International Science Index

International Journal of Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Distribution of Traffic Volume at Fuel Station during Peak Hour Period on Arterial Road
Most of fuel station’ customers, who drive on the major arterial road wants to use the stations to fill fuel to their vehicle during their journey to destinations. According to the survey of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, or questionnaires, it was found that most users prefer to use fuel stations on holiday rather than on working day. They also prefer to use fuel stations in the morning rather than in the evening. When comparing the ratio of the distribution pattern of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, there is no significant difference. However, when comparing the ratio of peak hour (peak hour rate) of the results from questionnaires at 13 to 14 percent with the results obtained by using the methods of the Institute of Transportation Engineering (ITE), it is found that the value is similar. However, it is different from a survey by video camera and automatic traffic counting at 6 to 7 percent of about half. So, this study suggests that in order to forecast trip generation of vehicle using fuel stations on major arterial road which is mostly characterized by Though Traffic, it is recommended to use the value of half of peak hour rate, which would make the forecast for trips generation to be more precise and accurate and compatible to surrounding environment.
Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Greenery Concentration in Polish Cities
The aim of this paper is to analyse, based on spatial concentration and spatial taxonomic measure, the diversification of urban greenery in the greatest Polish cities. The research was based on statistical data for 2004-2015 derived from Central Statistical Office. Cities play a great role in the lives of millions of citizens because of economic opportunities and public services. On the other hand, urban sprawl is a pressing issue and might worsen the quality of life. Therefore urban areas need green spaces, quiet streets and recreational parks which are important for relaxation, health and sport, nature watching and social activities. Research questions included the following: the spatial diversification of the level of the phenomenon by cities, identifying those areas characterised by an above-average concentration (or the lack thereof) of greenery volume compared to other urban units, verifying the occurrence of strong concentrations or dispersions of the phenomenon in time and space depending on the variable category. Moreover, the spatial taxonomic measure was implemented for measuring synthetic levels of greenery of Polish cities. The obtained results were compared and interpreted. In general, it was found that 75% units noted an increase of the greenery. The greenest cities in Poland are Siemianowice Śląskie, Chorzów, Sopot, Lublin, Bydgoszcz, Poznań, Wrocław. The empirical findings suggested that spatial interactions have an impact on the level of greenery; finally, urban greenery is more and more important in Poland, however, there are several providing barriers, too.
A Breakthrough Improvement Brought by Taxi-Calling APPs for Taxi Operation Level
Taxi-calling APPs have been used widely, while brought both benefits and a variety of issues for the taxi market. Many countries do not know whether the benefits are remarkable than the issues or not. This paper established a comparison between the basic scenario (2009-2012) and a taxi-calling software usage scenario (2012-2015) to explain the impact of taxi-calling APPs. The impacts of taxi-calling APPs illustrated by the comparison results are: 1) The supply and demand distribution is more balanced, extending from the city center to the suburb. The availability of taxi service has been improved in low density areas, thin market attribute has also been improved; 2)The ratio of short distance taxi trip decreased, long distance service increased, the utilization of mileage increased, and the rate of empty decreased; 3) The popularity of taxi-calling APPs was able to reduce the average empty distance, cruise time, empty mileage rate and average times of loading passengers, can also enhance the average operating speed, improve the taxi operating level, and reduce social cost although there are some disadvantages. This paper argues that the taxi industry and government can establish an integrated third-party credit information platform based on credit evaluated by the data of the drivers’ driving behaviors to supervise the drivers. Taxi-calling APPs under fully covered supervision in the mobile Internet environment will become a new trend.
Feasibility Analysis for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Specifically Designed to Road Traffic Monitoring
UAV are used more and more for inspection, surveillance, detection, tracking and counting in various fields. Despite this, they are few examples in the published literature of UAV used in intelligent transport system. In its research program, the Cerema wanted to study the potential of low cost UAV in road traffic monitoring. The project was divided into four phases. Phase one was the study of French regulation concerning the use of UAV in France. Indeed in December 2015, the Directorate General for Civil Aviation introduced new regulations in France. Phase two was to develop UAVs fitted with dedicated sensors (gyros, accelerometers, GPS probe, video camera…) and on-board electronics. Two UAV were designed. The first UAV was a plane (model: Finwing Penguin) and was equipped with FY41-AP autopilot system. The objective was to be able to track and follow vehicles on the road. The second UAV was a multirotor and was equipped with Pixhawk autopilot system. In that case, the objective was to be able to observe vehicles on roundabouts or traffic light intersections. In phase four, experimental measurements were conducted and studied. The results given by the plane were compared to the results given by the multirotor. The errors on 3D positioning using the 3D autopilot systems were quantified. We observed that the wind had a strong impact on the plane performance. While for the multirotor, the battery life was a limiting factor.
Impacts Evaluation on Taxi Operation Resulting from E-Hailing Apps Based on Taxi OD Data
This paper focus on the operational changes of taxi system after the wide-usage of e-hailing APPs using the calculated taxi OD pairs data of Shanghai, and applied a proposed process to evaluate the possible impacts of e-hailing APPs from three dimensions. The analysis reveals that the e-hailing APPs have partly improved the taxi operation. After the rapid development of e-hailing APPs, the supply of later taxi system has experienced obvious drop. However, the existing taxi system has overall higher efficiency. The comparison of taxi trips also demonstrates that the taxi system can better satisfied taxi service demand than before. The findings can provide another perspective for decision makers to comprehensively understand the taxi system after the emerging taxi service.
Modelling Mode Choice Behaviour Using Cloud Theory
Mode choice models are crucial instruments in the analysis of travel behaviour. These models show the relationship between an individual’s choice of transportation mode for a given O-D pair and the individual’s socioeconomic characteristics such as household size and income level, age and/or gender, and the features of the transportation system. The most popular functional forms of these models are based on Utility-Based Choice Theory, which addresses the uncertainty in the decision-making process with the use of an error term. However, with the development of artificial intelligence, many researchers have started to take a different approach to travel demand modelling. In recent times, researchers have looked at using neural networks, fuzzy logic and rough set theory to develop improved mode choice formulas. The concept of cloud theory has recently been introduced to model decision-making under uncertainty. Unlike the previously mentioned theories, cloud theory recognises a relationship between randomness and fuzziness, two of the most common types of uncertainty. This research aims to investigate the use of cloud theory in mode choice models. This paper highlights the conceptual framework of the mode choice model using cloud theory. Merging decision-making under uncertainty and mode choice models is state of the art. The cloud theory model is expected to address the issues and concerns with the nested logit and improve the design of mode choice models and their use in travel demand.
Evaluation of Neighborhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice
One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study has used a new index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), a walkability index along with socioeconomic variables to investigate mode choice behaviour. Using travel behaviour data, an ordered logit regression model is applied to examine the impacts of explanatory variables on walking trips. Findings indicated that high rates of active travel are consistently associated with higher levels of walking and public transport accessibility.
Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City
There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting intention to cycling to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sampling to collect data from 403 road users. It was applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying six factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. Three latent variables were identified namely attitudes, social comparison and social image and prestige. The results indicated that attitudes, social comparison and social image and prestige are the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they can be of interest to transportation planners to increase cycling levels in other regions.
Performance Based Driver Fatigue Management in Australian Heavy Vehicle Operations
In Australian heavy haulage operations, truck drivers must comply with rules and regulations for fatigue management defined by the National Heavy Vehicle Regulator (NHVR) if they exceed a 100km radius from their home truck depot. In short, as a “compliance system”, heavy haulage drivers are limited by defined work and rest hours during and between work shifts. This places restrictions on total work hours during a working week and is aimed at regulating the potential for fatigue to occur through overwork, and therefore, missed opportunity for rest and recovery from fatigue due to excessive driving. To investigate the merits of moving to a “performance based” approach to fatigue management – one that moves away from fixed rules and towards the monitoring of a driver’s actual fatigue – a system performance based fatigue management system was developed and then applied to collect driver fatigue data. The proposed system, entitled, Logistics Fatigue Manager (LFM) was evaluated with a cohort of heavy haulage drivers over two phases both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative aspects, focused on the system’s acceptance amongst truck drivers, were con-ducted with volunteering participants during a trial period. Conversely, the quantitative aspects focused on monitoring the sleep patterns of drivers, along with their driving work and rest activities of drivers over consecutive working shifts. The qualitative survey mechanism was through semi-structured interviews with all the participating drivers. They actively involved themselves in semi-structured interviews, supporting it with their experiences with fatigue management, comments and suggestions, which could be used to further enhance the LFM and reduce the levels of fatigue. The correlation between driver fatigue and productivity is evident in the results. The study also indicates threshold levels that need to be incorporated for safety norms, in conjunction with the critical variables of length of work period and the time and duration of the rest period for drivers, to maintain favourable fatigue score levels.
Transit Network Design and Fleet Planning of Electric Bus: A Case Study of Putrajaya, Malaysia
Globally, the transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, the operation of an electric bus is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate the environmental problem. Particularly in Malaysia, green mobility (with electric bus) is one of the initiatives in reducing carbon emission. As such, an optimal electric bus network design and fleet planning model is important, especially for the bus operator to acquire an adequate number of bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus transit system optimally. Thus, this paper aims to model a viable transit network and fleet planning system of electric bus, focusing on the case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia. In order to determine optimal decision-making in terms of the electric bus route, service frequency and the corresponding bus type and quantity, electric bus transit model is built with the aid of a traffic modeling software based on the existing bus route and traffic system in Putrajaya. The developed model was then calibrated accordingly by considering various operational constraints including battery capacity as well as electric bus charging facility. It is anticipated that the resultant findings would provide useful insights to bus operator in acquiring and operating electric bus environmentally (at minimal cost) which will benefit bus users in return.
Spatial Analysis of Flood Vulnerability in Highly Urbanized Area: A Case Study in Taipei City
Without adequate information and mitigation plan for natural disaster, the risk to urban populated areas will increase in the future as populations grow, especially in Taiwan. Taiwan is recognized as the world's high-risk areas, where an average of 5.7 times of floods occur per year should seek to strengthen coherence and consensus in how cities can plan for flood and climate change. Therefore, this study aims at understanding the vulnerability to flooding in Taipei city, Taiwan, by creating indicators and calculating the vulnerability of each study units. The indicators were grouped into sensitivity and adaptive capacity based on the definition of vulnerability of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The indicators were weighted by using Principal Component Analysis. However, current researches were based on the assumption that the composition and influence of the indicators were the same in different areas. This disregarded spatial correlation that might result in inaccurate explanation on local vulnerability. The study used Geographically Weighted Principal Component Analysis by adding geographic weighting matrix as weighting to get the different main flood impact characteristic in different areas. Cross Validation Method and Akaike Information Criterion were used to decide bandwidth and Gaussian Pattern as the bandwidth weight scheme. The ultimate outcome can be used for the reduction of damage potential by integrating the outputs into local mitigation plan and urban planning.
Technologies in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Towns
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an obligatory function of the local self-government as per the Indian constitution and this paper gives a glimpse of the system in Indian towns focusing on its present state and use of technology in the system. The paper analyses the MSWM characteristics in 35 towns in the southern state of Karnataka. The lifestyle in these towns was found to be very sustainable with minimal disposal and considerable reuse. Average per capita waste generated in the towns ranged from 300 gm/person to 500 gm/person. The waste collection efficiency varied from 60% to 80%. The waste shows equal share of organic and non-organic waste composition with a low calorific value. Lack of capacity of the municipal body in terms of manpower, assets & knowledge and social consciousness were found to be two major issues in the system. Technical solutions in use in India at present are composting, organic re-reprocessing, bio methanation, waste to energy etc. The tonnage of waste generated ranged from 8 TPD to 80 TPD. The feasibility of technology has been analysed in the context of the above characteristics. It was found that low calorific value and mixed nature of waste made waste to energy and bio methanation processes unsuitable. Composting – windrow and closed door was found best to treat the bulk of the waste. Organic–re-processors was planned for phase 2 of MSWM program in the towns with effective implementation of segregation at source. GPS and RFID technology was recommended for monitoring the collection process and increasing accountability of the citizens for effective implementation.
Assessing Environmental Urban Sustainability Using Multivariate Analysis: A Case of Nagpur, India
Measuring urban sustainable development is at the forefront in contributing to overall sustainability, and it refers to attaining social equity, environmental protection and minimizing the impacts of urbanization. Assessing performance of urban issues ranging from larger consumption of natural resources by humans in terms of lifestyle to creating a polluted nearby environment, social and even economic dimensions of sustainability major issues observed such as water quality, transportation, management of solid waste and traffic pollution. However, relying on the framework of the project to do the goals of sustainable development or minimization of urban impacts through management practices is not enough to deal with the present urban issues. The aim of the sustainability is to know how severely the resources are depleted because of human consumption and how issues are characterized. The paper aims to assign benchmarks for the selected sustainability indicators for research, and analysis is done through multivariate analysis in Indian context a case of Nagpur city to identify the play role of each urban issues in the overall sustainability. The main objectives of this paper are to examine the indicators over by time basis on various scenarios and how benchmarking is used, what and which categories of values should be considered as the performance of indicators function.
Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department's Marginalized Lands
Biofuels are derived from multiple renewable bioenergy feedstocks including animal fats, wood, starchy grains, and oil seeds. Transportation agencies have considered growing the latter two on underutilized and nontraditional lands that they manage, such as in the Right of Way (ROW), abandoned weigh stations, and at maintenance yards. These crops provide the opportunity to generate revenue or supplement fuel once converted and offer a solution to increasing fuel costs and instability by creating a ‘home-grown’ alternative. Biofuels are non-toxic, biodegradable, and emit less Green House Gasses (GHG) than fossil fuels, therefore allowing agencies to meet sustainability goals and regulations. Furthermore, they enable land managers to achieve soil erosion and roadside aesthetic strategies. The research sought to understand if the cultivation of a biofuel feedstock within the Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department’s (AHTD) managed and marginalized lands is feasible by identifying potential land areas and crops. To determine potential plots the parcel data was downloaded from Arkansas’s GIS office. ArcGIS was used to query the data for all variations of the names of property owned by AHTD and a KML file was created that identifies the queried parcel data in Google Earth. Furthermore, biofuel refineries in the state were identified to optimize the harvest to transesterification process. Agricultural data was collected from federal and state agencies and universities to assess various oil seed crops suitable for conversion and suited to grow in Arkansas’s climate and ROW conditions. Research data determined that soybean is the best adapted biofuel feedstock for Arkansas with camelina and canola showing possibilities as well. Agriculture is Arkansas’s largest industry and soybean is grown in over half of the state’s counties. Successful cultivation of a feedstock in the aforementioned areas could potentially offer significant employment opportunity for which the skilled farmers already exist. Based on compiled data, AHTD manages 21,489 acres of marginalized land. The result of the feasibility assessment offer suggestions and guidance should AHTD decide to further investigate this type of initiative.
Performance Evaluation of Various Displaced Left Turn Intersection Designs
With increasing traffic and limited resources, accommodating left-turning traffic has been a challenge for traffic engineers as they seek balance between intersection capacity and safety; these are two conflicting goals in the operation of a signalized intersection that are mitigated through signal phasing techniques. Hence, to increase the left-turn capacity and reduce the delay at the intersections, the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) moves forward with a vision of optimizing intersection control using innovative intersection designs through the Transportation Systems Management & Operations (TSM&O) program. These alternative designs successfully eliminate the left-turn phase, which otherwise reduces the conventional intersection’s (CI) efficiency considerably, and divide the intersection into smaller networks that would operate in a one-way fashion. This study focused on the Crossover Displaced Left-turn intersections (XDL), also known as Continuous Flow Intersections (CFI). The XDL concept is best suited for intersections with moderate to high overall traffic volumes, especially those with very high or unbalanced left turn volumes. There is little guidance on determining whether partial XDL intersections are adequate to mitigate the overall intersection condition or full XDL is always required. The primary objective of this paper was to evaluate the overall intersection performance in the case of different partial XDL designs compared to a full XDL. The XDL alternative was investigated for 4 different scenarios; partial XDL on the east-west approaches, partial XDL on the north-south approaches, partial XDL on the north and east approaches and full XDL on all 4 approaches. Also, the impact of increasing volume on the intersection performance was considered by modeling the unbalanced volumes with 10% increment resulting in 5 different traffic scenarios. The study intersection, located in Orlando Florida, is experiencing recurring congestion in the PM peak hour and is operating near capacity with volume to a capacity ratio closer to 1.00 due to the presence of two heavy conflicting movements; southbound and westbound. The results showed that a partial EN XDL alternative proved to be effective and compared favorably to a full XDL alternative followed by the partial EW XDL alternative. The analysis also showed that Full, EW and EN XDL alternatives outperformed the NS XDL and the CI alternatives with respect to the throughput, delay and queue lengths. Significant throughput improvements were remarkable at the higher volume level with percent increase in capacity of 25%. The percent reduction in delay for the critical movements in the XDL scenarios compared to the CI scenario ranged from 30-45%. Similarly, queue lengths showed percent reduction in the XDL scenarios ranging from 25-40%. The analysis revealed how partial XDL design can improve the overall intersection performance at various demands, reduce the costs associated with full XDL and proved to outperform the conventional intersection. However, partial XDL serving low volumes or only one of the critical movements while other critical movements are operating near or above capacity do not provide significant benefits when compared to the conventional intersection.
Rail Corridors between Minimal Use of Train and Unsystematic Tightening of Population: Methodological Essay
In the current situation, the automobile has become the main mean of locomotion. It allows traveling long distances, encouraging urban sprawl. To counteract this trend, the train is often proposed as an alternative to the car. Simultaneously, the favoring of urban development around public transport nodes such as railway stations is one of the main issues of the coordination between urban planning and transportation and the keystone of the sustainable urban development implementation. In this context, this paper focuses on the study of the spatial structuring dynamics around the railway. Specifically, it is a question of studying the demographic dynamics in rail corridors of Nantes, Angers and Le Mans (Western France) based on the radiation of railway stations. Consequently, the methodology is concentrated on the knowledge of demographic weight and gains of these corridors, the index of urban intensity and the mobility behaviors (workers’ travels, scholars' travels, modal practices of travels). The perimeter considered to define the rail corridors includes the communes of urban area which have a railway station and communes with an access time to the railway station is less than fifteen minutes by car (time specified by the Regional Transport Scheme of Travelers). The main tools used are the statistical data from the census of population, the basis of detailed tables and databases on mobility flows. The study reveals that the population is not tightened along rail corridors and the train use is minimal despite the presence of a nearby railway station. These results lead to propose guidelines to make the train, a real vector of mobility across the rail corridors.
Identifying Critical Links of a Transport Network When Affected by a Climatological Hazard
During the last years, the number of extreme weather events has increased. A variety of extreme weather events, including river floods, rain-induced landslides, droughts, winter storms, wildfire, and hurricanes, have threatened and damaged many different regions worldwide. These events have a devastating impact on critical infrastructure systems resulting in high social, economical and environmental costs. These events have a huge impact in transport systems. Since, transport networks are completely exposed to every kind of climatological perturbations, and its performance is closely related with these events. When a traffic network is affected by a climatological hazard, the quality of its service is threatened, and the level of the traffic conditions usually decreases. With the aim of understanding this process, the concept of resilience has become most popular in the area of transport. Transport resilience analyses the behavior of a traffic network when a perturbation takes place. This holistic concept studies the complete process, from the beginning of the perturbation until the total recovery of the system, when the perturbation has finished. Many concepts are included in the definition of resilience, such as vulnerability, redundancy, adaptability, and safety. Once the resilience of a transport network can be evaluated, in this case, the methodology used is a dynamic equilibrium-restricted assignment model that allows the quantification of the concept, the next step is its improvement. Through the improvement of this concept, it will be possible to create transport networks that are able to withstand and have a better performance under the presence of climatological hazards. Analyzing the impact of a perturbation in a traffic network, it is observed that the response of the different links, which are part of the network, can be completely different from one to another. Consequently and due to this effect, many questions arise, as what makes a link more critical before an extreme weather event? or how is it possible to identify these critical links? With this aim, and knowing that most of the times the owners or managers of the transport systems have limited resources, the identification of the critical links of a transport network before extreme weather events, becomes a crucial objective. For that reason, using the available resources in the areas that will generate a higher improvement of the resilience, will contribute to the global development of the network. Therefore, this paper wants to analyze what kind of characteristic makes a link a critical one when an extreme weather event damages a transport network and finally identify them.
Analysis of the Statistical Characterization of Significant Wave Data Exceedances for Designing Offshore Structures
The statistical theory of extreme events is progressively a topic of growing interest in all the fields of science and engineering. The changes currently experienced by the world, economic and environmental, emphasized the importance of dealing with extreme occurrences with improved accuracy. When it comes to the design of offshore structures, particularly offshore wind turbines, the importance of efficiently characterizing extreme events is of major relevance. Extreme events are commonly characterized by extreme values theory. As an alternative, the accurate modeling of the tails of statistical distributions and the characterization of the low occurrence events can be achieved with the application of the Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) methodology. The POT methodology allows for a more refined fit of the statistical distribution by truncating the data with a minimum value of a predefined threshold u. For mathematically approximating the tail of the empirical statistical distribution the Generalised Pareto is widely used. Although, in the case of the exceedances of significant wave data (H_s) the 2 parameters Weibull and the Exponential distribution, which is a specific case of the Generalised Pareto distribution, are frequently used as an alternative. The Generalized Pareto, despite the existence of practical cases where it is applied, is not completely recognized as the adequate solution to model exceedances over a certain threshold u. References that set the Generalised Pareto distribution as a secondary solution in the case of significant wave data can be identified in the literature. In this framework, the current study intends to tackle the discussion of the application of statistical models to characterize exceedances of wave data. Comparison of the application of the Generalised Pareto, the 2 parameters Weibull and the Exponential distribution are presented for different values of the threshold u. Real wave data obtained in four buoys along the Irish coast was used in the comparative analysis. Results show that the application of the statistical distributions to characterize significant wave data needs to be addressed carefully and in each particular case one of the statistical models mentioned fits better the data than the others. Depending on the value of the threshold u different results are obtained. Other variables of the fit, as the number of points and the estimation of the model parameters, are analyzed and the respective conclusions were drawn. Some guidelines on the application of the POT method are presented. Modeling the tail of the distributions shows to be, for the present case, a highly non-linear task and, due to its growing importance, should be addressed carefully for an efficient estimation of very low occurrence events.
Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement
Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate on roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of roller-compacted concrete. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factor in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of roller compacted concrete without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2 to 3 percent, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 to 300 ㎛ (close to 250 ㎛, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of AE in the mixture.
Analysing the Effectiveness of Road Humps in Improving Malaysian Residential Environments
Two of the common concerns for residents in their respective residential areas are high traffic speeds and noise levels. This paper analyses if road humps are viable as a measure for improving residential living environment based on their effects on traffic speed and noise. The study was conducted in three Malaysian residential areas: Putrajaya, Taman Setiawangsa, and Keramat. Reductions in vehicle speed and noise levels are studied for the selected 12 road humps with varying dimensions, while paired T-tests are conducted to study the variations in mean speeds at all 12 humps. A questionnaire survey was distributed to 478 respondents asking for their perception on whether road humps have improved the living environment by reducing speed and noise. Multinomial logit models are also estimated using the questionnaire data to explain the factors behind the residents’ perceptions. The significance of this paper is that it explains the effect of existing Malaysian road humps on actual residential environments, which can potentially help improve the planning of new residential areas. The expected result of this study is that road humps are effective in reducing vehicle speeds but are not viable as a noise reduction measure. The preliminary analysis carried out on the questionnaire responses also indicated that a higher percentage of residents in all three areas disagreed that road humps have reduced traffic noise in their residential areas.
A Laboratory Design for Investigating Permanent Deformation of Asphalt
Many concerns have been raised about sufficiently of existing creep test method for evaluating rut resistance of asphalt mixes during last years. Many researchers believe the main reason of creep test shortcoming for duplicating filed result is related to lack of a proper confinement for laboratory specimens. As in-situ asphalt is confined by a mass of asphalt, a measure of confinement is provided for asphalt under tyre, while existing creep test in unconfined in its nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a confinement for creep test, it could be possible to establish better relationship between field and laboratory conditions. In this study, a new methodology is explored to provide confinement for asphalt specimens. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test adopted to provide simulated field conditions stress dependent through sample confinement provided.
Evaluation of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Estimation of Air Voids in Asphalt Concrete
One of the important factors in the design of asphalt concrete mixes is the accurate measurement of air voids and their variable distribution. Both can have significant impact on long and short term fatigue and creep behaviour under traffic. While some simple methods exist for overall evaluation of air voids, measuring air void distribution in asphalt concrete is very complex, involving expensive techniques such as X-ray methodologies. The research reported in the paper investigated the use of non-destructive ultrasonic techniques as an alternative to estimate the amount of air voids and their distribution within asphalt samples. Seventy-four Standard AC–14 asphalt samples made with three types of bitumen; Multigrade, PMB and C320 were analysed using ultrasonic techniques. The results have illustrated that ultrasonic testing has the potential of being a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method of estimating air void distribution in asphalt.
Competiveness and Pricing Policy Assessment for Resilience Surface Access System at Airport
In the early days of the of civil aviation, the ground access to air transport system presented no substantial issue to travelers and authorities. Most of the airport was located on the end or the periphery of the city it served and no activity caused by aviation disturbs the city normal life. From that time the picture has totally changed and the access to airports constitute one of the key success factors of airport performance, directly, linked to reliable and resilience of air transport system. Airport connection and distribution systems are highly complex, especially, for airports accommodate over 5 million passengers, usually, serving a large catchment area in terms of space and/or population density. Typically, the ground access networks are characterized as ‘many to many’, where passengers and cargo from many different points go to many district destinations into airport territory and the opposite. However, into the scale of strategic planning the ground access system could be simplified as ‘many to one’, where passengers have to deal with the transport option transmit them to airport terminal. The airport layout, the terminals location and the nature of ground flows into airport territory increase the complexity to manage and control traffic, while the mitigation measures and the adaptation policies towards aviation industry sustainability oversize the complication in planning and traffic control in terms of transport system flexibility and availability. The key objective of this paper deals with the analysis framework to review operation capability and pricing for ground access to an airport. Based on transportation planning principles and transport system operational capabilities for the different transport options offered to/from airports, a set of a high-level indicators are introduced to assess policies and competitiveness of the offered transport services to meet the demand needs and local targets. The conventional wisdom is to provide key messages to planners, decision makers and stakeholders on airports ground access performance and efficiency, as well as, to review the effectiveness of the applied transport policy.
Ownership and Shareholder Schemes Effects on Airport Corporate Strategy in Europe
In the early days of the of civil aviation, airports are totally state-owned companies under the control of national authorities or regional governmental bodies. From that time the picture has totally changed and airports privatisation and airport business commercialisation are key success factors to stimulate air transport demand, generate revenues and attract investors, linked to reliable and resilience of air transport system. Nowadays, airport's corporate strategy deals with policies and actions, affecting essential the business plans, the financial targets and the economic footprint in a regional economy they serving. Therefore, exploring airport corporate strategy is essential to support the decision in business planning, management efficiency, sustainable development and investment attractiveness on one hand; and define policies towards traffic development, revenues generation, capacity expansion, cost efficiency and corporate social responsibility. This paper explores key outputs in airport corporate strategy for different ownership schemes. The airport corporations are grouped in three major schemes: (a) Public, in which the public airport operator acts as part of the government administration or as a corporised public operator; (b) Mixed scheme, in which the majority of the shares and the corporate strategy is driven by the private or the public sector; and (c) Private, in which the airport strategy is driven by the key aspects of globalisation and liberalisation of the aviation sector. By a systemic approach, the key drivers in corporate strategy for modern airport business structures are defined. Key objectives are to define the key strategic opportunities and challenges and assess the corporate goals and risks towards sustainable business development for each scheme. The analysis based on an extensive cross-sectional dataset for a sample of busy European airports providing results on corporate strategy key priorities, risks and business models. The conventional wisdom is to highlight key messages to authorities, institutes and professionals on airport corporate strategy trends and directions.
Discussion about Frequent Adjustment of Urban Master Planning in China: A Case Study of Changshou District, Chongqing City
Since the reform and opening, the urbanization process in China has entered a rapid development period. In recent years, the authors participated in some projects of urban master planning in China and found a phenomenon that the rapid urbanization area of China is experiencing frequent adjustment process of urban master planning. This phenomenon is not the natural process of urbanization development. It may cause by different government roles from different levels. Through the methods of investigation, data comparison and case study, this paper aims to explore the reason why the rapid urbanization area is experiencing frequent adjustment of master planning and give some solution strategies. Firstly, taking Changshou district of Chongqing city as an example, this paper wants to introduce the phenomenon about frequent adjustment process in China. And then, discuss distinct roles in the process between national government, provincial government and local government of China. At last, put forward a preliminary solution strategies for this area in China from the aspects of land use, intergovernmental cooperation and so on.
Urban Ecological Interaction: Air, Water, Light and New Transit at the Human Scale of Barcelona's Superilles
As everyday transit options are shifting from auto centric to pedestrian and bicycle oriented modes for healthy living, downtown streets are becoming more attractive places to live. However, tools and methods to measure the natural environment at the small scale of streets do not exist. Fortunately a combination of mobile data collection technology and parametric urban design software now allows an interface to relate urban ecological conditions. This paper describes creation of an interactive tool to measure urban phenomena of air, water and heat/light at the scale of new three-by-three block pedestrianized areas in Barcelona called Superilles.each Superilla limits transit to the exterior of the blocks and to create more walkable and bikeable interior streets for healthy living. The research will describe the integration of data collection, analysis and design output via a live interface using parametric software Rhino Grasshopper and the Human User Interface (UI) plugin.
The Effect of User Comments on Traffic Application Usage
With the unprecedented rates of technological improvement, people start to solve their problems with the help of technological tools. According to application stores and websites in which people evaluate and comment on the traffic apps, there are more than 100 traffic applications which have different features with respect to their purpose of usage ranging from the features of traffic apps for public transit modes to features of traffic apps for private car. This study focuses on the first 30 traffic applications which were chosen with respect to their download counts. All data about the traffic applications were obtained from related websites. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic applications in terms of their categorical attributes with the help of developing a regression model. The analysis results suggest that negative interpretations (e.g., being deficient) does not lead to lower star rating of the applications. However, those negative interpretations results in smaller increase in star rate. In addition, women use higher star rate than men for the evaluation of traffic applications.
Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles
Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We propose an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large-scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.
Organisational Effectiveness and Its Implications for Seaports: A Literature Review
The main purpose of this study was to explore the role of organisational effectiveness (OE) in seaports. Organisational effectiveness is an important managerial concept, one that is necessary for leaders and directors in any organisation to understand the output of their work. OE has been applied in many organisations, however, it is a vital concept in the port business. This paper examines various approaches and applications of the OE concept to business management, and describes benefits that are important and applicable to seaport management. This research reviews and classifies articles published in relevant journals and books between 1950 and 2016, from the general literature on organisational effectiveness to the more narrow field of organisational effectiveness in seaports. Based on the extensive literature review, this study identifies and discusses several issues relevant to both practices and theories of this concept. The review concludes by presenting a gap in the literature, as it found only a limited amount of research that endeavours to clarify organisational effectiveness in the seaport sector. As a result of this gap, seaports suffer from a lack of empirical study and are largely neglected in this subject area. The implementation of OE in this research has led to the maritime sector interfacing with different disciplines in order to acquire the advantage of enhancing managerial knowledge and competing successfully in the international marketplace.
An Empirical Analysis of the Freight Forwarders’ Buying Behaviour: Implications for the Ocean Container Carriers
The objective of this study is to explore the buying behavior of the freight forwarders and to evaluate how their buying decision affects the ocean container carriers’ market share. This study analysed the buying decisions of the freight forwarders and validated the process of stages that the freight forwarders’ pass through before choosing an ocean container carrier. Factor analysis was applied to data collected from 105 freight forwarding companies to unveil the influential factors the freight forwarders’ consider important when selecting an ocean container carrier. This study did not only analysed the buying behaviour of the freight forwarders but also unveiled the influential factors affecting the competitiveness of the ocean container carriers in their market share maximisation. Furthermore, the study have made a methodological contribution that helps in better understanding of the critical factors influencing the selection of the ocean container carriers from the freight forwarders’ perspective. The implications of the freight forwarders’ buying behaviour is important to the ocean container carriers because it have severe effect on the market share of the ocean container carriers and the percentage of customers they control within the liner shipping sector. The findings of this study will help the ocean container carriers to formulate relevant marketing strategies in attracting the freight forwarders in purchasing the liner shipping service.