International Science Index

International Journal of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Challenges in Young Children in Dubai: A Qualitative Study, 2016
Background: Autism poses a particularly large public health challenge and an inspiring lifelong challenge for many families; it is a lifelong challenge of a different kind. Purpose: Therefore, it is important to understand what the key challenges are and how to improve the lives of children who are affected with autism in Dubai. Method: In order to carry out this research we have used a qualitative methodology. We performed structured in–depth interviews and focus groups with mental health professionals working at: Al Jalila hospital (AJH), Dubai Autism Centre (DAC), Dubai Rehabilitation Centre for Disabilities, Latifa hospital, Private Sector Healthcare (PSH). In addition to that, we conducted quantitative approach to estimate ASD prevalence or incidence data due to lack of registry. ASD estimates are based on research from national and international documents. This approach was applied to increase the validity of the findings by using a variety of data collection techniques in order to explore issues that might not be highlighted through one method alone. Key findings: Autism is the most common of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Dubai Autism Center estimates it affects 1 in 146 births (0.68%). If we apply these estimates to the total number of births in Dubai for 2014, it is predicted there would be approximately 199 children (of which 58 were Nationals and 141 were Non–Nationals) suffering from autism at some stage. 16.4% of children (through their families) seek help for ASD assessment between the age group 6–18+. It is critical to understand and address factors for seeking late–stage diagnosis, as ASD can be diagnosed much earlier and how many of these later presenters are actually diagnosed with ASD. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a public health concern in Dubai. Families do not consult GPs for early diagnosis for a variety of reasons including cultural reasons. Recommendations: Effective school health strategies is needed and implemented by nurses who are qualified and experienced in identifying children with ASD. There is a need for the DAC to identify and develop a closer link with neurologists specializing in Autism, to work alongside and for referrals. Autism can be attributed to many factors, some of those are neurological. Currently, when families need their child to see a neurologist they have to go independently and search through the many that are available in Dubai and who are not necessarily specialists in Autism. Training of GP’s to aid early diagnosis of Autism and increase awareness. Since not all GP’s are trained to make such assessments increasing awareness about where to send families for a complete assessment and the necessary support. There is an urgent need for an adult autism center for when the children leave the safe environment of the school at 18 years. These individuals require a day center or suitable job training/placements where appropriate. There is a need for further studies to cover the needs of people with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
An Analysis of the Correlation Coefficient of the Factors Involved in Local Content
Local content has become the focus of attention by many industrial companies in developing countries. These countries implement different policies to increase the share of local content in their industries. Iran’s automotive industry has become a key industry because of the type of the product cycle and its utilizing many supporting industries, thus playing an important role in the country’s economy. Therefore, the factors influencing the product Local Content for automakers seems necessary. In this study, first, a conceptual model is proposed regarding an assessment of the theoretical framework for the research on factors influencing automotive product local content in the developing countries. Then, analyzing two private automakers, namely Bahman Group and Pars Khodro, the correlation between factors influencing parts local content in Iranian private automakers is evaluated. The results indicate that product innovation in the foreign contracting companies and production time with regard to the product life cycle are among the important factors influencing Local Content in the two Iranian private automakers.
Effects of an Educative Model in Socially Responsible Behavior and Other Psychological Variables
The eudaimonical perspective in philosophy and psychology suggests that a good life is closely related to developing oneself in order to contribute to the well-being and happiness of other people and of the world as a whole. Educational psychology can help to this through the design and validation of educative models. Since 2004, the University of Concepcion and other Chilean universities apply an educative model to train socially responsible professionals, people that in the exercise of their profession contribute to generating equity for the development and assess the impacts of their decisions, opting for those that serve the common good. The main aim is to identify if a relationship exists between achieved learning, attitudes toward social responsibility, self-attribution of socially responsible behavior, value type, professional behavior observed and, participation in a specific model to train socially responsible professionals. The Achieved Learning and Attitudes Toward Social Responsibility Questionnaire, interview with employers and Schwartz Values Survey and Self-attribution of Socially Responsible Behavior Questionnaire are applied to 500 students and graduates, divided into experimental and control group (trained and not trained under the educative model) in order to identify the professional behavior of the graduates. The results show that students and graduates perceive cognitive, affective and behavioral learning, with significant differences in attitudes toward social responsibility and self-attribution of socially responsible behavior, between experimental and control. There are also differences in employers' perceptions about the professional practice of those who were trained under the model and those who were not. It is concluded that the educative model has impacts on the learning of SR and that it is necessary to identify mediating variables of the model effect.
A Phenomenological Inquiry on the Spirituality of Young Filipino Gay Men Living with HIV
Spirituality plays a central role among patients dealing with HIV mostly on the LGBT community in the world today particularly in the Philippines. This study seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in LGBT psychology particularly on gay men living with HIV and their spiritual aspect. In line with this, the researchers aim to describe (1) how young Filipino gay men relate their experiences as an HIV-positive in relations to their self and significant others (partners, family, friends and community); (2) how young Filipino gay men make sense of their experiences as an HIV-positive, in connection to God, this also includes their meaning making and purpose of their life experiences. To recruit participants, the researchers will employ purposive sampling using snowball technique, and conduct a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcriptions of the participant will be analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.
The Effects of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and Other Related Interventions on the Psychological Recovery of Earthquake Survivors
This study examined the effects of critical incident stress debriefing and other related interventions on the psychological recovery of earthquake survivors. It is a mixed experimental and qualitative study using post-test only control group design and focus group discussion. After the conduct of critical incident stress debriefing activities and other related interventions in the form of counseling and psychiatric treatment to the survivors of a 6.9 magnitude earthquake, a post-test measuring the level of psychological recovery was given to randomized participants categorized as intervention and control groups. Using the traumatic assessment and belief scale as instrument for the quantitative aspect in order to gauge recovery in the psychological need areas of safety, trust, esteem, intimacy and control, the findings are the following: Intervention group participants have relatively better adjustment along the five psychological need areas compared to the control group participants; there is no significant difference in the psychological recovery among female and male participants of the invention and control groups and; there are significant differences between intervention and control groups in the psychological need areas of self-safety, self-trust, other-trust, self-esteem, and self-intimacy. Using a guided interview for the qualitative data, the themes derived are the following. Safety: The world is an unsafe place to live because of the calamities. Trust: Trust and dependence are anchored on the family. Esteem: Participants are having confused self-worth. Intimacy: Participants are thriving on attachment with their family. Control: Participants have unaltered desire to help but feeling restricted because of personal and logistical concerns.As an outcome of the study a Psychosocial Care Program for Individuals, Families and Communities Affected by Disaster and Trauma was proposed.
Effect of Culture and Parenting Styles on Ambivalent Sexism in Mexican Population
Family, and parents in particular, are the main agents of socialization of children since they transmit values, beliefs, and cultural norms based on their own guidelines, so that children acquire the knowledge on how to interact with others in terms of the interaction with their parents. One way to measure socialization parenting is through parenting styles. Parenting styles are the set of parental behaviors that have a direct effect on the development of specific behaviors of children. The ideal parenting style depends on the cultural characteristics where people develop. In Mexico, the hierarchical structure of the family is built on a model in which men are dominant over women and their power is legitimized. This research explores the effect of parenting styles and the culture of the ambivalent sexism in the Mexican population. 150 men and 150 women participated. The instrument of individualism-collectivism was used to measure culture; participants also answered the instrument of ambivalent sexism and the parenting styles questionnaire. Regression analyses were done using sexism as the dependent variable and individualism-collectivism and parenting styles as independent variables. In addition, an analysis of variance between parental styles and gender of the participants was performed. The results indicate that the permissive style and authoritarian style are predictors of ambivalent sexism and higher levels of collectivism predict higher levels of sexism in both men and women. It is also found that parents tend to use authoritarian parenting style with women and permissive style with males. These results confirm the findings of other studies that indicate that parenting is an important variable that influences the interaction of adults. On the other hand, the effect of collectivism on sexism may be related to the fact that gender Mexican rules are rigid and for people with higher levels of collectivism, the social rules are more important than individual interests. In conclusion, these results indicate that both culture and parenting styles contribute to the maintenance of the status quo and prejudice towards women. Therefore, it is necessary to create proposals that break with this cultural paradigm and to further develop democratic styles of parenting with the aim of reducing prejudice and the legitimization of gender roles.
Effect of 8-OH-DPAT on the Behavioral Indicators of Stress and on the Number of Astrocytes after Exposure to Chronic Stress
Prolonged exposure to stress can cause disorders related with dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex such as generalized anxiety and depression. These disorders involve alterations in neurotransmitter systems; the serotonergic system—a target of the drugs that are commonly used as a treatment to these disorders—is one of them. Recent studies suggest that 5-HT1A receptors play a pivotal role in the serotonergic system regulation and in stress responses. In the same way, there is increasing evidence that astrocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 8-OH-DPAT, a selective agonist of 5-HT1A receptors, in the behavioral signs of anxiety and anhedonia as well as in the number of astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after exposure to chronic stress. They used 50 male Wistar rats of 250-350 grams housed in standard laboratory conditions and treated in accordance with the ethical standards of use and care of laboratory animals. A protocol of chronic unpredictable stress was used for 10 consecutive days during which the presentation of stressors such as motion restriction, water deprivation, wet bed, among others, were used. 40 rats were subjected to the stress protocol and then were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats each, which were administered 8-OH-DPAT (Tocris, USA) intraperitoneally with saline as vehicle in doses 0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg respectively. Another 10 rats were not subjected to the stress protocol or the drug. Subsequently, all the rats were measured in an open field test, a forced swimming test, sucrose consume, and a cero maze test. At the end of this procedure, the animals were sacrificed, the brain was removed and the tissue of the mPFC (Bregma: 4.20, 3.70, 2.70, 2.20) was processed in immunofluorescence staining for astrocytes (Anti-GFAP antibody - astrocyte maker, ABCAM). Statistically significant differences were found in the behavioral tests of all groups, showing that the stress group with saline administration had more indicators of anxiety and anhedonia than the control group and the groups with administration of 8-OH-DPAT. Also, a dose dependent effect of 8-OH-DPAT was found on the number of astrocytes in the mPFC. The results show that 8-OH-DPAT can modulate the effect of stress in both behavioral and anatomical level. Also they indicate that 5-HT1A receptors and astrocytes play an important role in the stress response and may modulate the therapeutic effect of serotonergic drugs, so they should be explored as a fundamental part in the treatment of symptoms of stress and in the understanding of the mechanisms of stress responses.
The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Manager's Psychophysiological Activity during a Performance-Review Discussion
Emotional intelligence (EI) consists of skills for monitoring own emotions and emotions of others, skills for discriminating different emotions, and skills for using this information in thinking and actions. EI enhances, for example, work outcomes and organizational climate. We suggest that the role and manifestations of EI should also be studied in real leadership situations, especially during the emotional, social interaction. Leadership is essentially a process to influence others for reaching a certain goal. This influencing happens by managerial processes and computer-mediated communication (e.g. e-mail) but also by face-to-face, where facial expressions have a significant role in conveying emotional information. Persons with high EI are typically perceived more positively, and they have better social skills. We hypothesize, that during social interaction high EI enhances the ability to detect other’s emotional state and controlling own emotional expressions. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leader’s experience less stress during social leadership situations, since they have better skills in dealing with the related emotional work. Thus the high-EI leaders would be more able to enjoy these situations, but also be more efficient in choosing appropriate expressions for building constructive dialogue. We suggest, that emotionally intelligent leaders show more positive emotional expressions than low-EI leaders. To study these hypotheses we observed performance review discussions of 40 leaders (24 female) with 78 (45 female) of their followers. Each leader held a discussion with two followers. Psychophysiological methods were chosen because they provide objective and continuous data from the whole duration of the discussions. We recorded sweating of the hands (electrodermal activation) by electrodes placed to the fingers of the non-dominant hand to assess the stress-related physiological arousal of the leaders. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded from cheek (zygomaticus major, activated during e.g. smiling) and periocular (orbicularis oculi, activated during smiling) muscles using electrode pairs placed on the left side of the face. Leader’s trait EI was measured with a 360 questionnaire, filled by each leader’s followers, peers, managers and by themselves. High-EI leaders had less sweating of the hands (p = .007) than the low-EI leaders. It is thus suggested that the high-EI leaders experienced less physiological stress during the discussions. Also, high scores in the factor “Using of emotions” were related to more facial muscle activation indicating positive emotional expressions (cheek muscle: p = .048; periocular muscle: p = .076, almost statistically significant). The results imply that emotionally intelligent managers are positively relaxed during s social leadership situations such as a performance review discussion. The current study also highlights the importance of EI in face-to-face social interaction, given the central role facial expressions have in interaction situations. The study also offers new insight to the biological basis of trait EI. It is suggested that the identification, forming, and intelligently using of facial expressions are skills that could be trained during leadership development courses.
Psychopathological, Temperamental, and Characteristic Factors in Adults with Remaining Childhood Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms
Objectives: To investigate differences in psychopathological, temperamental, and characteristic factors between young adults with and without persistent ADHD symptoms. Methods: 429 university students were divided into three groups: persistent adult ADHD (n = 53), only childhood ADHD (n = 56), and healthy controls (n = 320). The Korean Adult ADHD Scale, Korean Wender-Utah Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Korean Young Internet Addiction Scale, and Temperament Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R; based on Cloninger’s seven-factor model of temperament and character) were used to evaluate psychopathological factors. Results: Participants with persistent adult ADHD symptoms had significantly higher levels of childhood ADHD, depression, anxiety, and Internet addiction symptoms than did the only-childhood ADHD and control groups. The adult ADHD group also had significantly higher tendencies toward novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, as well as low self-directedness and cooperativeness. Conclusion: Results suggest that persistent ADHD is associated with several unfavourable psychopathological, temperamental, and characteristic factors. Therefore, thorough evaluation of these factors for childhood ADHD could help predict prognoses and provide treatment plans for preventing persistent ADHD into adulthood.
Smoking, Bullying and Being Bullied among Secondary School Students: Their Associations with Attachment Styles
Risk behaviours among secondary school students are common and show an increasing trend over the years. Existing attachment styles between the students and their parents influence the psychosocial development of this group of population hence contributing to the adoption of risk behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between three risk behaviours; smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students and their styles of attachment to parents in a district in Malaysia. Using multistage simple random sampling, a cross-sectional study was designed with the level of significance, α set at 0.05. The validated self-administered Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and Youth Risk Behaviours Surveillance Questionnaire focusing on smoking and bullying were utilized. Secondary school students aged 13 to 17 years old from ten schools in the district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia were sampled. Prevalence of smoking was 15.8%, bullying 8.5% and being bully victims 19.0%. It was found that male gender was a significant risk factor for smoking (p
A Comparative Study of Spirituality and Psychological Well-Being among Senior Secondary Male and Female Students
Nowadays most of the researchers focused on adolescents that were the most crucial and critical stage of their life’s. In this study, we want to know to what extent does spirituality and psychological well-being plays a vital role in adolescent’s life, and to what extent both were correlated. The first objective of the present study is to examine difference between the mean scores of male and female students on spirituality and Psychological well-being. The second objective of this study is to find out the relationship between Spirituality and Psychological Well-being. The participants of the present study comprised N=100 students who are further divided n=50 male and n=50 female and they were from senior secondary schools and recruited from Metropolitan cities, their age ranged from 13 to 18 years. Data were collected through Spirituality questionnaire and Psychological well-being questionnaire. Results showed that there was insignificant difference between male and female students on spirituality and significant difference between male and female students on psychological well-being. Relationship showed that there was positive correlation between spirituality and psychological well-being. Result was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 software. Insignificant difference was found between males and females students on Spirituality and significant difference showed between males and females students on Psychological well-being. There was positive correlation between Spirituality and psychological well-being.
Post Disaster Community Support with Family Manga Exhibition as a Tool for Intervention and Outreach: Reflection on the past Five Years from a Narrative Perspective
On March 11, 2011 the Great East Japan Disaster caused widespread damage. In the aftermath, we searched for ways to provide long-term support and enhanced resilience to affected areas, arriving at the Family Manga Exhibition: an art collection portraying family life. It became a tool for community outreach and intervention, and we implemented support programs by collaborating with local support agencies. This 10-year project has been touring through four prefectures in Tohoku since the disaster struck, bearing witness to the effects of disaster and recovery alike. At this five-year mark, we use a narrative perspective to present our findings and reflect on post-disaster community support. It is important to note that the exhibition’s art does not directly depict the disaster; it portrays stories of anonymous families instead. They stimulate viewers’ memories and remind them of their own family stories. We analyzed viewers' oral and written responses to the exhibition and discovered that family manga as an art form enhances the viewer’s sense of connection to people close to them. We also discovered that the viewers gained more universal perspective on their own situations by viewing the exhibition. Manga, we found, offered a certain safety by enabling the viewers to control how they would interact with the exhibition's content and themes. In addition, the purpose of the project was for us to become witnesses of the disaster and recovery. Supporters of the project became active listeners, functioning as interactive agents who helped forming stories. Voices of the story tellers and the listeners layered upon each other and, as a result, converged into brand new narratives. The essence of traumatic experience is ‘the sense of overwhelming powerlessness and isolation’. When we redefine trauma as ‘broken relationships’, we can say that ‘enhancing relationships’ and ‘weaving relationships’ are what strengthen our resilience. This project used narrative as a modality to fortify the resilience of people involved by enhancing the social capital of bonding, bridging, and linking. The manga exhibition functioned as a tool to achieve this end, suggesting that similar applications are possible. Programs we held in-between manga exhibitions also served to enhance narratives of resiliency in the regions. However, we will save that story for another time. We hope to continue collecting the precious and polyphonic voices of people to present as stories born out of the Great East Japan Disaster. This effort extends beyond the immediately affected area by helping us prepare our resilience for future disasters.
E-Government Continuance Intention of Media Psychology: Some Insight from Psychographic Characteristics
Psychographics is a psychological study of values, attitudes and interests and it is used mostly in prediction, opinion research, and social research. This study predicts the influence of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition on e-government acceptance among Malaysian citizen. Survey responses of 543 e-government users have been validated and analyzed by means of covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling. The findings indicate that e-government acceptance among Malaysian citizen is mainly influenced by performance expectancy (β = 0.66, t = 11.53, p < 0.01) and social influence. (β = 0.20, t = 4.23, p < 0.01). Surprisingly, there is no significant effect of facilitating condition and effort expectancy on e-government continuance intention (β = 0.01, t = 0.27, p > 0.05; β = -0.01, t = -0.40, p > 0.05). This study offers government and vendors a frame of reference to analyze citizen’s situation before initiating innovations. In case of Malaysian e-government technology, adoption strategies should be built around fostering level of citizens’ technological expectation and social influence on e-government usage.
The Implications of the Lacanian Concept of 'Lalangue' for Lacanian Theory and Clinical Practice
This research we want to discuss the implications of the concept of ‘lalangue’ and illustrate its importance for lacanian psychoanalysis and its clinical practice. We will look at this concept through an in depth reading of Lacan’s later seminars, his lectures at the North-American universities and his study on James Joyce. We will illustrate the importance of this concept with a case study from a clinical practice. We will argue that the introduction of ‘lalangue’ has several theoretical and clinical implications that will radically change Lacans teachings. We will illustrate the distinction between language and lalangue. Language serves communication, but this is not the case with lalangue. We will claim that there is jouissance in language and will approach this by introducing the concept of ‘lalangue’. We will ask ourselves what the effect will be of this distinction and how we can use this in clinical practice. The concept of ‘lalangue’ will introduce a new way of thinking about the unconscious. It will force us to no longer view the unconscious as Symbolic, but as Imaginary or Real. Another implication will be the approach on the symptom, no longer approaching it as a formation of the unconscious. It will be renamed as ‘sinthome’, as function of the real. Last of all it will force us to rethink the lacanian interpretation and how we direct the treatment. The implications on a clinical level will be how we think about the lacanian interpretation and the direction of the treatment. We will no longer focus on language and meaning, but focus on jouissance and the ways in which the subject deals with this. We will illustrate this importance with a clinical case study. To summarize, the concept of lalangue forces us to radically rethink lacanian psychoanalysis, with major implications on a theoretical and clinical level. It introduces new concepts such as the real unconscious and the sinthome. It will also make us rethink the way we work as lacanian psychoanalysts.
Violence against Women: A Study on the Aggressors' Profile
The violence against women is a complex phenomenon and result of a social, cultural, political and religious construction, based on the differences between the sexes. Those differences are felt, mainly, because of the patriarchal system still present that ended in naturalize and legitimate the asymmetry of power. The violence against women is crime and a violation of the victims’ human rights, besides it persists as an impediment in the conquest of the gender equality. The Maria da Penha law was created as a protective measure for women that were victims of violence and consequently for the punishment of the aggressor. The research entitled Violence against women: a study on the aggressors’ profile aims to investigate the socioeconomic profile of aggressors who practice violence against women. Analysis of police inquiries established by the Police Station of Defense of the Woman of Assis city, by formal authorization of the justice, in the period of 2013 to 2015. For the evaluation of the results will be used the content analysis and the theoretical referential of Psychoanalysis. The bibliographic investigation and partial analysis of the inquiries demonstrated that the violence against women is reproduced by the society and the aggressor, in most cases, it is a member of the own family, mainly the current or former-spouse. In about 70% of the cases the victim is assaulted physically, but the psychological violence is considered the worst aggression form by women. There is a contrast among the number of victims who already admitted have suffered some type of violence earlier by the same author – about 60% - and the number of victims who has registered the occurrence before – about 20%. Contrary what common sense says, most of the victims doesn’t depend financially on aggressors and the minority of them is a user of alcoholic beverages and/or drugs. About 70% of aggressors were older than the victims, 84% worked formally and most part was white and had the primary school. The aggressors often use the discourse of denial in his testimony or try to justify his act like the blame was of the victim. It is believed in the interaction of several factors that can influence him to commit the abuse, including psychological, personal and sociocultural factors. One hypothesis is that the aggressor has a violence history in the origin family. However, little is known about that individuals’ profile due the fact that the studies on the subject are recent and still scarce. After being judged, being condemned or no, there is usually no one care plan to the attention of those aggressors. The research is in process, but note the importance of studying the aggressor’s characteristics and the reasons that took him to commit such violence, making possible, hereafter, the implementation of an appropriate treatment to prevent and reduce and/or eradicate the aggressions, as well the creation of programs and actions that enable communication and understanding concerning the theme.
The Psychologist’s Role of a Reference Center for Social Assistance in a Case of Violence and Child Sexual Abuse in Northeastern Brazil
The Reference Centres for Social Assistance (CRAS, inicials in Portuguese) are part of the Brazilian public policy of the Unified Social Assistance Programs (SUAS, inicials in Portuguese) and meet a number of cases coming from other services of social assistance network, through spontaneous demands or active searches. The CRAS team in Recife -Brazil, took the case from a complaint of child sexual abuse committed by the mother of the child (girl, 7, daughter of an incestuous relationship between this mother the older brother of the child). The complaint was made by the child's aunt and was received by the service staff. Five interventions were carried out with the child, which both led to the possibility of investigating the abuse, as a speech room for children and their families. These interventions were conducted at the child's school and at the relative's home of the complainant. At school, the child and her colleagues watched a video and hear a song about the prevention of child abuse. In order to ascertain a diagnostic hypothesis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the child played with the mobile application "My Talking Angela." Were also read to the child, at school, on different occasions, children's books dealing with issues related to family and fear - every developed intervention, the child was asked to draw about fear and her understanding of family. After the interventions and case discussions as a team, we concluded that the child did not present symptoms related to PTSD; she used to fantasize her life story and she lets not be touched by people who have little approach as colleagues or teacher; she reproduced in drawing the conversation she was having with us and had the habit of covering up pictures when she heard questions about the abuse. From this clinical case, we consider important to note that the objective of the professional intervention's at CRAS, in situations like this, is to attempt to resolve the problem promptly and not develop a clinical work outlined in traditional perspective, using the instruments the Social Assistance Network offers and making referrals to other competent authorities, such as the Public Ministry to be established and enforced the final protective actions. In this case we reviewed, the Guardianship Council was asked to begin the process of child custody transfer to his uncle by the Brazilian Public Ministry. The child's mother was sent to a CPC (Center for Psychosocial Care), due to have been diagnosed with a psychopathology. The child has participated in NGO activities to live minimally with the mother, just before going to live in São Paulo at her uncle's house, which is currently holding her guard.
A Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Adaptation in Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Harm in Older Adults
It has long been assumed that personality disorders (PD) originate in adolescence or early adulthood and that the maladaptive behaviors significantly attenuate over time. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 supports early onset of PD and views the pattern of behaviors as enduring and stable. The premise of this study is that PD may not always begin early in life, that behaviors may change over the lifespan, and that current treatment modalities may be beneficial in seniors. Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) exhibited earlier in life may, in older adults, be manifested in less overt high-risk behaviors but by refusal to take medication and get necessary medical treatment. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is a well-known treatment modality for teaching emotional regulation and distress tolerance and thus reducing self-injurious behaviors yet very little has been studied about SIB and treatment in older adults. The population for this study was older adults, with a history of SIB, a PD, and depression and/or anxiety. Participants learned an adapted version of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) as developed by DBT trained therapists. The results provided clinical potentials for the efficacy of DBT to reduce SIB, decrease depression and anxiety in the older adult population.
The Impact Of Social Capital On Creativity Of Employee With The Mediating Role Of Knowledge Management
This study conducted with the aim of impact the knowledge management mediated in the relationship between social capital and staff creative. This study was applied based on goal and descriptive-survey based on data collection methods. Research population was 154 people of staffs in education organization in Saveh city that by chocran formula and simple random sampling method 110 people considered as sample size. Data analysis using structural equation modeling with AMOS software approach was conducted in two parts measurement and structural model. In first part, Technical characteristics of the questionnaire was checked and the necessary amendments were made, in the second part, t coefficients were used to examine the hypotheses. Result showed that social capital had positive and significant impact on creativity of staff organization and also finding showed that KM had role of mediator in the relationship between these two variables.
Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users
The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.
The Differences and Similarities in Neurocognitive Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Depression
Depression is the most common mood disorder experienced by patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with poorer cognitive functional outcomes. However, in some cases, similar cognitive impairments can also be observed in depression. There is not enough information about the features of the cognitive deficit in patients with TBI in relation to patients with depression. TBI patients without depressive symptoms (TBInD, n25), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (TBID, n31), and 28 patients with bipolar II disorder (BP) were included in the study. There were no significant differences in participants in respect to age, handedness and educational level. The patients clinical status was determined by using Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All participants completed a cognitive battery (The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A)). Additionally, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) was used to assess visuospatial construction abilities and visual memory, as well as planning and organizational skills. Compared to BP, TBInD and TBID showed a significant impairments in visuomotor abilities, verbal and visual memory. There were no significant differences between BP and TBID groups in working memory, speed of information processing, problem solving. Interference effect (cognitive inhibition) was significantly greater in TBInD and TBID compared to BP. Memory bias towards mood-related information in BP and TBID was greater in comparison with TBInD. These results suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with impairments some executive functions in combination at decrease of speed of information processing.
Developing a South African Model of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation for Adults After Acquired Brain Injury
Objectives: The aim of this poster presentation is to examine cultural contextual understandings of ABI that could aid conceptualisation and the development of a model for neuropsychological rehabilitation in this context. Characteristics of the South African context that make the implementation of international NR practices difficult include socioeconomic disparities, sociocultural influences, lack of accessibility to healthcare services, and poverty and unemployment levels. NR services in the developed world have characteristics such as low staff-to-patient ratios and interdisciplinary teams that make them unsuitable for the resource-constrained South African context. Methods: An exploratory, descriptive research design based on programme theory is being followed in the development of a South African model of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Results: The incorporation of African traditional understandings and practices, such as beliefs about ancestral spirits in the etiology of Acquired Brain Injury are relevant to the planning of rehabilitation interventions. Community-Based Rehabilitation workers, psychoeducation, and cooperation among the different systemic levels especially in rural settings is also needed to improve services offered to patients living with ABI. Conclusions. The preliminary model demonstrated in this poster will attempt to build on the strengths of South African communities, incorporating valuable evidence from international models to serve those affected with brain injury in this context.
Neural Correlates of Diminished Humor Comprehension in Schizophrenia: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
The present study aimed at evaluation of neural correlates of humor comprehension impairments observed in schizophrenia. To investigate the nature of this deficit in schizophrenia and to localize cortical areas involved in humor processing we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study included chronic schizophrenia outpatients (SCH; n=20), and sex, age and education level matched healthy controls (n=20). The task consisted of 60 stories (setup) of which 20 had funny, 20 nonsensical and 20 neutral (not funny) punchlines. After the punchlines were presented, the participants were asked to indicate whether the story was comprehensible (yes/no) and how funny it was (1-9 Likert-type scale). fMRI was performed on a 3T scanner (Magnetom Skyra, Siemens) using 32-channel head coil. Three contrasts in accordance with the three stages of humor processing were analyzed in both groups: abstract vs neutral stories - incongruity detection; funny vs abstract - incongruity resolution; funny vs neutral - elaboration. Additionally, parametric modulation analysis was performed using both subjective ratings separately in order to further differentiate the areas involved in incongruity resolution processing. Statistical analysis for behavioral data used U Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni’s correction, fMRI data analysis utilized whole-brain voxel-wise t-tests with 10-voxel extent threshold and with Family Wise Error (FWE) correction at alpha = 0.05, or uncorrected at alpha = 0.001. Between group comparisons revealed that the SCH subjects had attenuated activation in: the right superior temporal gyrus in case of irresolvable incongruity processing of nonsensical puns (nonsensical > neutral); the left medial frontal gyrus in case of incongruity resolution processing of funny puns (funny > nonsensical) and the interhemispheric ACC in case of elaboration of funny puns (funny > neutral). Additionally, the SCH group revealed weaker activation during funniness ratings in the left ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, the medial frontal gyrus, the angular and the supramarginal gyrus, and the right temporal pole. In comprehension ratings the SCH group showed suppressed activity in the left superior and medial frontal gyri. Interestingly, these differences were accompanied by protraction of time in both types of rating responses in the SCH group, a lower level of comprehension for funny punchlines and a higher funniness for absurd punchlines. Presented results indicate that, in comparison to healthy controls, schizophrenia is characterized by difficulties in humor processing revealed by longer reaction times, impairments of understanding jokes and finding nonsensical punchlines more funny. This is accompanied by attenuated brain activations, especially in the left fronto-parietal and the right temporal cortices. Disturbances of the humor processing seem to be impaired at the all three stages of the humor comprehension process, from incongruity detection, through its resolution to elaboration. The neural correlates revealed diminished neural activity of the schizophrenia brain, as compared with the control group. The study was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant no 2014/13/B/HS6/03091).
A Study of Children's Perceptions and Responses to Open and Closed Questions
This paper will produce data to support, and discussion around, methods of improving the experience of children being interviewed in and out of court. While the main aim of an investigative interview is to elicit an account of the child's experiences, it is also important that the interview process be as pleasant and non-threatening as possible. Adult-child interactions are typically characterised by specific, closed questions, and while children may be more familiar with this style of questioning, best-practice interview technique recommends the use of open-ended questions to maximise detail and accuracy. The aim of the study is therefore to analyse the perceptions that school-aged children (age chosen to replicate the age of a large proportion of children involved in the justice system and with the language ability to justify their choice) have towards two different interview styles – closed and open-ended questioning. Approximately 80 school children will be recruited from schools in Adelaide, Australia. 40 students will be attending year 2-3 and 40 attending year 5-6. All participants will individually watch a 2 minute film about a girl who drops a bucket of water on a man’s head after which they will participate in a 5 minute distractor task. They will then progress through three 7 minute interviews. For the first two interviews, one interviewer will ask closed questions and one interviewer will ask open questions. The order and interviewer will be counterbalanced across the participants. The third interview will address the content (e.g. which lady was better at finding out what happened?), quantity (e.g. which lady talked the most?), length, (which interview was longer?) and attention (e.g. which lady was most interested in what you were saying or which interview was more fun?). Children will respond by pointing a photo of one of the interviewers (quantitative data) and then asked to justify their response (qualitative data). All three interviewers are experienced paediatric professionals (psychology and speech pathology), trained in question types, and will moderate rapport and non-verbal interaction. Results of this study will contribute to the discussion around children’s accuracy, willingness and experience in forensic interview settings.
Trial of Interview Techniques for Adults with Limited Expressive Language
This project will address how current investigative interview techniques can be improved to accommodate one particular challenge observed in sub-groups of people with moderate to severe limitations in expressive language. The rationale underlying the current research is that while most individuals with a disability and very young children are capable of providing reliable and accurate testimony when questioned using best-practice techniques (e.g. preparing adequately for the interview, using open-ended questions, and allowing frequent breaks), these techniques are not sufficient to elicit detail about offences when the person has limited expressive language (e.g., 2-5 word sentences). People with limited expressive language do not appear to have the ability to structure their own narrative detail in response to the type of broad questions (i.e., Tell me everything that happened....”) that are recommended in current interview protocols. The presumption is that additional supports may be required in relation to the types of non-verbal prompts and non-leading questions that need to be asked. The aim of the research is to determine the effect of different interview techniques on the number of accurate and inaccurate details provided, the nature of the details recalled, and the structure and coherence of the interviewee’s account. Ultimately, this research will inform interviewer training in interviewing witnesses with a disability. Approximately 80 adults with limited expressive language will be recruited from Adelaide. Participants will watch a 2-minute film (the flowerpot film), take a 5-minute break and then engage in an interview about the film. The flowerpot film has been used extensively and depicts a lady dropping a bucket of water on a man's head. It contains a variety of details for individuals to recall. The interview with the adults will take approximately 30 minutes and be video-recorded. The interview will include (in a counterbalanced and controlled manner) several key strategies. Some limited psychometric testing may be required to explain any individual variation in response to the effect of specific techniques. The results of this research will address the current gap in knowledge on how to question people with limited expressive language and inform questioning protocols for use in and out of court.
Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Identity and Value Systems: Reflecting on the Values-Crafting Process in a Multi-National Organisation within the Entertainment Industry
The knowledge economy demands an organisation that is flexible, adaptable and able to navigate the ever-changing environment. This fast-paced environment has however resulted in an organizational landscape that battles to engage employees, retain top talent and create meaningful work for its members. In the knowledge economy, the concept of organizational identity has become an important consideration as organisations aim to create a compelling and inviting narrative for all stakeholders across the business value chain. Values are often seen as the behavioural framework that informs organisational culture, yet often values are perceived to be inauthentic and misaligned with the true character or identity of the organisation and how it is perceived by different role players. This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between organisational identity and value systems by focusing on a case study within a multi-national organisation within South Africa. The paper evaluates the implementation of mixed methods OD approach that gathered collaborative inputs of more than 4500 employees who participated in crafting the newly established values system post a retrenchment process. The paper will evaluate the relationship between the newly crafted value system and the identity of the organisation as described by various internal and external stakeholders in order to explore potential alignment, dissonance and key insights into understanding the relationship between organisational identity and values. The case study will be reported from the perspective of an OD consultant who supported the transformation process over a period of 8 months and aims to provide key insights into values and identity alignment within knowledge economy organisations. From a practical perspective, the paper provides insights into how values are created, perceived and lived within organisations and the impact on employee engagement and culture.
Patterns of Change in Perception of Imagined and Physically Induced Pain over the Course of Repeated Thermal Stimulations
Background: Individuals frequently show habituation to repeated noxious heat. However, given the defensive function of human pain processing, it is reasonable to assume that individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous studies have, however, been addressed to this assumption. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated how healthy human individuals imagine the intensity of repeated thermal pain stimulations, and compared this with the intensity ratings given after physically induced thermal pain trials. Methods: Healthy participants (N = 20) gave pain intensity ratings in two conditions: imagined and real thermal pain. In the real pain condition thermal pain stimuli of two intensities (minimal and moderate pain) were delivered in four consecutive trials. The duration of the peak temperature was 20s, and stimulation was always delivered to the same location. In each trial, participants rated the pain intensity twice, 5s and 15s after the onset of the peak temperature. In the imagined pain condition, participants were subjected to a reference pain stimulus and then asked to imagine and rate the same sequence of stimulations as in the induced pain condition. Results: Ratings of imagined pain and physically induced pain followed opposite courses over repeated stimulation: Ratings of imagined pain indicated sensitization whereas ratings for physically induced pain indicated habituation. The findings were similar for minimal and moderate pain intensities. Conclusions: The findings suggest that, rather than habituating to pain, healthy individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli.
Retrieval-Induced Forgetting Effects in Retrospective and Prospective Memory in Normal Aging: An Experimental Study
Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) refers to the phenomenon that selective retrieval of some information impairs memory for related, but not previously retrieved information. Despite age differences in retrieval-induced forgetting regarding retrospective memory being documented, this research aimed to highlight age differences in RIF of the prospective memory tasks for the first time. By using retrieval-practice paradigm, this study comparatively examined RIF effects in retrospective memory and event-based prospective memory in young and old adults. In this experimental study, a mixed factorial design with age group (Young, Old) as a between-subject variable, and memory type (Prospective, Retrospective) and item type (Practiced, Non-practiced) as within-subject variables was employed. Retrieval-induced forgetting was observed in the retrospective but not in the prospective memory task. Therefore, the results indicated that selective retrieval of past events led to suppression of other related past events in both age groups but not the suppression of memory for future intentions.
The Interface of Tradition and Modernity in Black South African Women's Experiences of Menstruation
Menstruation signifies the transition to biological sexual maturity and culture-bound values influence its meaning and experience for women. In South Africa there is a paucity of research specific to the topic of menstruation. This study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the experiences of menstruation among a group of women from the ama-Xhosa ethnic group, one of the largest ethnic groups in the country. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with ama-Xhosa woman (n= 15). Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The study found that traditional knowledge systems and cultural practices associated with menstruation including virginity testing and intonjane (female right of passage) still exist and impact on women’s subjective experiences. The study highlights the interface of tradition and modernity in the meanings ascribed to menstruation and women’s experiences of it.
Wellbeing Effects from Family Literacy Education: An Ecological Study
Background and significance: This paper describes the first use of community psychology theories to investigate family-focused literacy education programmes, enabling a wide range of wellbeing effects of such programmes to be identified for the first time. Evaluations of family literacy programmes usually focus on the economic advantage of gains in literacy skills. By identifying other effects on aspects of participants’ lives that are important to them, and how they occur, understanding of how such programmes contribute to wellbeing and social justice is augmented. Drawn from community psychology, an ecological systems-based, culturally adaptive framework for personal, relational and collective wellbeing illuminated outcomes of family literacy programmes that enhanced wellbeing and quality of life for adult participants, their families and their communities. All programmes, irrespective of their institutional location, could be similarly scrutinized. Methodology: The study traced the experiences of nineteen adult participants in four family-focused literacy programmes located in geographically and culturally different communities throughout New Zealand. A critical social constructionist paradigm framed this interpretive study. Participants were mainly Māori, Pacific islands, or European New Zealanders. Seventy-nine repeated conversational interviews were conducted over 18 months with the adult participants, programme staff and people who knew the participants well. Twelve participant observations of programme sessions were conducted, and programme documentation was reviewed. Latent theoretical thematic analysis of data drew on broad perspectives of literacy and ecological systems theory, network theory and holistic, integrative theories of wellbeing. Steps taken to co-construct meaning with participants included the repeated conversational interviews and participant checking of interview transcripts and section drafts. The researcher (this paper’s first author) followed methodological guidelines developed by indigenous peoples for non-indigenous researchers. Findings: The study found that the four family literacy programmes, differing in structure, content, aims and foci, nevertheless shared common principles and practices that reflected programme staff’s overarching concern for people’s wellbeing along with their desire to enhance literacy abilities. A human rights and strengths-based based view of people based on respect for diverse culturally based values and practices were evident in staff expression of their values and beliefs and in their practices. This enacted stance influenced the outcomes of programme participation for the adult participants, their families and their communities. Alongside the literacy and learning gains identified, participants experienced positive social and relational events and changes, affirmation and strengthening of their culturally based values, and affirmation and building of positive identity. Systemically, interconnectedness of programme effects with participants’ personal histories and circumstances; the flow on of effects to other aspects of people’s lives and to their families and communities; and the personalised character of the pathways people journeyed towards enhanced wellbeing were identified. Concluding statement: This paper demonstrates the critical contribution of community psychology to a fuller understanding of family-focused educational programme outcomes than has been previously attainable, the meaning of these broader outcomes to people in their lives, and their role in wellbeing and social justice.
Exploring the Influence of Role Models on the Career Development Process of Adolescents from a Low Income Community in South Africa
It is commonly known that role models can exercise a formative influence in the lives of individuals. While adolescents in low-income communities are faced with various career barriers, scholars contend that having a positive role model may influence their career decisions and overall life plans. Therefore, it is important to consider how role models influence personal and career decisions made by young people. This research study aimed to describe the manner in which role models influence the career development process of high school learners from a South African township. Following a qualitative research approach, this investigation examined the narratives of nine Grade 11 learners from Kayamandi, South Africa. Semi-structured individual interviews and one focus group interview were conducted to document the stories of these learners. Through thematic analysis, the study sought to identify who the learners chose as role model (s) and why, how the chosen role model (s) has played a significant role in the learners’ career and life plans, and how the learners have applied the attractive qualities of their chosen role model(s) to their overall career and life plans. Participants’ narratives were contextualized in relation to the tenets of the Social Cognitive Career Theory. Findings of the study suggest that role model influence, along with cultural values play a pivotal role in informing the decisions made by young people on how they choose their future careers, and on how role models influence their overall career and life plans.