International Science Index

International Journal of Sport and Health Sciences

Sporting Events among the Disabled between Excellence and Ideal in Motor Performance
The identification of mechanical variables in the motor performance trajectory has a prominent role in improving skill performance, error-exceeding, it contributes seriously to solving some problems of learning and training. The study aims to highlight the indicators of motor performance for Paralympic athletes during the practicing sports between modelling and between excellence in motor performance, this by taking into account the distinction of athlete practicing with special behavioral skills for the Paralympic athletes. In the study, we relied on the analysis of some previous research of biomechanical performance indicators during some of the events sports (shooting activities in the Paralympic athletics, shooting skill in the wheelchair basketball). The results of the study highlight the distinction of disabled practitioners of sporting events identified in motor performance during practice, by overcoming some physics indicators in human movement, as a lower center of body weight, increase in offset distance, such resistance which requires them to redouble their efforts. However, the results of the study highlighted the strength of the correlation between biomechanical variables of motor performance and the digital level achievement similar to the other practitioners normal.
Cardiovascular Responses to Supplemental High Intensity Exercise in Secondary School Children
In adults, short bursts of high intensity exercise (intensities between 80-95% of maximum heart rates) increase cardiovascular and metabolic function without the time investment of traditional aerobic training. Similar improvements in various health indices are also becoming increasingly evident in children in countries other than the United States. In the United States physical education programs have become shorter in length and fewer in frequency. With this in the background, it is imperative that health and physical educators deliver well-organized and focused fitness programs that can be tolerated across many different somatotypes. Perhaps the least effective lag-time in a US physical education (PE) class is the first 10 minutes, a time during which children warm up prior to participation in sport or activity (typically). Replacing a traditional PE warmup with a 10 min high intensity excise protocol is a time-efficient method to impact health, leaving as much time for other PE material such as skill development, motor behavior development as possible. This supplemented 10 min high intensity exercise increases cardiovascular function as well as induces favorable body composition changes in as little as 6 weeks with further enhancement throughout a semester of activity. The supplemental high intensity exercise did not detract from the PE lesson outcomes. Basic methodologies include students participating in a circuit of exercises for 7-10 minutes at 80-95% of max heart rate as measured by heart rate monitors. Student pre and post fitness test data were collected for cardio-vascular endurance, muscular endurance, and body composition. Major findings of the study are that HIIT has limited effectiveness on overall health related physical fitness indicators on children ages 10-14 but is a good choice when class time and activity is limited. This study does not show the same outcomes as studies using adult populations but does find HIIT to be somewhat effective with children. Student fitness levels entering the study seemed to have an impact on the HIIT effectiveness. Concluding Statement: High intensity interval training can be used effectively in a secondary physical education program. It is not a magic bullet to produce health-related fitness outcomes in every student but it is an effective tool to enhance student fitness in a limited time and contribute to the goals of the physical education program.
Human Kinetics Education and the Computer Operations, Effects and Merits
Computer applications has completely revolutionized the way of life of people which does not exclude the field of sport education. There are computer technologies which help to enhance teaching in every field of education. Invention of computers has done great to the field of education. This study was therefore carried out to examine the effects and merits of computer operations in Human Kinetics Education and Sports. The study was able to identify the component of computer, uses of computer in Human Kinetics education (sports), computer applications in some branches of human kinetics education. A qualitative research method was employed by the author in gathering experts’ views and used to analyze the effects and merits of computer applications in the field of human kinetics education. No experiment was performed in the cause of carrying out the study. The source of information for the study was text-books, journal, articles, past project reports, internet i.e. Google search engine. Computer has significantly helped to improve Education (Human Kinetic), it has complemented the basic physical fitness testing and gave a more scientific basis to the testing. The use of the software and packages has made cost projections, database applications, inventory control, management of events, word processing, electronic mailing and record keeping easier than the pasts.
Hillwalking Motivations and Perceived Benefits: A Mixed Methods Study of the Health, Environmental, and Social Correlates of Walking
Introduction: Hillwalking as a nature-based exercise has the scope to provide physical and mental health benefits arising from both the physical activity itself and exposure to nature. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the complexity of factors that might influence hillwalking motivation and long-term engagement. The study aimed to explore the motivational aspects and perceived benefits of walking and walk-leading, with particular focus on the health, social, and environmental correlates. Methods: The study used a mixed methods design consisting of hillwalking interviews, physical activity measurements, location data and the Nature-relatedness questionnaire. Seventeen walk-leaders participated in the data collection who had extensive walking experience, had been engaged in regular outdoor physical activity for decades and had in-depth understanding of the social aspects of walking through leading groups. Qualitative analysis was conducted on the interview data. The analysis followed a combined thematic and grounded theory approach. The qualitative data was merged with quantitative measurements to provide understanding on the environmental and nature related aspects of walking. Results: Primary motivations for walking included 1) pleasure, 2) escape from society, everyday life and its pressures and 3) being in nature. Regular physical activity and the associated health benefits were reported as secondary motivations. The interaction between environment, personal history and attitudes were important indicators of walking preferences. Different walking environments were associated with different emotions. Emerging overarching themes such as balance, adaptation, and achievement were linked to various aspects of walking including health; nutrition; physical activity; and environment, and were referred to as essential values for life. Participants reported that the perceived psychological benefits of walking had a positive impact on other areas of everyday life, including better self-awareness, increased self-esteem, stress-release and restorative experience. Conclusions: Hillwalking served as an escape and re-charge, which were reported as essential parts of a balanced life. The pleasure arising from several aspects of hillwalking was the drive for regular engagement, therefore a primary intrinsic motivation. Results of this study were used to design the second stage of the project: to explore concepts of intrinsic motivations, pleasure, and escapism in relation to the sustainability of engagement in hillwalking. The findings of the project have the scope to inform future walking promotion programs and encourage long term engagement by shifting the focus of promotion messages to intrinsic motivational factors.
Factors Militating against the Organization of Intramural Sport Programme in Secondary Schools: Case Study of Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria
The study investigated the factors militating against the organization of intramural sports programmes in secondary schools in Ekiti State. The purpose of the study was to identify the factors affecting the organization of sports in secondary schools and also to proffer possible solutions to these factors. The study employed the inferential statistics of chi-square (x2). Five research hypotheses were formulated. The population for the study was all the students in the government-owned secondary schools in Ekiti West Local Government of Ekiti State Nigeria. The sample for the study was sixty students in three schools within the local government selected through simple random sampling techniques. The instrument used for the study was a self-developed questionnaire by the researcher for data collection. The instrument was presented to experts and academicians in the field of Human Kinetics and Health Education for construct and content validation. A reliability test was conducted which involves ten students who are not part of the study. The test-retest coefficient of 0.74 was obtained which attested to the fact that the instrument was reliable enough for the study. The validated questionnaire was administered to the students in their various schools by the researcher with the help of two research assistants; the questionnaires were filled and returned to the researcher immediately. Data collected were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of frequency count, percentage and mean to analyze demographic data in section A of the questionnaire, while inferential statistics of chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The result of the study revealed that personnel, fund, schedule (time) were significant factors that affect the organization of intramural sport programmes among students in secondary schools in Ekiti West Local Government Area of the State. The study also revealed that organization of intramural sports programmes among students of secondary schools will improve and motivate students’ participation in sports beyond the local level. However, facilities and equipment is not a significant factor affecting the organization of intramural sports among secondary school students in Ekiti West Local Government Area.
A Software Solution for Tennis Ranking System Enhancement
Athletes and spectators depend on the tennis ranking system to represent the truest caliber of athletic prowess; a careful look at the current ranking system though, reveals its main weakness: it undermines expectations of fans and players. Our study proposes several key changes to the existing ranking formula that provide a fair and accurate approach to measure player performance. The study proposes a modification of the system to value: participation, continued advancement, and overall achievement. The new ranking formula facilitates closing the trust gap, encouraging competition equality, engaging the fan base, attracting investment, and promoting tennis involvement worldwide. To probe the crux of our main contention we performed week-by-week comparisons between results procured from the current and proposed formulae. After performing this rigorous case-study of top players of each gender, the findings strongly indicated that there is identifiable inflation in the ranks and enhanced the conviction that the current system should be updated. The new system is accompanied by a web-based software package freely available to anyone involved or interested in tennis rankings. The software package is designed to automatically calculate new player rankings based on a responsive, multi-faceted formula that also generates projected point scenarios and provides separate rankings for the three different court surfaces. By taking a critical look at the current tennis ranking system with consideration to the perspective of fans, players, and businesses involved, an upgrade is in order for it to maintain the balance of trust between fans and the evaluation process. In closure, this proposed solution increases fair play competition, eliminates rank inflation, and better engages fans, players, and sponsors by bringing in a new era of professional tennis.
Association of Depression with Physical Inactivity and Time Watching Television: A Cross-Sectional Study with the Brazilian Population PNS, 2013
The relationship between physical activity (PA) and depression has been investigated, in both, observational and clinical studies: PA can integrate the treatments for depression; the physical inactivity (PI) may contribute to increase depression symptoms; and on the other hand, emotional problems can decrease PA. The main of this study was analyze the association among leisure and transportation PI and time watching television (TV) according to depression (minor and major), evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The association was also analyzed by gender. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the National Health Survey 2013 (PNS), performed with representative sample of the Brazilian adult population, in 2013. The PNS collected information from 60,202 individuals, aged 18 years or more. The independent variable were: leisure time physical inactivity (LTPI), considering inactive or insufficiently actives (categories were linked for analyzes), those who do not performed a minimum of 150 or 74 minutes of moderate or vigorous LTPA, respectively, by week; transportation physical inactivity (TPI), individuals who did not reached 150 minutes, by week, travelling by bicycle or on foot to work or other activities; daily time watching TV > 5 hours. The principal independent variable was depression, identified by PHQ-9. Individuals were classified with major depression, with > 5 symptoms, more than seven days, but one of the symptoms was “depressive mood” or “lack of interest or pleasure”. The others had minor depression. The variables used to adjustment were gender, age, schooling and chronic disease. The prevalence of LTPI, TPI and TV time were estimated according to depression, and differences were tested with Chi-Square test. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using multiple Poisson regression models. The analyzes also had stratification by gender. Mean age of the studied population was 42.9 years old (CI95%:42.6-43.2) and 52.9% were women. 77.5% and 68.1% were inactive or insufficiently active in leisure and transportation, respectively and 13.3% spent time watching TV 5 > hours. 6% and 4.1% of the Brazilian population were diagnosed with minor or major depression. LTPI prevalence was 5% and 9% higher among individuals with minor and major depression, respectively, comparing with no depression. The prevalence of TPI was 7% higher in those with major depression. Considering larger time watching TV, the prevalence was 45% and 74% higher among those with minor and major depression, respectively. Analyzing by gender, the associations were greater in men than women and TPI was note be associated, in women. The study detected the higher prevalence of leisure time physical inactivity and, especially, time spent watching TV, among individuals with major and minor depression, after to adjust for a number of potential confounding factors. TPI was only associated with major disorders and among men. Considering the cross-sectional design of the research, these associations can point out the importance of the mental problems control of the population to increase PA and decrease the sedentary lifestyle; on the other hand, the study highlight the need of interventions by encouraging people with depression, to practice PA, even to transportation.
Dynamic Stability Assessment of Different Wheel Sized Bicycles Based on Current Frame Design Practice with ISO Requirement for Bicycle Safety
The difficulties in riding small wheel bicycles and their lesser stability have been perceived for a long time. Although small wheel bicycles are designed using the similar approach and guidelines that have worked well for big wheel bicycles, the performance of the big wheelers and the smaller wheelers are markedly different. Since both the big wheelers and small wheelers have same fundamental geometry, most blame the small wheel for this discrepancy in the performance. This paper reviews existing guidelines for bicycle design, especially the front steering geometry for the bicycle, and provides a systematic and quantitative analysis of different wheel sized bicycles. A validated mathematical model has been used as a tool to assess the dynamic performance of the bicycles in term of their self-stability. The results obtained were found to corroborate the subjective perception of cyclists for small wheel bicycles. The current approach for small wheel bicycle design requires higher speed to be self-stable. However, it was found that increasing the headtube angle and selecting a proper trail could improve the dynamic performance of small wheel bicycles. A range of parameters for front steering geometry has been identified for small wheel bicycles that have comparable stability as big wheel bicycles. Interestingly, most of the identified geometries are found to be beyond the ISO recommended range and seem to counter the current approach of small wheel bicycle design. Therefore, it was successfully shown that the guidelines for big wheelers do not translate directly to small wheelers, but careful selection of the front geometry could make small wheel bicycles as stable as big wheel bicycles.
Psychological Factors as Predictor of Sports Violence among Tertiary Institution
Violence has become a fairly often occurrence in sports (within our tertiary institutions), a development that is giving every society in the world sleepless night. School violence is part of youth violence, a broader salient public health problem. This study employing a questionnaire-based survey strategy aimed at investigates psychological factors as predictors of sports violence among Oyo state tertiary institution. A sample of Two hundred athletes and three tertiary institutions were selected through purposive sampling from the Oyo State tertiary institution. The estimated reliability co-efficient of the instrument was found to be 0.89 using cronbach Alpha technique. Data were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0. Five hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation. Result revealed that personality, anxiety, mental health has no significant influence on sports violence; mental stress has a significant influence on sports violence. Based on the findings, it was recommended that sport management should reduce work overload and that they should organized seminars and social activities to help athletes lose up.
The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women
Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.
The Effect of a Test Pump Supplement on the Physiological and Functional Performance of Futsal Women
To evaluate the effect of Test Pump supplement on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women, twenty female futsal subjects were divided into two groups: placebo (n = 10) and supplement (n = 10) and were given buccal tablets for 7 days and 12 g daily supplement each day. The placebo group used starch powder during this period. Speed, agility with ball, agility without ball and dribbling time were measured before and after supplementation. In addition, the rate of heart rate and blood pressure changes were measured before and after the YOYO test. The results showed that the test pump had no significant effect on improving speed, agility with ball, agility without ball, dribbling time and heart rate changes and diastolic blood pressure, and only affect the maximum oxygen consumption and systolic blood pressure (P
3D Biomechanical Analysis in Shot Put Techniques of International Throwers
Aim: The research aims at doing a 3 Dimension biomechanical analysis in the shot put techniques of International throwers to evaluate the performance. Research Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive method and the data was subjected to calculate by using Pearson’s product moment correlation for the correlation of the biomechanical parameters with the performance of shot put throw. In all the analyses, the 5% critical level (p ≤ 0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Research Sample: Eight (N=08) international shot putters using rotational/glide technique in male category was selected as subjects for the study. The researcher used the following methods and tools to obtain reliable measurements the instrument which was used for the purpose of present study namely the tesscorn slow-motion camera, specialized motion analyzer software, 7.260 kg Shot Put (for a male shot-putter) and steel tape. All measurement pertaining to the biomechanical variables was taken by the principal investigator so that data collected for the present study was considered reliable. Results: The finding of the study showed that negative significant relationship between the angular velocity right shoulder, acceleration distance at pre flight (-0.70), (-0.72) respectively were obtained, the angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at flight (0.81), (0.75) and (0.71) respectively were obtained, the angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at transition phase (0.77), (0.79) respectively were obtained and angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder, release velocity shot, angle of release, height of release, projected distance and measured distance as the values (0.76), (0.77), (-0.83), (-0.79), (-0.77), (0.99) and (1.00) were found higher than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, there exists an insignificant relationship between the performance of shot put and acceleration distance [m], angular displacement shot, C.G at release and horizontal release distance on the technique of shot put.
Effect of Fenugreek Seed with Aerobic Exercise Training on Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
Aim: Considering the hypoglisimic ad hipolipidimic effect of the fenugreek seed and aerobic exercise training, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fenugreek and aerobic exercise training on insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Methodology: 32 patients with type II diabetes were selected and randomly divided into four groups: control, fenugreek, training and fenugreek - training. Fenugreek groups used 10 grams of fenugreek seeds daily for eight weeks on two occasions before noon and evening meal. Training of groups is also performed a regular program of aerobic exercise 65-55% of maximum heart rate (4 days per week).Two days before and after the training period, blood samples were taken from their brachial veins in a fasting state (12 hours prior to the test) in a sitting position. The data was analyzed used of t-independent and ANOVA at a significance level of α < 0.05. Results: Intra-group changes in all experimental groups showed that significant decrease insulin resistance, and the difference between groups showed significant difference between the groups of fenugreek - training than other groups there. Conclusions: According to the research findings to fenugreek combined with aerobic exercise more beneficial effect on the inhibition of insulin resistance in women with diabetes are recommended to them.
The Effect of Four Weeks Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I
The aim of this study is to investigate 4 weeks resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400cc low fat milk. Control- water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.
Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.
A Study on Meaning Symbol Grounding of Jargons in Rugby Junior Japan Team
This research aims to focus on jargons about sprint in sports coaching from the perspective of the cognitive field, reveal the cognitive process in which the meaning symbols of jargons about sprint are grounded through interaction between coaches and athletes. As a significance of the research, if this study can lead not only to solving the problem of meaning symbol grounding of the relevant field, but also to lead a common cognitive pattern, application to sports coaching can be expected. This research employed Pearson’s correlation coefficient from making plot graphs and co-occurrence analysis as its analysis method with paying a close attention to the verbalization described by the members of the 42nd Japan national high school rugby team 2016 as its analytical resource. These results suggest that jargons about sprint conveyed from coaches to athletes are grounded on firstly their motions and then their senses, and later associated with their other behaviors. Meanwhile, it is also shown that such symbol grounding and association have a correlation with the difficulty level of the motions of the jargons about sprint. Therefore, the possibility was suggested that degree of proficiency could be predicted by confirming the verbalization of athletes.
Profiles of Physical Fitness and Enjoyment among Children: Associations with Sport Participation
Background and study aim: Most of the people assume that someone will perform well on something they like. A tool evaluating how much an individual likes an activity can also be guidance for talent detection and to keep youngster doing what they like as a recreational sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical performances with something that they like. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 558 pupils age between 8 years to 11 years were tested using test battery containing 7 physical performance tests (I Do) compared to a pictorial scale containing 7 pictures (I Like) referring to the physical performance tests. Pearson correlation was computed to investigate the relation between the actual performance and the enjoyment. Results: Moderate significant correlations between each of the respective I Do, and I Like components were found. It appears that the correlation between the endurance items is higher as compared to the other six characteristics. Rerunning the analysis for age and sex groups separately resulted in only one significant correlation across all age group, namely between the evaluations of cardiovascular endurance. Conclusions: Information on enjoyment appears to be a useful and cost-effective addition to current multidimensional test batteries in a sport. By providing a clear picture on activities the young child or athlete likes or dislikes, attrition can be increased if a child starts his ‘career’ in a sport that alludes to skills or tasks he/she likes. This enjoyment will increase the intrinsic motivation, which is beneficial for sustained sports participation as well as for avoiding dropout in promising young athletes.
Physical Fitness Normative Reference Values among Lithuanian Primary School Children: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Health-related physical fitness refers to the favorable health status, i.e. ability to perform daily activities with vigor, as well as capacities that are associated with a low risk for development of chronic diseases and premature death. However, in school-aged children it is constantly declining, while some aspects of fitness declined as much as 50 percent during the last two decades, which prognosticates increasingly earlier onset of health problems, decreasing the quality of life of the population and financial burden for the society. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to indicate nationally representative age- and gender-specific reference values of anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness in Lithuanian primary school children from 6 to 10 years. Methods. The study included 3556 students in total, from 73 randomly selected schools. Ethics approval for research by the Kaunas Regional Ethics Committee (No. BE-2-42) was obtained. Physical fitness was measured by the 9-item test battery, developed by Fjørtoft and colleagues. Height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Smoothed centile charts were derived using the LMS method. Results. The numerical age- and gender-specific percentile values (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile) for anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness were provided. The equivalent smoothed LMS curves were performed. The study indicated 12.5 percent of overweight and 5 percent of obese children in accordance with international gender and age specific norms of body mass index. This data could be used in clinical and educational settings in order to identify the level of individual physical fitness within its different components.
The Comparison of Physical Fitness across Age and Gender in the Lithuanian Primary School Students: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background: Gender differences in physical fitness were tracked in many studies with lower effect in preschool children and increasing difference among genders across age. In Lithuania, on a population level, secular trends in physical fitness were regularly observed each ten years for the last two decades for 11-18 years old students. However, there is apparently a lack of such epidemiological studies among primary school students. Assessing and monitoring physical fitness from an early age is of particular importance seeking to develop and strengthen physical abilities of youths for future health benefits. The goal of the current study was to indicate age and gender differences in anthropometric measures, musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness in Lithuanian primary school children. Methods: The study included 3456 1-4th grade students from 6 to 10 years. The data reliably represents the population of primary school children in Lithuania. Among them, 1721 (49.8 percent) were boys. Physical fitness was measured by the 9-item test battery, developed by Fjørtoft and colleagues (2011). Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Student t test evaluated differences in physical fitness between boys and girls, ANOVA was performed to indicate differences across age. Results: All anthropometric and fitness means that were identified as significantly different were better in boys than in girls and in older than younger students (p < .05). Among anthropometric measures, height was higher in boys aged 7 through 9 years. Weight and BMI differed among boys and girls only at 8 years old. Means of height and weight increased significantly across all ages. Among musculoskeletal fitness tests, means of standing broad jump, throwing a tennis ball and pushing a medicine ball were different between genders within each age group and across all ages. Differences between genders were less likely in motor fitness than in musculoskeletal or cardiorespiratory fitness. Differences in means of shuttle run 10 x 5 test between genders occurred at age 6, 9 and 10 years; running 20 m at age 6 and 9 years, and climbing wall bars at age 9 and 10. Means of Reduced Cooper test representing cardiorespiratory fitness were different between genders within each age group but did not differ among age 6 and 8 as well as 7 and 8 years in boys, and among age 7 and 8 years in girls. Conclusion: In general, the current study confirms gender differences in musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness found in other studies across the world in primary school and older children. Observed gender differences might be explained by higher physical activity in boys rather than girls. As it is explained by previous literature, older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones, because of the components of fitness change as a function of growth, maturation, development, and interactions among the three processes.
Parents' Motivating Factors for Their Deaf and Mute Children to Participate in Physical and Recreational Activities
This study was conducted to determine the parents’ motivating factors for their deaf and mute children to participate in physical and recreational activities. Data were collected from the 17 parents of the deaf and mute children using a specifically designed survey questionnaire as the primary instrument used in the study. Data analysis and interpretation were done with the aid of descriptive statistics, such as frequency, percentage, weighted mean and multiple responses. Most of the respondents were female with a mean average age of 38 years old. The average age of their children was 10 years old. In terms of monthly income, the respondents had an average monthly income of PhP 13,945. Furthermore, most of the respondents lived in the urban area and were all Catholic by faith or religion. As to the factors that parents used to motivate their deaf and mute children to engage in physical and recreational activities, these included the followings: First; to make my child experience and explore more meaningful things through physical and recreational activities; second; to gain other’s respect; third; to build friendship and interact with his peers; fourth; to experience the feeling of belongingness; and fifth: to learn and discover new things. On the other hand, the least chosen factors were: first; to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight; second; to reduce fats and lowering blood pressure; third; to improve balance, coordination and strength; fourth; to improve posture; and fifth; to assist the child in the development of gross motor and fine motor skills. Based on the findings of the study, it is hereby recommended that since the first factor is 'to make my child experience and explore more meaningful things through physical and recreational activities' and the other top factors are more on social aspect, the school should design extra-curricular activities such as theatrical play and other similar activities that the students will find interesting while the parents will be more motivated to engage their children into physical and recreational activities. Also, since the least chosen factors are more on physical aspect, the school should organize or conduct a seminar for the parents to be aware of the benefits of participating in physical and recreational activities for their deaf and mute children. They can also conduct an information campaign to encourage the other parents of deaf and mute children, whom they keep only inside their home to enroll in the school and let their children be exposed to the natural world. Considering that parents are the primary motivators that can best help their children become more interested in physical and recreational activities for their own development, the school should always remain motivated by creating activities for the deaf and mute children with their parents. The study also recommends conducting further study on the level of knowledge/understanding of the parents on the benefits that can be derived from participating in physical and recreational activities.
Comparison of Effects over the Autonomic Nervous System When Using Force Training and Interval Training in Indoor Cycling with University Students
In the last decade interval training (IT) has gained importance when is compare with strength training (ST). However, there are few studies analyzing the impact of these training over the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This work has aimed to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system, when is expose to an IT or ST indoor cycling mode. After approval by the ethics committee, a cross-over clinical trial with 22 healthy participants (age 21 ± 3 years) was implemented. The selection of participants for the groups with sequence force-interval (F-I) and interval-force (I-F) was made randomly with assignation of 11 participants for each group. The temporal series of heart rate was obtained before and after each training using the POLAR TEAM® heart monitor. The evaluation of the ANS was performed with spectral analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) using the fast Fourier transform (Kubios software). A training of 8 weeks in each sequence (4 weeks with each training) with an intermediate period of two weeks of washout was implemented for each group. The power parameter of the HRV in the low frequency band (LF = 0.04-0.15Hz related to the sympathetic nervous system), high frequency (HF = 0.15-0.4Hz, related to the parasympathetic) and LF/HF (with reference to a modulation of parasympathetic over the sympathetic), were calculated. Afterward, the difference between the parameters before and after was realized. Then, to evaluate statistical differences between each training was implemented the method of Wellek (Wellek and Blettner, 2012, Medicine, 109 (15), 276-81). To determine the difference of effect over parasympathetic when FT and IT are used, the T test is implemented obtaining a T value of 0.73 with p-value ≤ 0.1. For the sympathetic was obtained a T of 0.33 with p ≤ 0.1 and for LF/HF the T was 1.44 with a p ≥ 0.1. Then, the carry over effect was evaluated and was not present. Significant changes over autonomic activity with strength or interval training were not observed. However, a modulation of the parasympathetic over the sympathetic can be observed. Probably, these findings should be explained because the sample is little and/or the time of training was insufficient to generate changes.
Consumption of Animal and Vegetable Protein on Muscle Power in Road Cyclists from 18 to 20 Years in Bogota, Colombia
Athletes who usually use protein supplements, are those who practice strength and power sports, whose goal is to achieve a large muscle mass. However, it has also been explored in sports or endurance activities such as cycling, and where despite requiring high power, prominent muscle development can impede good competitive performance due to the determinant of body mass for good performance of the athlete body. This research shows, the effect with protein supplements establishes a protein - muscle mass ratio, although in a lesser proportion the relationship between protein types and muscle power. Thus, we intend to explore as a first approximation, the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the intake of two protein supplements from different sources. The aim of the study was to describe the behavior of muscle power in lower limbs after the consumption of animal protein (AP) and vegetable protein (VP) in four route cyclists from 18 to 20 years of the Bogota cycling league. The methodological design of this study is quantitative, with a non-probabilistic sampling, based on a pre-experimental model. The jumping power was evaluated before and after the intervention by means of the squat jump test (SJ), Counter movement jump (CMJ) and Abalacov (AB). Cyclists consumed a drink with whey protein and a soy isolate after training four times a week for three months. The amount of protein in each cyclist, was calculated according to body weight (0.5 g / kg of muscle mass). The results show that subjects who consumed PV improved muscle strength and landing strength. In contrast, the power and landing force decreased for subjects who consumed PA. For the group that consumed PV, the increase was positive at 164.26 watts, 135.70 watts and 33.96 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. While for PA, the differences of the medians were negative at -32.29 watts, -82.79 watts and -143.86 watts for the AB, SJ and CMJ jumps respectively. The differences of the medians in the AB jump were positive for both the PV (121.61 Newton) and PA (454.34 Newton) cases, however, the difference was greater for PA. For the SJ jump, the difference for the PA cases was 371.52 Newton, while for the PV cases the difference was negative -448.56 Newton, so the difference was greater in the SJ jump for PA. In jump CMJ, the differences of the medians were negative for the cases of PA and PV, being -7.05 for PA and - 958.2 for PV. So the difference was greater for PA. The conclusion of this study shows that serum protein supplementation showed no improvement in muscle power in the lower limbs of the cyclists studied, which could suggest that whey protein does not have a beneficial effect on performance in terms of power, either, showed an impact on body composition. In contrast, supplementation with soy isolate showed positive effects on muscle power, body.
Design and Biomechanical Analysis of a Transtibial Prosthesis for Cyclists of the Colombian Team Paralympic
The training of cilsitas with some type of disability finds in the technological development an indispensable ally, generating every day advances to contribute to the quality of life allowing to maximize the capacities of the athletes. The performance of a cyclist depends on physiological and biomechanical factors, such as aerodynamic profile, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, pedaling systems, type of competition, among others. This study particularly focuses on the description of the dynamic model of a transtibial prosthesis for Paralympic cyclists. To make the model, two points are chosen: in the radius centers of rotation of the plate and pinion of the track bicycle. The parametric scheme of the track bike represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom due to the displacement in X - Y of each of the reference points of the angles of the curve profile β, cant of the velodrome α and the angle of rotation of the connecting rod φ. The force exerted on the crank of the bicycle varies according to the angles of the curve profile β, the velodrome cant of α and the angle of rotation of the crank φ. The behavior is analyzed through the Matlab R2015a software. The average strength that a cyclist exerts on the cranks of a bicycle is 1,607.1 N, the Paralympic cyclist must perform a force on each crank about 803.6 N. Once the maximum force associated with the movement has been determined, it is continued to the dynamic modeling of the transtibial prosthesis that represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom with displacement in X - Y in relation to the angles of rotation of the hip π, knee γ and ankle λ. Subsequently, an analysis of the kinematic behavior of the prosthesis was carried out by means of SolidWorks 2017 and Matlab R2015a, which was used to model and analyze the variation of the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the λ prosthesis. The reaction forces generated in the prosthesis were performed on the ankle of the prosthesis, performing the summation of forces on the X and Y axes. The same analysis was then applied to the tibia of the prosthesis and the socket. The reaction force of the parts of the prosthesis varies according to the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the prosthesis λ. Therefore, it can be deduced that the maximum forces experienced by the ankle of the prosthesis is 933.6 N on the X axis and 2.160.5 N on the Y axis. Finally, it is calculated that the maximum forces experienced by the tibia and the socket of the transtibial prosthesis in high performance competitions is 3.266 N on the X axis and 1.357 N on the Y axis. In conclusion, it can be said that the performance of the cyclist depends on several physiological factors, linked to biomechanics of training. The influence of biomechanical factors such as aerodynamics, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, or non-circular pedaling systems on the cyclist performance.
The Contribution of Football Club Jerseys towards English Premier League Fans Loyalty in Nigeria
The globalization of Football especially among youth over the decade is uprising. Nigeria youth displaying football jerseys at every opportunity is an acceptance of football globalization. The Love for English Premier League football jersey is very strong among Nigeria fans. Football club jerseys of EPL are a common sports product among fans in Nigeria. This study investigates the contribution of Football club jerseys towards EPL fans Loyalty in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consists of EPL fans in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique (fish bowl without replacement) was used to select two states from the six geo-political zones. Purposive sampling technique was used to pick eight viewing centres while accidental sampling technique was used to pick five vendor stands from each State. An average of two hundred and fifty respondents was selected from each state. A total of 3,200 respondents participated in the research. Two research instruments were used. A Self developed structured questionnaire on Football Jersey Scale (FJS). The Instrument consists of ten items. Fans Loyalty Scale (FLS). The instrument was modified from psychological commitment to team (PCT) scale. The instrument consists of 20 items. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.72 and 0.75 was obtained respectively. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 significant levels. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentages count, pie chart and multiple regressions. The result showed that the b-value of football club jersey is 0.148 also the standard regression coefficient (Beta) is 0.089. The t=4.759 is statistically significant at p=.000. This signified a relative contribution of football club jersey on EPL fans loyalty in Nigeria. Club jersey which is the most outstanding identifier of every club was found to significantly predict loyalty. The jersey on the body of the fan has become the site for a declaration of loyalty which becomes available for social interaction and negotiation. The Nigerian local league clubs in an attempt to keep Nigerian fans loyal must borrow leaf from their European counterparts.
The Effect of Modified Posterior Shoulder Stretching Exercises on Posterior Shoulder Tightness, Shoulder Pain, and Dysfunction in Patients with Subacromial Impingement
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the Wilk’s modified two different stretching exercises on posterior shoulder tightness, pain, and dysfunction in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). Method: This study was carried out on 67 patients who have more than 15° difference in shoulder internal rotation range of motion between two sides and had been diagnosed as SIS. Before treatment, all patients were randomly assigned into three groups. Standard physiotherapy programme was applied to the Group 3 (n=23), standard physiotherapy program with Wilk’s modified cross-body stretching exercises were applied to Group 1 (n=22), and standard physiotherapy program with Wilk’s modified sleeper stretching exercises were applied to Group 2 (n= 23). All the patients received 20 sessions of physiotherapy during 4 weeks, 5 days in a week by a physiotherapist. The patients continued their exercises at home at the weekends. Pain severity, shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder tightness, upper extremity functionality with Constant and Murley Score (CMS) and disability level with The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (QuickDASH) were evaluated before and after physiotherapy programme. Results: Before treatment, demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in groups and there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05). It was determined that pain severity decreased, shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder tightness, upper extremity functionality, and disability were improved after physiotherapy in both groups (p < 0.05). Group 1 and 2 had better results in terms of reduction of pain severity during activity, increase in shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder mobility and upper extremity functionality and improvement in upper extremity disability, compared to Group 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Modified posterior shoulder stretching exercises in addition to standard physiotherapy programme is more effective for reduction of pain during activity, to improve shoulder rotation range of motion, posterior shoulder mobility, and upper extremity functionality in patients with SIS compared to standard physiotherapy programme alone.
Veering Pattern in Human Walking in Sighted and Blindfolded Conditions
The information received from visual organ plays an important role in human locomotion and human beings generally veer from the straight line in the absence of visual cue. Since in case of visually impaired persons this support is unavailable they are expected to have a different type of locomotion behaviour than the sighted persons. Higher degree of veering can result in accident or injury during indoor and outdoor activities. Hence, it is important to know the degree of veering that may happen in case of a sighted individual loosing the visual input. The present study was conducted on fifty three volunteers who walked with open and closed eyes, at their comfortable pace, in a grid marked area of 17m by 10m space. The volunteers had to walk in a straight line from a central starting point during three trials and their walking path was marked with a pair of sponge absorbed with three different colours. All volunteers had walked expectedly in straight line during open eye condition but had varied degree of veering during closed eye state. The correlation between the first step side and the side of deviation was not significant in closed eye condition. The number of steps taken in open eye and closed eye condition were significantly different while travelling similar distances. This study reveals that sighted persons become cautious during walking if the visual cue is not available and they reduce the step length so there is increase in step number.
The Effect of Different Patterns of Upper, Lower and Whole Body Resistance Exercise Training on Systemic and Vascular Inflammatory Factors in Healthy Untrained Women
Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular inflammatory markers as adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of different patterns of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, present study aimed to examine the effect of different patterns of eight week resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 56 healthy volunteered untrained female university students (aged: 21 ± 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5 ± 3.5 kg/m²) were selected purposefully and divided into four groups. At the end of training protocol and after subject drop during the protocol, upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) and whole body resistance exercise training group (n=11) completed the eight weeks of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post-experimental period and CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training, but there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper, lower and whole body exercise training by involving the different amounts of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.
Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking
Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.
Effects of Gender on Kinematics Kicking in Soccer
Soccer is a game which draws more attention in different countries especially in Brazil. Kicking among different skills in soccer and soccer players is an excellent role for the success and preference of a team. The way of point gaining in this game is passing the ball over the goal lines which are gained by shoot skill in attack time and or during the penalty kicks.Regarding the above assumption, identifying the effective factors in instep kicking in different distances shoot with maximum force and high accuracy or pass and penalty kick, may assist the coaches and players in raising qualitative level of performing the skill.The aim of the present study was to study of a few kinematical parameters in instep kicking from 5 and 7 meter distance among the male and female elite soccer players.24 right dominant lower limb subjects (12 males and 12 females) among Tehran elite soccer players with average and the standard deviation (22.5 ± 1.5) & (22.08± 1.31) years, height of (179.5 ± 5.81) & (164.3 ± 4.09) cm, weight of (69.66 ± 4.09) & (53.16 ± 3.51) kg, %BMI (21.06 ± .731) & (19.67 ± .709), having playing history of (4 ± .73) & (3.08 ± .66) years respectively participated in this study. They had at least two years of continuous playing experience in Tehran soccer league.For sampling player's kick; Kinemetrix Motion analysis with three cameras with 1000 Hz was used. Five reflective markers were placed laterally on the kicking leg over anatomical points (the iliac crest, major trochanter, lateral epicondyle of femur, lateral malleolus, and lateral aspect of distal head of the fifth metatarsus). Instep kick was filmed, with one step approach and 30 to 45 degrees angle from stationary ball. Three kicks were filmed, one kick selected for further analyses. Using Kinemetrix 3D motion analysis software, the position of the markers was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean and standard deviation, while the analysis of variance, and independent t-test (P < 0.05) were used to compare the kinematic parameters between two genders.Among the evaluated parameters, the knee acceleration, the thigh angular velocity, the angle of knee proportionately showed significant relationship with consequence of kick. While company performance on 5m in 2 genders, significant differences were observed in internal – external displacement of toe, ankle, hip and the velocity of toe, ankle and the acceleration of toe and the angular velocity of pelvic, thigh and before time contact . Significant differences showed the internal – external displacement of toe, the ankle, the knee and the hip, the iliac crest and the velocity of toe, the ankle and acceleration of ankle and angular velocity of the pelvic and the knee.
The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health
Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.