibility Index developed by Saghapour. It is intended to present the stage of the thesis with the spatial/need gaps of the neighborhoods of Recife already detected. The benefits of the geographic information system are used in this paper. It should be noted that gaps are determined from the transport supply indices. In this case, considering the presence of walking catchment areas. Still in relation to the detection of gaps, the relevant demand index is also determined. This, in turn, is calculated through indicators that reflect social needs. With the use of the smaller Brazilian geographical unit, the census sector, the model with the inclusion of population density in the study areas should present more consolidated results. Based on the results achieved, an analysis of transportation disadvantage will be carried out as a factor of social exclusion in the study area. It is anticipated that the results obtained up to the present moment, already indicate a strong trend of public transportation in areas of higher income classes, leading to the understanding that the most disadvantaged population migrates to those neighborhoods in search of employment.
Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines
Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation ( For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.
Subverting the Urban-Rural Dichotomy: The Sensitivity of Rural Settlement Morphology to Urban Development Variables
The relation between urban and rural environment is bilateral in nature: rural areas provide the main sources of food, energy and natural resources for cities, while these support market infrastructure, education, farming equipment, and technology required in rural areas. Although the dichotomy between urban and rural areas has been largely acknowledged, little has been reported on their interrelation, specifically on the range of urban-related factors affecting the countryside. The complex urban-rural relationship has a fundamental role on urbanization of rural areas. While the multifaceted transformation of rural areas that has occurred in recent decades following different types of urban development has been largely discussed in the literature of various disciplines, less research has addressed scopes and drivers of these transmutations within the architecture and urban design realms. To fill the gap, this paper identifies various aspects of the urban-rural linkage and the ways they have affected human inhabitation in the countryside in recent years. The analysis of the scant literature addressing this relationship, and the subsequent rural transformation shows that it can be driven either by global or context-specific issues. Global drivers, which are almost invariant worldwide, refer to food and energy systems, including related land and technologies. Context-specific issues instead, which differ between developed and developing countries (and even regionally, within specific countries), mainly comprise socio-economic aspects like social equity, poverty and health services. Rural physical development, however, such as morphological changes that are one of the most direct consequences of this linkage, deal with both. As examples of these physical aspects, while ‘hollow villages’ and ‘bedroom suburbs’ are universal issues, ‘a family of multiple houses’ and ‘new artificial countryside for retirements’ are ubiquitous issues in developing and developed countries alternatively. This study identifies four main variables affecting rural transformations: population growth and distribution, technological advancements in transportation and infrastructure, distance between rural and urban settlements, and enforced policies. It then describes how identified factors have transformed physical aspects of rural areas in both developing and developed countries by providing recent and emblematic international examples. Finally, it highlights how knowledge about the complex nature of urban-rural linkage not only can contribute to future discourses about rural transformation, which have been neglected in recent studies but can also inform policy-makers, providing insights on consequences of urban changes on larger rural territories and their human settlements.
Interactions between Residential Mobility, Car Ownership and Journey to Work Time and Distances: The Case for Melbourne
Daily travel behavior is strongly influenced by the location of the places of residence, education, and employment. Hence a change in those locations due to a move or changes in occupation leads to a change in travel behavior. Given the interventions of housing mobility and travel behaviors, the hypothesis is that a mobile housing market allows households to move as a result of any change in their life course, allowing them to be closer to central services, public transport facilities and workplace and hence reducing the time spent by individuals on daily travel. Conversely, household’s immobility may lead to longer commutes of residents, for example after a change of a job or a need for new services such as schools for children who have reached their school age. This paper aims to investigate the association between the residential mobility and travel behavior. The Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel and Activity (VISTA) data is used for the empirical analysis. Car ownership and journey to work time and distance of employed people are used as indicators of travel behavior. Change of usual residence within the last five years used to identify movers and non-movers. Statistical analysis including regression models is used to compare travel behavior of movers and non-movers. The results show travel time and distance does not differ for movers and non-movers. However, this is not the case when taking into account the residence tenure-type. In addition, car ownership rate and number found to be significantly higher for non-movers. It is hoped that the results from this study will contribute to a better understanding of factors other than common socioeconomic and built environment features influencing travel behavior.
Enabling the Physical Elements of Pedestrian Friendly District around Rail Station for Supporting Transit Oriented Development
Rail-station area development that is based on the concept of TOD (Transit Oriented Development) is principally oriented to the pedestrian accessibility for daily mobility. The aim of this research is elaborating how far is the existing physical elements of rail-station district could facilitate the pedestrian mobility and establish pedestrian friendly district toward implementation of transit oriented development concept. This research was conducted through some steps: (i) mapping rail-station area pedestrian sidewalk and pedestrian network as well as activity nodes and transit nodes, (ii) assessing the level of pedestrian sidewalk connectivity that connecting trip origin and destination. The research area coverage in this case limits on walking distance of rail station (around 500 meters or 10-15 minutes walking). The finding of this research shows the current condition of street and pedestrian sidewalk network and connectivity, the good preference of on foot modal share (more than 50%) is achieved. Nevertheless, it depends on the distance from the trip origin to destination.
Social Capital in Housing Reconstruction Post Disaster Case of Yogyakarta Post Earthquake
This paper will focus on the concept of social capital for especially housing reconstruction post disaster. The context of the study is Indonesia and Yogyakarta Post-Earthquake 2006 as a case, but it is expected that the concept can be adopted in the general post-disaster reconstruction. The discussion will be started from issues on house reconstruction post disaster in Indonesia and Yogyakarta; defining of the Social Capital as a concept for effective management capacity based on community; social capital post Java earthquake utilizing Gotong Royong; community mutual self-help, and approach and strategy towards community based reconstruction.
Functional to the Urban: Global Drivers and Impacts of Rural Transformation
In recent years, rural areas have transformed at a very high pace, becoming completely functional to a variety of urban needs and desires. Such modifications have had far-reaching implications on the structure of the countryside and the preservation of its resources. While the shifts occurring within rural settlements are inherent to their evolution, the recent rural transformation is not the outcome of a natural process. Following massive urbanization and technological advancement in recent decades, countryside has progressively become one of the most frequent leisure destinations for urban residents, while maintaining its fundamental function to support urban areas with food and natural resources. Yet, despite the undeniable impacts of urbanization on rural transformation, the majority of disciplinary studies have ignored the link between prosperity of cities and dramatic alteration of rural communities; only few architecture and urban design studies specifically address rural shifts and their consequences. Based on critical analysis of relevant literature, case studies and investigation of the main aspects of rural spaces—involving population, economy, morphology, culture, and environment—the research presented in this paper sheds light on the tangible and intangible consequences of recent rural changes globally. The study investigates unprecedented recent shifts in rural spaces and discusses how these shifts trigger the functionality of rural to the urban. Finally, the paper challenges the mainstream definitions of rural areas and raises the question of whether current rural settlements can still be named as such.
Systematic Analysis of Logistics Location Search Methods under Aspects of Sustainability
Selecting a logistics location is vital for logistics providers, food retailing and other trading companies since the selection poses an essential factor for economic success. Therefore various location search methods like cost-benefit analysis and others are well known and under usage. The development of a logistics location can be related to considerable negative effects for the eco system such as sealing the surface, wrecking of biodiversity or CO2 and noise emissions generated by freight and commuting traffic. The increasing importance of sustainability demands for taking an informed decision when selecting a logistics location for the future. Sustainability considers economic, ecologic and social aspects which should be equally integrated in the process of location search. Objectives of this paper are to define various methods which support the selection of sustainable logistics locations and to generate knowledge about the suitability, assets and limitations of the methods within the selection process. This paper investigates the role of economical, ecological and social aspects when searching for new logistics locations. Thereby, related work targeted towards location search is analyzed with respect to encoded sustainability aspects. In addition, this research aims to gain knowledge on how to include aspects of sustainability and take an informed decision when searching for a logistics location. As a result, a decomposition of the various location search methods in there components leads to a comparative analysis in form of a matrix. The comparison within a matrix enables a transparent overview about the mentioned assets and limitations of the methods and their suitability for selecting sustainable logistics locations. A further result is to generate knowledge on how to combine the separate methods to a new method for a more efficient selection of logistics locations in the context of sustainability. Future work will especially investigate the above mentioned combination of various location search methods. The objective is to develop an innovative instrument, which supports the search for logistics locations with a focus on a balanced sustainability (economy, ecology, social). Because of an ideal selection of logistics locations, induced traffic should be reduced and a mode shift to rail and public transport should be facilitated.
Impacting the Processes of Freight Logistics at Upper Austrian Companies by the Use of Mobility Management
Traffic is being induced by companies due to their economic behavior. Basically, two different types of traffic occur at company sites: freight traffic and commuting traffic. Due to the fact that these traffic types are connected to each other in different kinds, an integrated approach to manage them is useful. Mobility management is a proved method for companies, to handle the traffic processes caused by their business activities. According to recent trend analysis in Austria, the freight traffic as well as the individual traffic, as part of the commuting traffic, will continue to increase. More traffic jams, as well as negative environmental impacts, are expected impacts for the future. Mobility management is a tool to control the traffic behavior with the scope to reduce emissions and other negative effects which are caused by traffic. Until now, mobility management is mainly used for optimizing commuting traffic without taking the freight logistics processes into consideration. However, the method of mobility management can be used to improve the freight traffic area of a company as well. The focus of this paper will be particularly laid on analyzing to what extent companies are already using mobility management to influence not only the commuting traffic they produce but also their processes of freight logistics. A further objective is to acquire knowledge about the motivating factors which persuade companies to introduce and apply mobility management. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of this tool will be defined as well as limitations and factors of success, with a special focus on freight logistics, will be depicted. The first step of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the issue of mobility management with a special focus on freight logistics processes. To compare the theoretical findings with the practice, interviews, following a structured interview guidline, with mobility managers of different companies in Upper Austria will be undertaken. A qualitative analysis of these surveys will in a first step show the motivation behind using mobility management to improve traffic processes and how far this approach is already being used to especially influence the freight traffic of the companies. An evaluation to what extent the method of mobility management is already being approached at Upper Austrian companies to regulate freight logistics processes will be one outcome of this publication. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical and practical analysis will reveal not only the possibilities but also the limitations of using mobility management to influence the processes of freight logistics.
Integrating High-Performance Transport Modes into Transport Networks: A Multidimensional Impact Analysis
In the EU, the transport sector accounts for roughly one fourth of the total greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, the transport sector is one of the main contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate protection targets aim to reduce the negative effects of greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. climate change, global warming) worldwide. Achieving a modal shift to foster environmentally friendly modes of transport such as rail and inland waterways is an important strategy to fulfill the climate protection targets. The present paper goes beyond these conventional transport modes and reflects upon currently emerging high-performance transport modes that yield the potential of complementing future transport systems in an efficient way. It will be defined which properties describe high-performance transport modes, which types of technology are included and what is their potential to contribute to a sustainable future transport network. The first step of this paper is to compile state-of-the-art information about high-performance transport modes to find out which technologies are currently emerging. A multidimensional impact analysis will be conducted afterwards to evaluate which of the technologies is most promising. This analysis will be performed from a spatial, social, economic and environmental perspective. Frequently used instruments such as cost-benefit analysis and SWOT analysis will be applied for the multidimensional assessment. The estimations for the analysis will be derived based on desktop research and discussions in an interdisciplinary team of researchers. For the purpose of this work, high-performance transport modes are characterized as transport modes with very fast and very high throughput connections that could act as efficient extension to the existing transport network. The recently proposed hyperloop system represents a potential high-performance transport mode which might be an innovative supplement for the current transport networks. The idea of hyperloops is that persons and freight are shipped in a tube at more than airline speed. Another innovative technology consists in drones for freight transport. Amazon already tests drones for their parcel shipments, they aim for delivery times of 30 minutes. Drones can, therefore, be considered as high-performance transport modes as well. The Trans-European Transport Networks program (TEN-T) addresses the expansion of transport grids in Europe and also includes high speed rail connections to better connect important European cities. These services should increase competitiveness of rail and are intended to replace aviation, which is known to be a polluting transport mode. In this sense, the integration of high-performance transport modes as described above facilitates the objectives of the TEN-T program. The results of the multidimensional impact analysis will reveal potential future effects of the integration of high-performance modes into transport networks. Building on that, a recommendation on the following (research) steps can be given which are necessary to ensure the most efficient implementation and integration processes.
Fast Track to the Physical Internet: A Cross-Industry Project from Upper Austria
Freight transport is growing fast, but many vehicles are empty or just partially loaded. The vision and concepts of the Physical Internet (PI) proposes to eliminate these inefficiencies. Aiming for a radical sustainability improvement, the PI – inspired by the Digital Internet – is a hyperconnected global logistic system, enabling seamless asset sharing and flow consolidation. The implementation of a PI in its full expression will be a huge challenge: the industry needs innovation and implementation support including change management approaches, awareness creation and good practices diffusion, legislative actions to remove antitrust and international commerce barriers, standardization and public incentives policies. In order to take a step closer to this future the project ‘Atropine - Fast Track to the Physical Internet’ funded under the Strategic Economic and Research Program ‘Innovative Upper Austria 2020’ was set up. The two-year research project unites several research partners in this field, but also industrial partners and logistics service providers. With Atropine, the consortium wants to actively shape the mobility landscape in Upper Austria and make an innovative contribution to an energy-efficient, environmentally sound and sustainable development in the transport area. This paper should, on the one hand, clarify the questions what the project Atropine is about and, on the other hand, how a proof of concept will be reached. Awareness building plays an important role in the project as the PI requires a reorganization of the supply chain and the design of completely new forms of inter-company co-operation. New business models have to be developed and should be verified by simulation. After the simulation process one of these business models will be chosen and tested in real life with the partner companies. The developed results - simulation model and demonstrator - are used to determine how the concept of the PI can be applied in Upper Austria. Atropine shall pave the way for a full-scale development of the PI vision in the next few decades and provide the basis for pushing the industry toward a new level of co-operation with more shared resources and increased standardization.
Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin Bangkok Mass Transit System Station
Thailand facing the transportation issue because of the rapid economic development. The big issue is the traffic jam, especially in Bangkok. However, recently years Bangkok has operated urban mass transit system for solved transportation problem. The Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) skytrain is being operated by the BTS Company Limited under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The passenger satisfaction is a major cause for concern due to the commercial nature. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the passenger satisfaction at the mass transit node by questionnaires survey. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes. The result shows several important factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and the passenger’s opinion.
Road Accidents to School Children’s in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Road accidents resulting to deaths and injuries have become a new public health challenge especially in developing countries including Tanzania. Reports from Tanzania Traffic Police Force shows that last year 2016 accidents increased compare to previous year 2015, accident happened from 3710 up to 5219, accidents and safety data indicate that children are the most vulnerable to road crashes where 78 pupils died and 182 others were seriously injured in separate roads accident last year. A survey done by Amend indicates that Pupil mode of transport in Dar es salaam schools are by walk 87%, bus 9.21%, car 1.32%, motorcycle 0.88%, 3-wheeler 0.24%, train 0.14%, bicycle 0.10%, ferry 0.07%, and combined mode 0.44%. According to this study, majority of school children’s uses walking mode, most of school children’s agreed to continue using walking mode and request to have signs for traffic control during crossing road like STOP sign and CHILD CROSSING sign for safe crossing. Because children not only sit inside this buses (Daladala) but also they walk in a group to/from school, and few (33.2%) parents or adults are willing to supervise their children’s during working to school while 50% of parents agree to let their children walking alone to school if the public transport started from nearby street. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of research by conducting physical surveying on sample districts. The main objectives of this research are to carries out all factors affecting school children’s when they use public road, to promote and encourage the safe use of public road by all classes especially pupil or student through the circulation of advice, information and knowledge gain from research and to recommends future direction for the developments for road design or plan to vulnerable users. The research also critically analyze the problems causing death and injuries to school children’s in Dar es Salaam Region. This study determines the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors, such as socio-economic, status, and distance from school, number of sibling, behavioral problems, knowledge and attitudes of public and their parents towards road safety and parent educational study traffic. The study comes up with some of recommendations including Infrastructure Improvements like, safe footpaths, Safe crossings, Speed humps, Speed limits, Road signs. However, Planners and policymakers wishing to increase walking and cycling among children need to consider options that address distance constraints, the land use planners and transport professionals use better understanding of the various factors that affect children’s choices of school travel mode, results suggest that all school travel attributes should be considered during school location.
Rear Seat Belt Use in Developing Countries- A Case Study from the United Arab Emirates
The seat belt is a vital tool in improving traffic safety conditions and minimising injuries due to traffic accidents. Most developing countries are facing a big problem in human and financial losses due to traffic crashes. One way to minimise these losses is using seat belts by passengers on the front and rear motor vehicle seats but sometimes close to nothing is known about the rates of seat belt utilisation among rear seat passengers in many developing countries. Therefore, there is a need to estimate these rates in order to know the extent of this problem and how people interact with traffic safety measures like seat belts and find demographic characteristics that contribute to wearing or non-wearing of seat belts with the aim of finding solutions to improve wearing rates. In this paper, an observational study was done to gather data on restraints use on rear motor vehicles seats in eight observational stations in a rapidly developing country, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and estimate a use rate for the whole country. Also, a questionnaire was used in order to study demographic characteristics affecting the wearing of seat belts on rear seats. Results of the observational study showed that the overall wearing rate was 12.3% which is considered very low when compared to other countries. Survey results show that single, male, less educated passengers from Arab and South Asian backgrounds use seat belts reportedly less than others. Finally, solutions are put forward to improve this wearing rate based on the results of this study.
Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone
In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.
Difference between Riding a Bicycle on a Sidewalk or in the Street by Usual Traveling Means
Bicycle users must ride on the street according the law in Japan, but in practice, many bicycle users ride on the sidewalk. Drivers generally feel that bicycles riding in the street are in the way. In contrast, pedestrians generally feel that bicycles riding on the sidewalk are in the way. That seems to make sense. What, then, is the difference between riding a bicycle on the sidewalk or in the street by usual traveling means. We made 3D computer graphics models of pedestrians, a car, and a bicycle at an intersection. The bicycle was positioned to choose between advancing to the sidewalk or the street after a few seconds. We then made a 2D stimulus picture by changing the point of view of the 3DCG model pictures. Attitudes were surveyed using this 2D stimulus picture, and we compared attitudes between three groups, people traveling by car, on foot, or by bicycle. Here we report the survey result.
Influence of Peripheral Vision Restrictions on the Walking Trajectory When Texting While Walking
One major problem related to the use of smartphones is texting while simultaneously engaging in other things, resulting in serious road accidents. Apart from texting while driving being one of the most dangerous behaviors, texting while walking is also dangerous because it narrows the walker's field of vision. Despite the narrowing of a person’s central vision caused by texting while walking, many smartphone users habitually text while walking. Smartphone users often overlook the potential harm associated with this behavior even while crossing roads. They fail to understand that they can become victims of traffic accidents because they have successfully texted while walking many times in their lives. This study aims to clarify the influence of peripheral vision on the stability of the walking trajectory when the person texts while walking. In total, nine healthy male university students participated in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.4 years, and STD was 0.7 years. They attempted to walk 10 m in three situations. In the first situation, participants walked without texting. This was considered as the control (CTR) situation. The second situation involved texting while walking (TWG) without any restrictions. In the third situation, participants texted while walking; however, their peripheral visions were restricted by experimental peripheral goggles (PRS). The horizontal distances (HDS) and directions (right or left) of the footprints from the virtual straight line drawn from the starting point to the goal point were measured as the scale of horizontal stability. The longitudinal distances (LDS) between the footprints were measured as the scale of the walking rhythm. The results showed that the HDS of the footprints from the straight line increased as the participants walked in the TWG and PRS situations. In the PR situation, this tendency was particularly remarkable. In addition, the LDS between the footprints decreased in the order of the CTR, TWG, and PRS situations. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in the three situations with respect to HDS [F(2,23) = 38.27, p < 0.05]] and LDS [F(2,23) =10.92, p < 0.05]]. The differences among these situations showed that the narrowing of the walker's vision because of smartphone use influences the walking trajectory and rhythm. In contrast, the difference between the TWG and PRS situations revealed that the walkers seem to use their peripheral vision marginally when they text while walking. Therefore, we concluded that texting while walking narrows the vision; however, texting in situations with restricted peripheral vision, such as night roads, will considerably increase the dangers associated with texting while walking.
An Exploratory Study on 'Sub-region Life Circle' in Chinese Big Cities Based on Human High-Probability Daily Activity: Characteristic and Formation Mechanism as a Case of Wuhan
With an increasing trend of regionalization and polycentricity in Chinese contemporary big cities, “sub-region life circle” turns to be an effective method on rational organization of urban function and spatial structure. By the method of questionnaire, network big data, route inversion on internet map, GIS spatial analysis and logistic regression, this article makes research on characteristic and formation mechanism of “sub-region life circle” based on human high-probability daily activity in Chinese big cities. Firstly, it shows that “sub-region life circle” has been a new general spatial sphere of residents' high-probability daily activity and mobility in China. Unlike the former analysis of the whole metropolitan or the micro community, “sub-region life circle” has its own characteristic on geographical sphere, functional element, spatial morphology and land distribution. Secondly, according to the analysis result with Binary Logistic Regression Model, the research also shows that seven factors including land-use mixed degree and bus station density impact the formation of “sub-region life circle” most, and then analyzes the index critical value of each factor. Finally, to establish a smarter “sub-region life circle”, this paper indicates that several strategies including jobs-housing fit, service cohesion and space reconstruction are the keys for its spatial organization optimization. This study expands the further understanding of cities' inner sub-region spatial structure based on human daily activity, and contributes to the theory of “life circle” in urban's meso-scale.
A Study on the Planning of Urban Road Traffic Signs Based on the Leisure Involvement of Self-Driving Tourists
With the upgrade development of the tourism industry from the simple sightseeing tour to the leisure and vacation, people's travel idea has undergone a fundamental change. More and more people begin to pursue liberal and personal tourism, so self-driving tourism has become the main form of current tourism activities. With the self-driving tourism representing the general trend, the importance of convenient tourism transportation and perfect road traffic signs have become more and more prominent. A clear urban road traffic signs can help visitors quickly identify the direction and distance to the tourism destination. The purpose of this article is analyzing the planning of urban road traffic signs which can bring positive impact on the participation in the recreation involved of self-driving tourists. The content of this article is divided into three parts. Based on the literature review and theoretical analysis, the first part constructs a structural variance model. The model is from three dimensions: the attention of the self-driving tourists to the urban traffic signs along the road, the perception of the self-driving tourists to the road traffic signs itself, the perceptions of the self-driving tourists to the tourism destination information on the traffic signs. Through this model, the paper aims to explore the influence of the urban road traffic signs to the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. The second part aims to verify through the hypothesis model the questionnaire survey and come to preliminary conclusions. The preliminary conclusions are as follows: firstly, the color, shape, size, setting mode and occurrence frequency of urban road traffic sign have significant influence on the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. Secondly, the influence on the leisure behavior involvement is obviously higher than the influence on the leisure psychological involvement. Thirdly, the information about the tourism destination marked on the urban road traffic signs has not obviously influence on the leisure psychological involvement, but it has distinct influence on the leisure behavior involvement of self-driving tourists. The third part puts forward that the planning of urban road traffic signs should focus on the angle of the impact of road traffic signs on people's psychology and behavior. On the basis of the above conclusions, the paper researches the color, shape, size, setting mode and information labeling of urban road traffic signs so that they can preferably satisfy the demand of the leisure involvement of self-driving tourists.
Distribution of Traffic Volume at Fuel Station during Peak Hour Period on Arterial Road
Most of fuel station’ customers, who drive on the major arterial road wants to use the stations to fill fuel to their vehicle during their journey to destinations. According to the survey of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, or questionnaires, it was found that most users prefer to use fuel stations on holiday rather than on working day. They also prefer to use fuel stations in the morning rather than in the evening. When comparing the ratio of the distribution pattern of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, there is no significant difference. However, when comparing the ratio of peak hour (peak hour rate) of the results from questionnaires at 13 to 14 percent with the results obtained by using the methods of the Institute of Transportation Engineering (ITE), it is found that the value is similar. However, it is different from a survey by video camera and automatic traffic counting at 6 to 7 percent of about half. So, this study suggests that in order to forecast trip generation of vehicle using fuel stations on major arterial road which is mostly characterized by Though Traffic, it is recommended to use the value of half of peak hour rate, which would make the forecast for trips generation to be more precise and accurate and compatible to surrounding environment.
Integrated Land Use and Transport Planning Process towards Sustainable Development: Lesson Learned from Germany
Accelerating economic growth in Indonesia has led to a rapid growth in urbanization and motorization that empirically engenders an unsustainable development. It is believed that integrated land use and transport planning process plays an important role to develop more sustainable transport development. Nevertheless, it is less considered in the planning practice. Therefore, knowledge transfer, particularly in a form of comparison analysis of land use and transport planning process between Indonesia and the best practice in a developed country, may facilitate to foster the understanding of how to achieve a more sustainable land use and transport planning. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of knowledge transfer from Germany’s strategies in promoting sustainable transport and land use planning to Indonesian strategic planning in the current situation. Germany has been chosen as the best practice of developed country because this country, despite its rapid growth of motorization, has been successful in creating a sustainability of the transportation system through its integrated planning system. The analysis compares the strengths and weaknesses of land use and transport planning in both countries and its coherence to sustainable transport goals. The comparison analysis highlights some lessons in particular, that seem likely to be necessary for the improvement of land use and transport planning in Indonesia: (a) reciprocal planning and strategies coordination between all government levels and related institutions, (b) formal appraisal method to determine the transport infrastructure development priorities; and (c) improvement of public participation in preparing the land use and transport plans. Eventually, this study promotes valuable measures based on insight from Germany’s experiences for a better planning practice not only for Indonesia but also for other developing, emerging and perhaps developed countries.