International Science Index

International Journal of Sport and Exercise Sciences

Exploring Digital Media’s Impact on Sports Sponsorship: A Global Perspective
With the continuous proliferation of media platforms, there have been tremendous changes in media consumption behaviors. From the perspective of sports sponsorship, while there is now a multitude of platforms to create brand associations, the changing media landscape and shift of message control also mean that sports sponsors will have to take into account the nature of and consumer responses toward these emerging digital media to devise effective marketing strategies. Utilizing the personal interview methodology, this study is qualitative and exploratory in nature. A total of 18 experts from European and American academics, sports marketing industry, and sports leagues/teams were interviewed to address three main research questions: 1) What are the major changes in digital technologies that are relevant to sports sponsorship; 2) How have digital media influenced the channels and platforms of sports sponsorship; and 3) How have these technologies affected the goals, strategies, and measurement of sports sponsorship. The study found that sports sponsorship has moved from consumer engagement, engagement measurement, and consequences of engagement on brand behaviors to micro-targeting one on one, engagement by context, time, and space, and activation and leveraging based on tracking and databases. From the perspective of platforms and channels, the use of mobile devices is prominent during sports content consumption. Increasing multiscreen media consumption means that sports sponsors need to optimize their investment decisions in leagues, teams, or game-related content sources, as they need to go where the fans are most engaged in. The study observed an imbalanced strategic leveraging of technology and digital infrastructure. While sports leagues have had less emphasis on brand value management via technology, sports sponsors have been much more active in utilizing technologies like mobile/LBS tools, big data/user info, real-time marketing and programmatic, and social media activation. Regardless of the new media/platforms, the study found that integration and contextualization are the two essential means of improving sports sponsorship effectiveness through technology. That is, how sponsors effectively integrate social media/mobile/second screen into their existing legacy media sponsorship plan so technology works for the experience/message instead of distracting fans. Additionally, technological advancement and attention economy amplify the importance of consumer data gathering, but sports consumer data does not mean loyalty or engagement. This study also affirms the benefit of digital media as they offer viral and pre-event activations through storytelling way before the actual event, which is critical for leveraging brand association before and after. That is, sponsors now have multiple opportunities and platforms to tell stories about their brands for longer time period. In summary, digital media facilitate fan experience, access to the brand message, multiplatform/channel presentations, storytelling, and content sharing. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on technology and media, today’s sponsors need to define what they want to focus on in terms of content themes that connect with their brands and then identify the channels/platforms. The big challenge for sponsors is to play to the venues/media’s specificity and its fit with the target audience and not uniformly deliver the same message in the same format on different platforms/channels.
A Comprehensive Review of Yoga and Core Strength: Strengthening Core Muscles as Important Method for Injury Prevention (Lower Back Pain) and Performance Enhancement in Sports
The core strength is essential not only for athletes but also for everyone to perform everyday's household chores with ease and efficiency. Core strength means to strengthen the muscles deep within the abdomen which connect to the spine and pelvis which control the position and movement of the central portion of the body. Strengthening of core muscles is important for injury prevention (lower back pain) and performance enhancement in sports. The purpose of the study was to review the literature and findings on the effects of Yoga exercise as a part of sports training method and fitness programs. Fifteen papers were found to be relevant for this review. There are five simple yoga poses: Ardha Phalakasana (Low plank), Vasisthasana (side plank), Purvottanasana (inclined plane), Sarvangasana (shoulder stand), and Virabhadrasana (Warrior) are found to be very effective for strengthening core muscles. They are the most effective poses to build core strength and flexibility to the core muscles. The study suggests that sports and fitness trainers should include these yoga exercises in their programs to strengthen core muscles.
The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus
The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.
The Benefits of Mountain Climbing in the Physical Well-Being of Young People
The aim of this study is the identification of the goods and the consequences it brings up the mountain climbing to the youth, how mountain climbing influences in physical activity and the health of young people. Taken to study 37 young people aged 18-30 years, 25 males and 12 females. The selection was made at random and voluntary. Subjects were not professionals but amateurs climbing in the mountain. They were informed and instructed for the test to be carried out. The ascent was made in January 2016 in the Mount of Gjallica in Kukës, Albania, the height of the mountain is 2489 m above sea level. Backpack for each subject weighing 32 kg. Time of ascent, attitude and descent was 6 days. In 22 males, 2 of them did not afford the ascent on the first day and went back. Of the 12 women, 5 of them withdrew on the first day. During the descent on day six, 20 males 7 of them had minor injuries, three with serious injuries. While a total of 7 women, 4 of them had minor injuries and one with serious injuries. Most of the men and women who deal with physical activity throughout life faced the light and were not injured, and the rest that were not dealt with physical activity were more injured. Lack of experience and knowledge was one of the causes of injuries. The subjects had anxiety all the time, uncertainty and fear of avalanches of snow and difficult terrain.
Psychological Response to Injury: The Impact of Gender, Type of sport and Training Duration
This study investigated the psychological responses to injury of athletes. The psychological responses were examined in terms of gender, sport type and duration of training. Participants comprised a purposive sample of 377 athletes (age = 20.1+1.59 yrs., males = 66.8%, females = 33.2%) who had experienced injuries during competition or training in the past 12 months. Pencil and paper questionnaire was used to gather data relevant to demographics (gender, sport type, type of injury and degree of injury). The psychological responses to injury inventory consisted of 25 items was adopted to assess the responses from athletes. The inventory comprised of five sub-scales with five items each. (‘devastation’, ‘dispirited’, ‘reorganization’, ‘attempts to rationalize’ and ‘isolation’). For sport involvement, majority of the athletes (74.8%) were from team and mixed sport categories. The athletes trained 6.79+2.41 hours/week (males 6.79+2.6, females 6.60+2.1 h/week) and were moderately injured (53.3%) involving muscle injuries (53.1%) and ligament injuries (33.2%). Analysis of psychological response sub-scales showed that male athletes were less devastated when injured as compared to females (t=1.99, p
Contribution of Upper Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Performance
Tennis serve is characterized as one of the most prominent techniques pertaining to the success of winning a point. The study was aimed to explore the contributions of the upper body kinematics on the tennis performance during Davis Cup (Oceania Group). Four Indian International tennis players who participated in the Davis Cup held at Indore, India were inducted as the subjects for this study, with mean age 27 ± 4.79 Years, mean weight 186 ± 6.03 cm, mean weight 81.25 ± 7.41kg, respectively. The tennis serve was bifurcated into three phases viz, preparatory phase, force generation phase and follow through phase. The kinematic data for the study was recorded through the high speed canon camcorder having a shuttle speed of 1/2000, at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The data was analysed with the motion analysis software. The descriptive statistics and F-test was employed through SPSS version 17.0 for the determination of the undertaken kinematic parameters of the study, and was computed at a 0.05 level of significance with 46 degrees of freedom. Mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient also employed to find out the relationship among the upper body kinematic parameter and performance. In the preparatory phase, the analysis revealed that no significant difference exists among the kinematic parameters of the players on the performance. However, in force generation phase, wrist velocity (r= 0.47), torso velocity (r= -0.53), racket velocity r= 0.60), and in follow through phase, torso acceleration r= 0.43), elbow angle (r= -0.48) play a significant role on the performance of the tennis serve. Therefore, players should ponder upon the velocities of the above segments at the time of preparation for the competitions.
A Quantitative and Exploratory Study of the Changing Ideals and Challenges Involving Modern Olympic Movement
Since inception of the modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens (Greece), it has undergone a paradigm shift over a period of more than a century. It originated with the purpose of inculcating physical and moral qualities, sense of aesthetics, ethical and spiritual value and educating young people, through the spread of philosophy of amateurism which is free from vices of racial discrimination, any country’s domination, corruption, doping menace and political interference. Now, it has metamorphosed into the arena where only professionalism matters and has got reduced to the show of strength for countries analogous to the cold war. Rather than spirit of sports, economics of sports is more relevant underpinning. Changes in medal tally over a period of time and its correlation with the changing geo-political structure have been evaluated quantitatively using regression analyses, which have yielded statistically significant relationship among variables. The present study also tries to explore this shift in Olympic spirit through historical approach, using books, thesis, dissertations, articles, related documents. The present study will help evaluate the Olympic ideals with modern perspective and the need to replace or reinstall the same in order to nurture and rejuvenate the modern Olympic movement.
Inclusive Practices in Physical Education: A Survey of Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy in the Context of Teachers' Training
Inclusive physical education and an inclusive educational approach in German schools have received much attention in recent years due to the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities proposals, which came into force in Germany in 2009. The aim of inclusive PE is to include children with disabilities and able bodied children, based on the idea, that all children should attend school together. While PE mostly took place in a heterogeneous environment, introducing children with all kinds of disabilities posed more challenges to the teachers, when children with disabilities were included. Therefore it is important that the educational approach should include pre-service teachers’ (PST) self-efficacy for and their attitudes towards inclusive practices. The PSTs’ self-efficacy for inclusive practices is one of the strongest predictors of the success of the inclusion reforms introduced in 2009, in order to improve PSTs’ ability to handle these very new challenges. PE stands out because the very nature of sport involves the body which means that all children, especially those with special needs should be treated in an appropriate manner. Up till now, it has been mostly English-speaking countries that have been assessed for inclusive practices in PE. Due to the lack of research in Germany, there is a strong need to question PSTs’ prepared-ness. This paper presents results from the 2016 survey conducted on around 100 PSTs by the German University of Sports in Cologne and opens up new directions within PSTs’ education, concerning their attitudes and self-efficacy towards inclusive PE. These new aspects will be included in the construction of new learning and teaching tools to improve pre-service teachers’ education for inclusive Physical Education.
Comparative Study of Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique in Patients with Upper Trapezius Spasm
Relevance: This qualitative study will educate the clinician in putting into practice the advanced method of movement science in restoring the function. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique and myofascial release technique on range of motion, neck function and pain in patients with upper trapezius spasm. Methods/Analysis: The study was approved by the institutional Human Research and Ethics committee. This study included sixty patients of age group between 20 to 55 years with upper trapezius spasm. Patients were randomly divided into two groups receiving Active Release Technique (Group A) and Myofascial Release Technique (Group B). The patients were treated for 1 week and three outcome measures ROM, pain and functional level were measured using Goniometer, Visual analog scale(VAS), Neck disability Index Questionnaire(NDI) respectively. Paired Sample 't' test was used to compare the differences of pre and post intervention values of Cervical Range of motion, Neck disability Index, Visual analog scale of Group A and Group B. Independent't' test was used to compare the differences between two groups in terms of improvement in cervical range of motion, decrease in visual analogue scale(VAS), decrease in Neck disability index score. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant improvements in cervical ROM, reduction in pain and in NDI scores. However, mean change in Cervical flexion, cervical extension, right side flexion, left side flexion, right side rotation, left side rotation, pain, neck disability level showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0. 05)) in the patients who received Active Release Technique as compared to Myofascial release technique. Discussion and conclusions: In present study, the average improvement immediately post intervention is significantly greater as compared to before treatment but there is even more improvement after seven sessions as compared to single session. Hence, this proves that several sessions of Manual techniques are necessary to produce clinically relevant results. Active release technique help to reduce the pain threshold by removing adhesion and promote normal tissue extensibility. The act of tensioning and compressing the affected tissue both with digital contact and through the active movement performed by the patient can be a plausible mechanism for tissue healing in this study. This study concluded that both Active Release Technique (ART) and Myofascial release technique (MFR) are equally effective in managing upper trapezius muscle spasm, but more improvement can be achieved by Active Release Technique (ART). Impact and Implications: Active Release Technique can be adopted as mainstay of treatment approach in treating trapezius spasm for faster relief and improving the functional status.
A Test to Express Diagnostic Cohesion of Football Team
We proposed to assess the cohesion of a football team by its subject-goal and subject-value unity according to the A. V. Petrovsky theory. Goal unity was measured by the degree of compliance of the priority targets for various players in the team. Values were estimated by the coincidence of the ideas about a perfect football player. On the basis of the provisional diagnosis of the six teams we had made the lists of goals and values. The tests were piloted on 35 football teams. The results allowed not only to compare quantitatively the cohesion of the different teams, but also to identify subgroups within the team.
Psychological Compatibility of Football Players According to Success Achievement and Failure Avoidance Motivation
The study analyzed the relationship between the homogeneity-heterogeneity of players in a football team and their efficiency. Compatible players were examined in terms of level of socio-psychological development of the team for which they act. It was shown that in teams of high level of socio-psychological development more compatible were athletes with different levels of failure avoidance motivation. But in low-level teams – bucking the trend. The homogeneity of success achievement motivation was not a factor in the effectiveness of the football team.
Optimising Participation in Physical Activity Research for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities
Background and Aim: Engagement with physical activity (PA) research is poor among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), particularly, from residential homes. The aim of this study was to better understand the reasons for poor participation in PA research by asking managers of ID residential homes, adults with ID and their carers. Methods: A convenient sample consisting of 23 individuals from two local authorities, UK including a group of ID residential home managers, adults with ID and their support staff. Procedures: A) Series of questions to understand the willingness of care home managers (n=6) to allow their residents participate in PA research; B) Willingness of Adults with ID (n=11) and their support workers (n=6) to accept 7-days accelerometer monitoring and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version (IPAQ-s) as PA measures. The IPAQ-s was administered by the researcher. Results: A) Five out of six managers said that the burden of wearing accelerometer for seven days was too high for the people they support given that the majority of them may not be able to express their wishes and also, they said they would be unwilling to act as proxy respondents for the same reason. Additionally, they cited time pressure, and reluctance to invest time into the research paperwork as they are often understaffed as reasons for non-participation. B) All the 11 individuals with ID completed the IPAQ-s in contrast to only three out of the 11 that accepted accelerometer, however, one of them was deemed inappropriate to wear it. Reasons for not accepting accelerometers included statements from participants of: ‘too expensive’, ‘too heavy’, ‘uncomfortable’, and two people said that they wouldn’t want to wear it for more than one day. All the adults with ID (11) and their support workers (6) provided information about their physical activity levels through the IPAQ-s. Conclusions: Care home managers are a barrier to research participation. However, adults with ID would be happy for the IPAQ-s as a PA measure, but less so for the 7-days accelerometer monitoring. In order to improve participation in this population, the choice of PA measure is considered important. Moreover, there is a need for studies exploring how to better engage ID residential home managers in PA research.
Correlation between Sprint Performance and Vertical Jump Height in Elite Female Football Players
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and vertical jump performance in elite female football players. Twenty four professional female football players (age, 18.6±3.1 years; height, 168.3±6.3 cm, body mass 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±SD) were tested for 30-m sprint time, 10-m sprint time and vertical countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jumps height. Participants performed three countermovement jumps and three squat jumps for maximal height on a force platform. Mean values of three trials were used in statistical analysis. The displacement of center of mass (COM) during flight phase (e.g. jump height) was calculated using the vertical velocity of the COM at the moment of take-off. 30-m and 10-m sprint time were measured using OptoGait optical system. The best of three trials were used for analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between 30-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.85, r = -0.79 respectively), between 10-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.73, r = -0.8 respectively), and step frequency was significantly related to CMJ peak power (r = -0.57). Our study indicates that there is strong correlation between sprint and jump performance in elite female football players, thus vertical jump test can be considered as a good sprint and agility predictor in female football.
Correlation between Dynamic Knee Valgus with Isometric Hip External Rotators Strength during Single Leg Landing
The excessive frontal plane motion of the lower extremity during sports activities is thought to be a contributing factor to many traumatic and overuse injuries of the knee joint, little is known about the biomechanical factors that contribute to this loading pattern. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between hip external rotators isometric strength and the value of frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) during single leg landing tasks in normal male subjects. Methods: One hundred (male) subjects free from lower extremity injuries for at least six months ago participated in this study. Their mean age was (23.25 ± 2.88) years, mean weight was (74.76 ± 13.54) (Kg), mean height was (174.23 ± 6.56) (Cm). The knee frontal plane projection angle was measured by digital video camera using single leg landing task. Hip external rotators isometric strength were assessed by portable hand held dynamometer. Muscle strength had been normalized to the body weight to obtain more accurate measurements. Results: The results demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between hip external rotators isometric strength and the value of FPPA during single leg landing tasks in normal male subjects. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is no relationship between hip external rotators isometric strength and the value of FPPA during functional activities in normal male subjects.
Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education
In this period of economic problem, nations are looking for avenues to improve their economy, preserve their environment and socio-political environment, educational institutions are not left out as there is the need for them to increase their economy and preserve their socio political environment. Sports is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to sports participation. A total of 1025 students were purposively selected from all the five schools in the College. A questionnaire which has a reliability coefficient of 0.71 was used for data collection. Data collected were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. Findings showed that facilities, funds and lectures schedule were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities should be provided by the Lagos State government.
Association between Physical Composition, Swimming Performance and Somatotype of Male Competitive Swimmers of Age Group 10-13 Years
Body fat % lean body mass and body type play vital role in sports performance. A sports person who is having optional body composition can show its performance flawlessly whereas other who is not physical fit may be more prone to injury. Competitive swimming is an association of plethora of aspects like morphological, physiological, biochemical, biomechanical and psychological. The primary key of the present research is to examine the correlation among selected morphological dimensions such as height, weight, body fat%, lean body mass, somatotype and swimming performance. The present study also focused to investigate by potential deficiencies if any and to find out remedial measures to curb the training stresses. Thirty (age group 10-14 years) swimmers undergoing training under skilled and professional coaches were selected in the present study. The morphological variables and performance criterion like 50 meter swimming time and speed were calculated by using standard training methodology. Correlation coefficient among body composition, somatotype and performance variables were assessed by using standard statistical package SPSS. Mean height, weight, fat% and lean body mass of the present group is 150.97±8.68 cm, 44.0±9.34 kg., 15.97±4.42 % and 37.10±8.77 kg respectively. Somatotype of the young swimmers of this research is revealed ectomorphic mesomorph. The analysis of the results Illustrated that swimming performance is significantly correlated (p
Impact of Yogic Exercise on Cardiovascular Function on Selected College Students of High Altitude
The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of yogic exercise on cardiovascular exercises on selected college students of high altitude. The research was conducted on college students of high altitude in Shimla for their cardiovascular function [Blood Pressure (BP), VO2 Max (TLC) and Pulse Rate (PR)] in respect to yogic exercise. Total 139 students were randomly selected from Himachal University colleges in Shimla. The study was conducted in three phases. The subjects were identified in the first phase of research program then further in next phase they were physiologically tested, and yogic exercise battery was operated in different time frame. The entire subjects were treated with three months yogic exercise. The entire lot of students were again evaluated physiologically [(Cardiovascular measurement: Blood Pressure (BP), VO2 Max (TLC) and Pulse Rate (PR)] with standard equipments. The statistical analyses of the variance (PR, BP (SBP & DBP) and TLC) were done. The result reveals that there was a significant difference in TLC; whereas there was no significant difference in PR. For BP statistical analysis suggests no significant difference were formed. Result showed that the BP of the participants were more inclined towards normal standard BP i.e. 120-80 mmHg.
Correlation Analysis between Physical Fitness Norm and Cardio-Pulmonary Signals under Graded Exercise and Recovery
Physical fitness is the adaptability of the body to physical work and the environment, and is generally known to include cardiopulmonary-fitness, muscular-fitness, body flexibility, and body composition. This paper is aimed to study the ventilatory and cardiovascular activity under various exercise intensities for subjects at distinct ends of cardiopulmonary fitness norm. Three graded upright biking exercises, light, moderate, and vigorous exercise, were designed for subjects at distinct ends of cardiopulmonary fitness norm from their physical education classes. The participants in the experiments were 9, 9, and 11 subjects in the top 20%, middle 20%, and bottom 20%, respectively, among all freshmen of the Feng Chia University in the academic year of 2015. All participants were requested to perform 5 minutes of upright biking exercise to attain 50%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum heart rate (HRmax) during the light, moderate, and vigorous exercise experiment, respectively, and 5 minutes of recovery following each graded exercise. The cardiovascular and ventilatory signals, including breathing frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and ECG signals were recorded during rest, exercise, and recovery periods. The physiological signals of three groups were analyzed based on their recovery, recovery rate, and percentage variation from rest. Selected time domain parameters, SDNN and RMSSD, were computed and spectral analysis was performed to study the hear rate variability from collected ECG signals. The comparison studies were performed to examine the correlations between physical fitness norm and cardio-pulmonary signals during graded exercises and exercise recovery. No significant difference was found among three groups with VT during all levels of exercise intensity and recovery. The top 20% group was found to have better performance in heart recovery (HRR), frequency recovery rate (fRR) and percentage variation from rest (Δf) during the recovery period of vigorous exercise. The top 20% group was also found to achieve lower mean arterial pressure MAP only at rest but showed no significant difference during graded exercises and recovery periods. In time-domain analysis of HRV, the top 20% group again seemed to have better recovery rate and less variation in terms of SDNN during recovery period of light and vigorous exercises. Most assessed frequency domain parameters changed significantly during the experiment (p
Physical Activity, Exercise and Physical Fitness in Different Generation
‘Physical activity’, ‘exercise’, and ‘physical fitness’ are terms that describe different concepts. However, they are often confused with one another, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This paper proposes definitions to distinguish them. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, Conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical fitness is a set of attributes that are either health- or skill-related. The degree to which people have these attributes can be measured with specific tests. These definitions are offered as an interpretational framework for comparing studies that relate physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness to health. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Regular moderate intensity physical activity – such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports – has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity will decrease the risk of a hip or vertebral fracture and help control weight. Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. In these guidelines, physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.
A Study of Competition Anxiety among Male and Female Volleyball Players of Gujarat
Sports Competition Anxiety test (SCAT) constructed and standardized by Martens was Administrated on 30 National level (15 male, 15 female) Volleyball players of Gujarat. The age of subjects ranged between 19 to 22 years. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of Anxiety between male and female national level Volleyball players of Gujarat. Statistical analysis has been done by T-test and the significance of the result was seen on 0.05 level. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference found in mean difference among the male and the female National level Volleyball players in relation to sports competition anxiety.
Relationship between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Youth Soccer Players
The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and relatively easy to conduct anaerobic power tests such as Sergeant (SJ) and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), the flexibility Sit&Reach test (S&R) and Hexagon Agility (HA) test in twenty youth soccer players, aged 14 years. Players completed YYIR1 and other performance tests [(SJ), (SBJ] in two consecutive days. The mean YYIR1 distances for the players was 1454 ± 420 m. Peak Anaerobic Power (PAPw) was calculated using SJ (cm) scores. The mean PAPw was 2966,83w. Spearman’s correlation test results revealed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between HA and YYIR1 tests (r = -0.72, p=0.000) and no significant correlation was found between anaerobic power tests and YYIR1. In conclusion, as a test to measure player’s intermittent aerobic capacity YYIR1 test and anaerobic power test results have not showed significant correlation. Altough the YYIR1 test has been used in talent identification, anaerobic qualifications of player’s should be assessed using designated performance tests.
Analyzing the Effects of Kaatsu Training on Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength in Comparison to Classic Strength Training
Muscle hypertrophy occurs in response to strength training. The effects of classic strength training (CST) using %20-50 of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) on muscle hypertrophy are limited. Several studies stated that Kaatsu type of strength training using %20-50 of 1RM can increase muscle hypertrophy and strength efficiently. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Kaatsu training protocol on hypertrophy an strength of biceps muscle in comparison to CST (%80 of 1RM) in 8 weeks. Twenty healty male subjects (mean age 18-22 yr) were randomly assigned as experimental (EXP) (n:10) and control (CON) (n:10) groups. The EXP group performed Kaatsu biceps exercises (%50 of 1RM), three times per week for 8 weeks while wearing a pneumatic cuff to restrict blood flow on randomly selected arm and performed CST using %80 1RM on the other arm during same session. Biceps curl 1RM, Biceps Curl isokinetic torque (60&240 deg/sec) biceps cross sectional area were assessed. EXP group post test statistical analysis showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between Kaatsu and CST training protocols. EXP group`s Kaatsu and CST trained arm test results showed significant difference (p>0.05) between CON group. In conclusion low intensity (%50 of 1RM) Kaatsu training proven to be effective to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength similar to CST (%80 of 1RM).
Motivation to Ride in the Hotter 'N Hell Hundred Bicycling Event
The purpose of this study was to identify motivation to participate in the Hotter ‘n Hell Hundred (HHH) bicycling event, and the participants’ demographics, health risk factors, and preparation to ride in the event. A convenience sample of adults pre-registered for non-competitive cycling events (N = 7,472) were requested to complete a survey. Of these, 2,645 (35%) responded. Questions identified the participants’ demographics, preparation, previous experience with HHH, and motives for riding. The HHH attracted riders of all ages (18-80), genders, ethnicities, and educational levels. The majority were males, 40-59 years old, married, college graduates, and identified themselves as non-Hispanic whites. The majority (68%) reported no existing medical conditions, and were normal weight (70%), although 52% had been overweight or obese in the past. Preparation to ride in the HHH varied from riding more than five times a week for the last year, to riding 1-2 times per week one month before the event. Most (93%) had ridden in the HHH an average of 5 times. Motivations to ride included: personal challenge (75%); to experience the HHH ride (57%); a chance to ride with family/friends/coworkers (52%); improving health (47%); fun (33%); challenge by others (15%); part of a weight loss plan (11%); training for another event (10%); and raising money for a cause (2%). The motivation to participate appeared to move from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation as age increased. Exploration of the exercise habits and motivations of older adults (70+) is suggested by this study.
Homophily in Youth Athletics: Sociodemographics, Group Cohesion, and the Psychology of Performance in Sport
Whether it’s a kitchen staff or a law firm, many groups tend to have homogenous characteristics of race, gender, interests, and goals. Social groups are not typically random samples of the population and will usually have common identifiers. According to Blau, age, sex, and education all play salient roles in shaping relationships within members of society. So if there is some degree of homogeneity within groups, the question arises whether this is beneficial or harmful to a group’s effectiveness. There has been much disagreement in the scientific community as to whether the presence of homophily benefits or hinders an athletic team's cohesiveness. For this paper, a comparative study of research of soccer case studies that followed various, youth players was studied against examinations of the effects that such a culture has on athletes. The case studies were used as evidence to determine what kind of homophily existed within the soccer camps. One case study followed several European developmental clubs such as Bayern Munich and Barcelona. Another study followed eight different players, four of each gender, implementing a similar method of interviewing, observing, and questioning. The individual and team goals of each athlete were reviewed to see which teams and players were ego-oriented and which were team-oriented. Additionally, there had been little research done on the relationship between homophily and how it applies to the sport community, suggesting the need to develop this neglected problem in applied psychology. This paper argues that the benefits of an egalitarian culture and stronger relations with people of a similar socio-demographic outweigh the liabilities of cohesion like being stereotyped and a lack of network outside the group as produced by homophily in athletic competition.
A Study of Effect of Yoga on Choice Visula Reaction Time of Soccer Players
The objective of the study was to study the effectiveness of common yoga protocol on reaction time (choice visual reaction time, measured in milliseconds/seconds) of male football players in the age group of 16 to 21 years. The 40 boys were measured initially on parameters of years of experience, level of participation. They were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control and experimental. CVRT for both the groups was measured on day-1 and post intervention (common yoga protocol here) was measured after 45 days of training to the experimental group after they had finished with their regular fitness and soccer skill training. One way ANOVA (Univariate analysis) and Independent t-test using SPSS 23 statistical package were applied to get and analyze the results. The experimental yoga protocol group showed a significant reduction in CVRT, whereas the insignificant difference in reaction times was observed for control group after 45 days. The effect size was more than 52% for CVRT indicating that the effect of treatment was large. Power of the study was also found to be high (> .80). There was a significant difference after 45 days of yoga protocol in choice visual reaction time of experimental group (p = .000), t (21.93) = 6.410, p = .000 (two-tailed). The null hypothesis (that there would be no difference in reaction times of control and experimental groups) was rejected. Where p< .05. Therefore alternate hypothesis was accepted.
Effect of Hill Interval Training on VO₂ Max among Filed Hockey Players
The purpose of the study was to evaluate and find out the effect of Hill interval training on VO₂ MAX among field Hockey players. Thirty male field hockey players were selected from LNIPE, Guwahati who were studied in B.P.Ed course. The selected subjects were aged between 18 to 23 years. The VO₂ MAX was calculated and they were divided into two group. One group (N=15) considered as control group that did not participated in any special training apart from regular scheduled/curriculum and another group (N=15) considered as an experimental group which underwent four week Hill Training program. The selected criterion variable such VO₂ Max was measured by the cooper 12min/run/walk test and scores was recorded in ml/kg/min. The subjects were tested on selected criterion variable such as VO₂ Max prior and immediately after the training program. The pretest and posttest data were evaluate by the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to find out the significance difference if any between the experimental and control group on selected criterion variable. The level of significance was set at 0.05 level of confidence. After applied ANCOVA it was revealed that there was a significant different among the experimental and control group on VO₂ Max. Finally it was concluded that 4 week of Hill interval training effect the VO₂ max performance of field hockey players.
Investigation of the Effects of Aerobic Exercise Programs on Hematological Parameters of Sedentary People
Background: A variety of studies warn that sedentary lifestyles can contribute to many preventable causes of death. This study was taken to determine the effects of two types of aerobic training programs on erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), platelets and hematocrit of sedentary people (N=60) with age group 20 to 30 years. Methods: All the subjects were randomly divided into three groups i.e. two experiments groups (aerobic dance & cardio fitness) and control group. Each group having 10 male and 10 females. Experimental groups undergone 60 minutes of training 5 times a week for 12 weeks whereas the control group did not participate in any training program except their daily routine. The aerobic dance group was chosen to perform exercise like step –touch, side-to-side, V-step and hand and body movements, etc. The cardio fitness group was chosen to perform exercises with modern fitness equipment like treadmill, elliptical trainer, stationary bike and rowing machine. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale developed by Gunner Borg was used to monitor the intensity of the workout. Aerobic programs were encompassed of low-impact (0- 4 week & perceived exertion from 6 to 12), moderate-impact (4-8 week and perceived exertion from 12 to 16) and high-impact (8- 12 week & perceived exertion from 16 to 20). Results: To test the effectiveness of training programs paired t-test was used and significant difference (p0.05). Paired t-test also showed that no effect of time was seen in the control group in all the cases (p>0.05). Further analysis of covariance was used to know which program was more effective and it was seen that F value was found significant in the case of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, platelets, and hematocrit as their associated p-value (p
Bronchospasm Analysis Following the Implementation of a Program of Maximum Aerobic Exercise in Active Men
Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a transitory condition of airflow obstruction that is associated with physical activities. It is noted that a high ventilation can lead to increase the heat and either reduce the moisture in airways resistance of trachea. Also the cause of patho-physiological mechanism is exercise-induced bronchospasm. Accordingly studying some parameters of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1) among active people seems quintessential. The aim of this study was to analyze bronchospasm following the implementation of a program of maximum aerobic exercise in active men at Chamran University of Ahwaz. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, the population consisted of all students at Chamran University. Among from 55 participants, 15 ones were randomly selected as the experimental group. In this study, the size of the maximum oxygen consumption was initially measured, and then, based on the maximum oxygen consumed, the active individuals were identified. After 5 minutes warm-up, Strand treadmill exercise test was taken (one session) and pulmonary parameters were measured at both pre and post-tests (spirometer). After data normalization using KS and non-normality of the data, the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the data. The significance level for all statistical surveys was considered p≤0/05. RESULTS: The results showed that the ventilation factors and bronchospasm (FVC, FEV1) in the pre-test and post-test resulted in no significant difference among the active people (p≥0/05). Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, it appears that pulmonary indices in active individuals increased after aerobic test. The increase in this indicator in active people is due to increased volume and elasticity of the lungs as well. In other words, pulmonary index is affected by rib muscles. It is considered that progress over respiratory muscle strength and endurance has raised to FEV1 in the active causes.
Effects of Bee Propolis Supplementation on the T Lymphocytes Count following Endurance Running among Recreational Athletes
The effects of nutritional supplementation for improving immune system have been investigated. However, to date, little is known about the effectiveness of bee propolis supplementation on immune system in male recreational runners. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of bee propolis supplementation on neutrophils, and T lymphocytes count following prolonged running. Eleven healthy male participants (Age: 21.0±1.5 years; BMI: 22.3±2.5 kg.m-2) were recruited in this study. Participants performed preliminary tests which include a submaximal test, a maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) test and a familiarisation test. After that, participants performed the first exercise trial) 90 min running at 60% VO2max) after an overnight fast. This was followed by 4 weeks consumption of bee propolis where they had to consume 2 tablets per day (500 mg of bee propolis per tablet). After the 4 weeks of consumption period, participants performed the second exercise trial which was carried out as similar as to the first exercise trial. During each trial, blood samples were collected pre-, during, post-, and 1 h post-exercise. This study discovered that T lymphocytes count was not significantly different between both trials. In addition, endurance exercise significantly increased T lymphocyte cells count and during the first 30 min of exercise but then decreased until the end of exercise and continues to decrease 1 h post-exercise. As a conclusion, there were no significant effects of bee propolis supplementation on the immune cells count following prolonged exercise.
Vague Gravitational Forces in the Conventional Swimming Pools
The swimmers while swim in the swimming pools are not facing identical and constant environment, where they could perform according to their intrinsic worth or merits. Theses swimmers are facing vague gravitational forces, which prove advantageous to some and disadvantageous for others depending upon their swimming lane positions in the conventional swimming pools while swimming. This study is based on scientific principles of gravitational physics and the behavior of gravitational forces in the water bodies. These gravitational forces become vague because they affect the swimmers in different degrees of magnitude depending upon the swimmers position in the conventional swimming pools. How to remove theses vague gravitational forces, which affect the swimmers while swimming in the swimming pools? Why to change from ETSP (Existing Type Swimming Pools) to NTSP (New Type Swimming Pools. There is definitely a need to change so that all the swimmers could be given equal opportunity against these vague gravitational forces while competing in the swimming pools. This study gives the clear idea to understand these vague gravitational forces which affect the performance of some swimmers in the swimming pools. These VGF (vague gravitational forces) in the swimming pools are not equally advantageous or disadvantageous to the swimmers, because the VGF have an effect upon the movement of the swimmer with myriad degrees of magnitude. The effect of these VGF varies differently from one swimmer to another during swimming competition. These gravitational forces which are vague in nature thus influence the capability of the swimmer and give wrong results in selection while choosing the champions. So to provide equal opportunity and constant environment within the waters of swimming pool, we have to shift from ETSP (Existing Type Swimming Pool) to NTSP (New Type Swimming Pool). The NTSP (New Type Swimming Pool) will provide equal opportunity and constant environment to the swimmers while competing with their counterparts.