International Science Index

International Journal of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Multi-Layer Mn-Doped SnO2 Thin Film for Multi-State Resistive Switching
Well self-assembled pure and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocubes were synthesized by interface thermodynamic method, which is ideal for highly homogeneous large scale thin film deposition on flexible substrates for various electric devices. Mn-doped SnO2 shows very good resistive switching with high On/Off ratio (over 103), endurance and retention characteristics. More important, the resistive state can be tuned by multi-layer fabrication by alternate pure SnO2 and Mn-doped SnO2 nanocube layer, which improved the memory capacity of resistive switching effectively. Thus, such a method provides transparent, multi-level resistive switching for next generation non-volatile memory applications.
Comparison of Existing Building Material Dose Models Aimed to Estimate Public Exposure from Fayalite Slag Based Inorganic Polymers
Currently a wide range of residues from NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)-processing industrial facilities, like metallurgical slags, fly and bottom ash, phosphogypsum and bauxite residue (so called NORM residues), are used as raw materials. These residues are incorporated in standard building materials, used as SCM (Supplementary Cementitious Materials) or used to produce IPs (Inorganic Polymers). These residues are known to be potentially rich in naturally occurring radionuclides with varying activity concentrations between different types of residues but also between different samples of the same type. From a radiation protection point of view, proper knowledge on the effective dose determined by NORM-containing building materials is of utmost importance. In order to identify building materials of concern from a radiological point of view, the European Commission introduced a screening index named ACI (Activity Concentration Index) in the new EU-BSS (Euratom Basic Safety Standards). The ACI value of 1 is linked to dose criterion of 1 mSv/y (as effective dose) and is based on the Markkanen room model. This index is based on a number of assumptions that are not all necessarily realistic, i.e. a room with all surfaces (walls, floor and ceiling) made of concrete with a density of 2350 kgm-3 and thickness of 0.2 m. Therefore the ACI is not able to take into account specific parameters -such as density and thickness- of other building materials. This could lead to an over- or underestimation of the effective dose. Other models have been developed but these are also based on concrete constructed rooms. To improve the assessment of public exposure to NORM-containing building materials, a more sample specific approach is developed based on the existing ISS (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) room model. This takes into account not only the typical density and thickness of the analysed building material but also, starting from the chemical composition, its specific attenuation coefficients calculated by ‘XCOM’ software and the subsequent build-up factors. The dose rate is calculated via the point-kernel integration taking into account all the sample specific parameters. This paper focuses on the comparison of the application results of different dose models, e.g. the Markkanen room model (ACI), the assessment scenarios of the technical guide RP (Radiation Protection) 122 and the new sample specific approach, on FSIPs (Fayalite Slag Inorganic Polymers).
Sonochemical Zinc Oxide and Layered Hydroxy Zinc Acetate Synthesis in Fenton-Like Reactions
Zinc acetate solution is sonicated at high power in water and in ethanol in the absence and presence of various peroxides. In the absence of peroxides, the products are zinc oxide and layered hydroxy zinc acetate in water and in ethanol, respectively. Layered basic zinc acetate are prepared for the first time using sonochemical methods. The addition of peroxides alters the reaction mechanisms. In water, insoluble peroxides produce zinc oxides while the water soluble peroxide, i.e.hydrogen peroxide, completely destroyed the structure and casted a doubt on the accepted peroxide initiated mechanism of reactions. In ethanol,peroxide addition caused the reaction mechanism to change and some oxide formation is observed. The reaction mechanism is sensitive to water/ethanol amounts as well as the peroxide to zinc ion mole ratio.Thin zinc oxide wafers (ca. 30 nm) with band gaps of 3.24 eV were obtained.
Efficiently Silicon Metasurfaces at Visible Light
The metasurfaces for beam deflecting with gradient silicon posts in the square lattices were fabricated on the thin film crystal silicon with quartz substrate. By using the crystals silicon with high refractive index and high transmission to control the phase over 2π coverage, we demonstrated the polarization independent beam deflecting at wavelength of 532nm with 45% transmission in experiment and 70% in simulation into the desired angle. This simulation efficiency is almost close to the TiO2 metasurfaces but has higher refractive index and lower aspect ratio to reduce fabrication complexity. The result can extend the application of silicon metalsurfaces from 700 nm to 500 nm hence open a new way to use metasurfaces efficiently in visible light regime.
Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles
Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.
Role of Interlayer Coupling for the Power Factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2
The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.
Thermal Conductivity and Optical Absorption of GaAsPN/GaP for Tandem Solar Cells: Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA)
Great efforts have been dedicated to obtain high quality of GaAsPN. The properties of GaAsPN have played a great part on the development of solar cells devices based in Si substrate. The incorporation of N in GaAsPN that having a band gap around of 1.7 eV is of special interest in view of growing in Si substrate. In fact, post-growth and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) could be an effective way to improve the quality of the layer. Then, the influence of growth conditions and post-growth annealing on optical and thermal parameters is considered. We have used Photothermal deflection spectroscopy PDS to investigate the impact of rapid thermal annealing on thermal and optical properties of GaAsPN. In fact, the principle of the PDS consists to illuminate the sample by a modulated monochromatic light beam. Then, the absorbed energy is converted into heat through the nonradiative recombination process. The generated thermal wave propagates into the sample and surrounding media creating a refractive-index gradient giving rise to the deflection of a laser probe beam skimming the sample surface. The incident light is assumed to be uniform and only the sample absorbs the light. In conclusion, the results are promising revealing an improvement in absorption coefficient and thermal conductivity.
Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Six-Lines Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles
Ferrihydrite is one of the distinct minerals in the family of oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of iron. It is a nanocrystalline material. It occurs naturally in different sediments, soil systems and also found in the core of ferritin, an iron storage protien. This material can also be synthesized by suitable chemical methods in laboratories. This is known as less crystalline Iron (III) Oxyhydroxide. Due to its poor crystallinity, there are very broad peaks in x-ray diffraction. Depending on the number of peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern, it is classified as two lines and six lines ferrihydrite. The average crystallite size for these two forms is found to be about 2nm to 5nm. The exact crystal structure of this system is still under debate. Out of these two forms, the six lines ferrihydrite is more ordered in comparison to two lines ferrihydrite. The magnetic behavior of two lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles is somewhat well studied. But the magnetic behavior of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles could not attract the attention of researchers much. This motivated us to work on the magnetic properties of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. In this work, we present synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of 5 nm six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope are used for structural characterization of this system. Magnetization measurements are performed to fit the data at different temperatures. Then the effect of magnetic moment distribution is also found. All these observations are discussed in detail.
Single Crystal Growth in Floating-Zone Method and Properties of Spin Ladders: Quantum Magnets
Materials in which the electrons are strongly correlated provide some of the most challenging and exciting problems in condensed matter physics today. After the discovery of high critical temperature superconductivity in layered or two-dimensional copper oxides, many physicists got attention in cuprates and it led to an upsurge of interest in the synthesis and physical properties of copper-oxide based material. The quest to understand superconducting mechanism in high-temperature cuprates, drew physicist’s attention to somewhat simpler compounds consisting of spin-chains or one-dimensional lattice of coupled spins. Low-dimensional quantum magnets are of huge contemporary interest in basic sciences as well emerging technologies such as quantum computing and quantum information theory, and heat management in microelectronic devices. Spin ladder is an example of quasi one-dimensional quantum magnets which provides a bridge between one and two dimensional materials. One of the examples of quasi one-dimensional spin-ladder compounds is Sr14Cu24O41, which exhibits a lot of interesting and exciting physical phenomena in low dimensional systems. Very recently, the ladder compound Sr14Cu24O41 was shown to exhibit long-distance quantum entanglement crucial to quantum information theory. Also, it is well known that hole-compensation in this material results in very high (metal-like) anisotropic thermal conductivity at room temperature. These observations suggest that Sr14Cu24O41 is a potential multifunctional material which invites further detailed investigations. To investigate these properties one must needs a large and high quality of single crystal. But these systems are showing incongruently melting behavior, which brings many difficulties to grow a large and quality of single crystals. Hence, we are using TSFZ (Travelling Solvent Floating Zone) method to grow the high quality of single crystals of the low dimensional magnets. Apart from this, it has unique crystal structure (alternating stacks of plane containing edge-sharing CuO2 chains, and the plane containing two-leg Cu2O3 ladder with intermediate Sr layers along the b- axis), which is also incommensurate in nature. It exhibits abundant physical phenomenon such as spin dimerization, crystallization of charge holes and charge density wave. The maximum focus of research so far involved in introducing defects on A-site (Sr). However, apart from the A-site (Sr) doping, there are only few studies in which the B-site (Cu) doping of polycrystalline Sr14Cu24O41 have been discussed and the reason behind this is the possibility of two doping sites for Cu (CuO2 chain and Cu2O3 ladder). Therefore, in our present work, the crystals (pristine and Cu-site doped) were grown by using TSFZ method by tuning the growth parameters. The Laue diffraction images, optical polarized microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images confirm the quality of the grown crystals. Here, we report the single crystal growth, magnetic and transport properties of Sr14Cu24O41 and its lightly doped variants (magnetic and non-magnetic) containing less than 1% of Co, Ni, Al and Zn impurities. Since, any real system will have some amount of weak disorder, our studies on these ladder compounds with controlled dilute disorder would be significant in the present context.
A Design Methodology to Support Eco-Design Implementation in Induction Hobs
Nowadays the European Ecodesign Directive has emerged as a new approach to integrate environmental concerns into the product design and related processes. Eco-design aims to minimize environmental impacts throughout the product life cycle, without compromising performances and costs. In addition, the recent eco-design directives require products increasingly eco-friendly and eco-efficient, preserving high-performances. It is very important for producers measuring performances, for electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens, and grills for household use and a low power consumption of appliances represents a powerful selling point, also in terms of eco-design requirements. The Ecodesign directive (Directive 125/2009 / EC) provides a clear framework about the sustainable design of products and it has been extended in 2009 to all energy-related products, or products with an impact on energy consumption during the use. In particular, the Regulation (EU) No 66/2014 establishes measures of eco-design of ovens, hobs and kitchen hoods and energy efficiency of a product has an environmental aspect in the use phase which is the most impactful in the life cycle. It is important that the product parameters and performances are not affected by eco-design requirements from a user’s point of view and the benefits of reducing energy consumption in the use phase should more than offset the possible environmental impact in the production stage. The European standard EN 60350-2 ‘Household electric cooking appliances - Part 2: Hobs - Methods for measuring performance’ regulates the measurement of energy consumption of induction hobs. Accurate measurements of cooking appliance performance are essential to help the industry to produce more energy efficient appliances. The development of eco-driven products requires eco-innovation and eco-design tools to support the sustainability improvement. The eco-design tools should be practical and focused on specific eco-objectives in order to be largely diffused. The scope of this paper is the development, implementation and testing of an innovative tool, which could be an improvement for the sustainable design of products. In particular, a prototypical software tool is developed in order to study the energy performances during the use phase, the most impactful from an environmental point of view. Furthermore, the proposed tool is focused on a multi-physic model which is able to simulate the operational phase of the product during the early conceptual design phase. A database collects all parameters useful to evaluate the energy performance related to the product. As a test case, it is considered the induction hob, a product which is characterized by a great efficiency but at the same time by a large consumption of electrical energy during the use phase. This tool also focused on fluid-dynamic and on electromagnetic simulations to investigate the performances of the induction hobs. The aims of the paper is the development of integrated tools and methodologies of virtual prototyping in the context of the Ecodesign. This tool could be a revolutionary instrument in the field of industrial engineering and it gives consideration to the environmental aspects of product design and focus on the eco-design of energy-related products, in order to achieve a reduced environmental impact.
On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations
This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.
Semigroups of Linear Transformations with Fixed Subspaces: Green's Relations, Ideals and Ranks
Let V be a vector space over a field and W a subspace of V. Let Fix(V,W) denote the set of all linear transformations on V with fix all elements in W. In this paper, we show that Fix(V,W) is a semigroup under the composition of maps and describe Green’s relations on this semigroup in terms of images, kernels and the dimensions of subspaces of the quotient space V/W where V/W = {v+W : v is an element in V} with v+W = {v+w : w is an element in W}. Let dim(U) denote the dimension of a vector space U and Vα = {vα : v is an element in V} where vα is an image of v under a linear transformation α. For any cardinal number a let a^'= min{b : b > a}. We also show that the ideals of Fix(V,W) are precisely the sets. Fix(r) ={α ∊ Fix(V,W) : dim(Vα/W) < r} where 1 ≤ r ≤ a' and a = dim(V/W). Moreover, we prove that if V is a finite-dimensional vector space over a finite field, then the rank of Fix(V,W) is 2 or 3 depends on the dimension of W.
Regularity and Maximal Congruence in Transformation Semigroups with Fixed Sets
An element a of a semigroup S is called left (right) regular if there exists x in S such that a=xa² (a=a²x) and said to be intra-regular if there exist u,v in such that a=ua²v. Let T(X) be the semigroup of all full transformations on a set X under the composition of maps. For a fixed nonempty subset Y of X, let Fix(X,Y)={α ™ T(X) : yα=y for all y ™ Y}, where yα is the image of y under α. Then Fix(X,Y) is a semigroup of full transformations on X which fix all elements in Y. Here, we characterize left regular, right regular and intra-regular elements of Fix(X,Y) which characterizations are shown as follows: For α ™ Fix(X,Y), (i) α is left regular if and only if Xα\Y = Xα²\Y, (ii) α is right regular if and only if πα = πα², (iii) α is intra-regular if and only if | Xα\Y | = | Xα²\Y | such that Xα = {xα : x ™ X} and πα = {xα⁻¹ : x ™ Xα} in which xα⁻¹ = {a ™ X : aα=x}. Moreover, those regularities are equivalent if Xα\Y is a finite set. In addition, we count the number of those elements of Fix(X,Y) when X is a finite set. Finally, we determine the maximal congruence ρ on Fix(X,Y) when X is finite and Y is a nonempty proper subset of X. If we let | X \Y | = n, then we obtain that ρ = (Fixn x Fixn) ∪ (H ε x H ε) where Fixn = {α ™ Fix(X,Y) : | Xα\Y | < n} and H ε is the group of units of Fix(X,Y). Furthermore, we show that the maximal congruence is unique.
Independence and Path Independence on Cayley Digraphs of Left Groups and Right Groups
A semigroup S is said to be a left (right) zero semigroup if S satisfies the equation xy=x (xy=y) for all x,y in S. In addition, the semigroup S is called a left (right) group if S is isomorphic to the direct product of a group and a left (right) zero semigroup. The Cayley digraph Cay(S,A) of a semigroup S with a connection set A is defined to be a digraph with the vertex set S and the arc set E(Cay(S,A))={(x,xa) | x∈S, a∈A} where A is any subset of S. All sets in this research are assumed to be finite. Let D be a digraph together with a vertex set V and an arc set E. Let u and v be two different vertices in V and I a nonempty subset of V. The vertices u and v are said to be independent if (u,v)∉E and (v,u)∉E. The set I is called an independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are independent. The independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of D. Moreover, the vertices u and v are said to be path independent if there is no dipath from u to v and there is no dipath from v to u. The set I is called a path independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are path independent. The path independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of a path independent set of D. In this research, we describe a lower bound and an upper bound of the independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups. Some examples corresponding to those bounds are illustrated here. Furthermore, the exact value of the path independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups are also presented.
Digital Image Correlation: Metrological Characterization in Mechanical Analysis
The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a newly developed optical technique that is spreading in all engineering sectors because it allows the non-destructive estimation of the entire surface deformation without any contact with the component under analysis. These characteristics make the DIC very appealing in all the cases the global deformation state is to be known without using strain gages, which are the most used measuring device. The DIC is applicable to any material subjected to distortion caused by either thermal or mechanical load, allowing to obtain high-definition mapping of displacements and deformations. That is why in the civil and the transportation industry, DIC is very useful for studying the behavior of metallic materials as well as of composite materials. DIC is also used in the medical field for the characterization of the local strain field of the vascular tissues surface subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. DIC can be carried out in the two dimension mode (2D DIC) if a single camera is used or in a three dimension mode (3D DIC) if two cameras are involved. Each point of the test surface framed by the cameras can be associated with a specific pixel of the image, and the coordinates of each point are calculated knowing the relative distance between the two cameras together with their orientation. In both arrangements, when a component is subjected to a load, several images related to different deformation states can be are acquired through the cameras. A specific software analyzes the images via the mutual correlation between the reference image (obtained without any applied load) and those acquired during the deformation giving the relative displacements. In this paper, a metrological characterization of the digital image correlation is performed on aluminum and composite targets both in static and dynamic loading conditions by comparison between DIC and strain gauges measures. In the static test, interesting results have been obtained thanks to an excellent agreement between the two measuring techniques. In addition, the deformation detected by the DIC is compliant with the result of a FEM simulation. In the dynamic test, the DIC was able to follow with a good accuracy the periodic deformation of the specimen giving results coherent with the ones given by FEM simulation. In both situations, it was seen that the DIC measurement accuracy depends on several parameters such as the optical focusing, the parameters chosen to perform the mutual correlation between the images and, finally, the reference points on image to be analyzed. In the future, the influence of these parameters will be studied, and a method to increase the accuracy of the measurements will be developed in accordance with the requirements of the industries especially of the aerospace one.
Variability of the X-Ray Sun during Descending Period of Solar Cycle 23
We have analyzed the time series of full disk integrated soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the solar corona during 2004 January 1 to 2009 December 31, covering the descending phase of solar cycle 23. We employed the daily X-ray index (DXI) derived from X-ray observations from the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission in four different energy bands: 4-5.5; 5.5-7.5 keV (SXR) and 15-20; 20-25 keV (HXR). The application of Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique to the DXI time series observed by the Silicium detector in the energy bands reveals several short and intermediate periodicities of the X-ray corona. The DXI explicitly show the periods of 13.6 days, 26.7 days, 128.5 days, 151 days, 180 days, 220 days, 270 days, 1.24 year and 1.54 year periods in SXR as well as in HXR energy bands. Although all periods are above 70% confidence level in all energy bands, they show strong power in HXR emission in comparison to SXR emission. These periods are distinctly clear in three bands but somehow not unambiguously clear in 5.5-7.5 keV band. This might be due to the presence of Ferrum and Ferrum/Niccolum line features, which frequently vary with small scale flares like micro-flares. The regular 27-day rotation and 13.5 day period of sunspots from the invisible side of the Sun are found stronger in HXR band relative to SXR band. However, flare activity Rieger periods (150 and 180 days) and near Rieger period 220 days are very strong in HXR emission which is very much expected. On the other hand, our current study reveals strong 270 day periodicity in SXR emission which may be connected with tachocline, similar to a fundamental rotation period of the Sun. The 1.24 year and 1.54 year periodicities, represented from the present research work, are well observable in both SXR as well as in HXR channels. These long-term periodicities must also have connection with tachocline and should be regarded as a consequence of variation in rotational modulation over long time scales. The 1.24 year and 1.54 year periods are also found great importance and significance in the life formation and it evolution on the Earth, and therefore they also have great astro-biological importance. We gratefully acknowledge support by the Indian Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP, the Centre is affiliated to the United Nations), Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) at Ahmedabad, India. This work has done under the supervision of Prof. Rajmal Jain and paper consist materials of pilot project and research part of the M. Tech program which was made during Space and Atmospheric Science Course.
X-Ray Energy Release in the Solar Eruptive Flare from 6th September 2012
X-ray emission accompanies various kinds of transient magnetic activities occurring in the solar atmosphere. Solar flares are one of these activities powered by the sudden (timescales of minutes to tens of minutes) release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. X-ray radiation emitted by solar flares can affect Earth's ionosphere as well as other planets ionosphere. In this work, we get an opportunity to understand the physical processes which take place near the primary energy release site in the corona (such as, magnetic reconnection and acceleration of particles) utilizing X-ray observations. We will perform a case study of the M 1.6 class flare occurred on 6th September 2012. Our observations correspond to the active region NOAA 11560 with the heliographic coordinates N04W71. The event took place between 04:00 UT and 04:45 UT, and was close to the solar limb at the western region. Perturbation of Total Electron Content (TEC) in the Earth's ionosphere as a result of flare X-ray emission was recorded by Tashkent GPS Station. We use some programs in IDL (Interactive Data Language) and SSW (Solar Soft Ware) for analyzing the X-ray data sets taken by RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) and GOES (Geostationary Satellite System). The flare temperature correlates with flux peak, increases for a short period (between 04:08 UT and 04:12 UT), rises impulsively, attains a maximum value of about 17 MK at 04:12 UT and gradually decreases after peak value. Around the peak we observe significant emissions of X-ray sources. Flux profiles of the X-ray emission exhibit a progressively faster raise and decline as the higher energy channels are considered. Very early signatures of the flare are observed in the 6-12 keV soft X-ray (SXR) energy band and has a thermal character. The data from 04:11 UT to 04:14 UT indicate hard X-ray (HXR) non-thermal emission in the 25-50 keV energy band. Most likely this is due to the particle acceleration process which resulted due to the magnetic reconnection in the corona. In the 25-50 keV band, we can distinguish two peaks (at 04:11 UT and 04:12 UT). In the higher band (50-100 keV) we cannot observe any change in the flux. At 04:14 UT the 25-50 keV emission weakens and decays and further we cannot observe the HXR sources. After the impulsive phase data show emission only in the 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV bands, and emission again has thermal character. From 04:20 UT a new X-ray source arises near the main source. The intensity of the new source increases and it becomes more intense compared to the main source (04:24 UT). This is probably caused due the fact that the accelerated particles move along different magnetic field lines in the vicinity of flaring region. We gratefully acknowledge support by the Indian Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific affiliated to the United Nations, Physical Research Laboratory at Ahmedabad and Udaipur Solar Observatory.
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Supercooled Water in Nanoporous Confinement and Biological Systems
In the present work, we show that Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with a measurement frequency range f= 0.2 - 100 Hz is a rather powerful technique for the study of phase transitions (freezing and melting) and glass transitions of water in geometrical confinement. Inserting water into nanoporous host matrices, like e.g. Gelsil (size of pores 2.6 nm and 5 nm) or Vycor (size of pores 10 nm) allows one to study size effects occurring at the nanoscale conveniently in macroscopic bulk samples. One obtains valuable insight concerning confinement induced changes of the dynamics by measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex Young's modulus Y* for various pore sizes. Solid-liquid transitions or glass-liquid transitions show up in a softening or the real part Y' of the complex Young's modulus, yet with completely different frequency dependencies. Analysing the frequency dependent imaginary part of the Young´s modulus in the glass transition regions for different pore sizes we find a clear-cut 1/d-dependence of the calculated glass transition temperatures which extrapolates to Tg(1/d=0)=136 K, in agreement with the traditional value of water. The results indicate that the main role of the pore diameter is the relative amount of water molecules that are near an interface within a length scale of the order of the dynamic correlation length x. Thus we argue that the observed strong pore size dependence of Tg is an interfacial effect, rather than a finite size effect. We obtained similar signatures of Y* near glass transitions in different biological objects (fruits, vegetables, and bread). The values of the activation energies for these biological materials in the region of glass transition are quite similar to the values of the activation energies of supercooled water in the nanoporous confinement in this region. The present work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, project Nr. P 28672 – N36).
A Compact Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator Driven by a Rotary Drive Mechanism
Conventional vapor-compression refrigeration systems rely on typical refrigerants, such as CFC, HCFC and ammonia. Despite of their suitable thermodynamic properties and their stability in the atmosphere, their corresponding global warming potential and ozone depletion potential raise concerns about their usage. Thus, the need for new refrigeration systems, which are environment-friendly, inexpensive and simple in construction, has strongly motivated the development of thermoacoustic energy conversion systems. A thermoacoustic refrigerator (TAR) is a device that is mainly consisting of a resonator, a stack and two heat exchangers. Typically, the resonator is a long circular tube, made of copper or steel and filled with Helium as a the working gas, while the stack has short and relatively low thermal conductivity ceramic parallel plates aligned with the direction of the prevailing resonant wave. Typically, the resonator of a standing-wave refrigerator has one end closed and is bounded by the acoustic driver at the other end enabling the propagation of half-wavelength acoustic excitation. The hot and cold heat exchangers are made of copper to allow for efficient heat transfer between the working gas and the external heat source and sink respectively. TARs are interesting because they have no moving parts, unlike conventional refrigerators, and almost no environmental impact exists as they rely on the conversion of acoustic and heat energies. Their fabrication process is rather simpler and sizes span wide variety of length scales. The viscous and thermal interactions between the stack plates, heat exchangers' plates and the working gas significantly affect the flow field within the plates' channels, and the energy flux density at the plates' surfaces, respectively. Here, the design, the manufacture and the testing of a compact refrigeration system that is based on the thermoacoustic energy-conversion technology is reported. A 1-D linear acoustic model is carefully and specifically developed, which is followed by building the hardware and testing procedures. The system consists of two harmonically-oscillating pistons driven by a simple 1-HP rotary drive mechanism operating at a frequency of 42Hz -hereby, replacing typical expensive linear motors and loudspeakers-, and a thermoacoustic stack within which the energy conversion of sound into heat is taken place. Air at ambient conditions is used as the working gas while the amplitude of the driver's displacement reaches 19 mm. The 30-cm-long stack is a simple porous ceramic material having 100 square channels per square inch. During operation, both oscillating-gas pressure and solid-stack temperature are recorded for further analysis. Measurements show a maximum temperature difference of about 27 degrees between the stack hot and cold ends with a Carnot coefficient of performance of 11 and estimated cooling capacity of five Watts, when operating at ambient conditions. A dynamic pressure of 7-kPa-amplitude is recorded, yielding a drive ratio of 7% approximately, and found in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. The system behavior is clearly non-linear and significant non-linear loss mechanisms are evident. This work helps understanding the operation principles of thermoacoustic refrigerators and presents a keystone towards developing commercial thermoacoustic refrigerator units.
Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation (TCM) for Thoracic CT Examinations: A Phantom Study
The study aimed at evaluating the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) in terms of dose reduction and image quality. An anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was used to compare the radiation dose in thoracic CT scans with and without use of Tube Current Modulation (TCM). Phantom scans were performed on a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition Edge from Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using CARE Dose 4D also known as the TCM technique. The radiation effective dose was calculated by using two methods: the conventional methods, by multiplying DLP (dose length product) to a conversion factor and, a second method based on the computational phantom measurement by CT-Expo (Version 2.4, Germany). In case of SSDE (Size Specific Dose Estimation) dose was calculated by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) with a conversion size factor. Image quality was evaluated objectively via SNR (signal to noise ratio) measurement in phantom by the ‘rose model’. SPSS software was used to assess statistically significant differences between results. Results showed a statistically significant difference (p
Natural Radioactivity in Tunisian Bottled Mineral Waters
Radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and uranium isotopes (234U, 238U) activity concentrations were determined in most popular Tunisian bottled mineral waters samples. Activity concentrations of uranium were studied by radiochemical separation procedures followed by alpha spectrometry and that of radium isotopes by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 228Ra in water samples varied in range 3.3 - 22.5 mBq.L−1, 4.0 - 34.2 mBq L−1, 2.0 - 67.0 mBq L−1 and 2.0 - 30.2 mBq L−1, respectively. These values are comparable with those reported for many other countries in the world for different types of water. Based on the activity concentration results obtained in this study, the estimated annual ingestion dose rates for three different age groups (babies, children and adults) due to the ingestion of radium and uranium isotopes through drinking water are lower than the limit of intake prescribed by WHO. The annual doses exceed the recommended value of 0.1 mSv y-1 in one case for babies.
Measurement of Radionuclide Concentrations and Study on Transfer from Soil to Plant in Sfax-Tunisia
Environmental radiation measurements are useful to identify areas of potential natural radiation hazard particularly in areas of phosphate industries where enhanced radiation levels are expected to be present. Measurements of primordial radionuclides concentrations have been carried out in samples collected from Sfax City around the SIAPE phosphate industry of Tunis. The samples analysed include fish, beef meat, egg, and vegetables as well as in soil and grass. Measurements were performed by gamma spectrometry method using a 42% relative efficiency N-type HPGe detector. The activity concentrations of radionuclides were measured by gamma ray spectrometry. As expected, the concentrations of radionuclides belonging to uranium and thorium series were low in food materials. In all the samples analysed, the 137Cs concentration was below detection level, except meat samples which showed the activity concentration of 2.4 Bq kg-1 (dry wt.) The soil to grass transfer factor was found to be similar to those reported in literature. The effective dose to the population due to intake of food products were also estimated and are presented in this paper.
Ontology-Driven Generation of Radiation Protection Procedures
In this article, we talk about the principle and suitable methodology for the design of a new medical ontology that highlights the radiological and dosimetric knowledge, applied in diagnostic radiology and radiation-therapy. Our ontology is the subject of radiation protection in medical and radiology centers by providing a standardized regulatory oversight. Thanks to its added values of knowledge-sharing, reuse and the ease of maintenance, this ontology tends to solve many problems. Of which we name the confusion between radiological procedures a practitioner might face while performing a patient radiological exam. Adding to it, the difficulties they might have in interpreting applicable patient radioprotection standards. Here, the ontology, thanks to its concepts simplification and expressiveness capabilities, can ensure an efficient classification of radiological procedures. It also provides an explicit representation of the relations between the different components of the studied concept. In fact, an ontology based-radioprotection expert system, when used in the radiological center, could implement systematic radioprotection best practices during patient exam and a regulatory compliance service auditing afterward.
Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations
The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.
Approaching In vivo Dosimetry for Kilovoltage X-Ray Radiotherapy
Recently a new kilovoltage radiotherapy unit model Xstrahl 200 - donated to the INOR´s Department of Radiotherapy (DR-INOR) in the framework of a IAEA's technical cooperation project- has been commissioned. This unit is able to treat shallow and low deep laying lesions, as it provides 8 discrete beam qualities, from 40 to 200 kV. As part of the patient-specific quality assurance program established at DR-INOR for external beam radiotherapy, it has been recommended to implement in vivo dose measurements (IVD), as they allow effectively discovering eventual errors or failures in the radiotherapy process. For that purpose a radio-photoluminescence (RPL) dosimetry system, model XXX, -also donated to DR-INOR by the same IAEA project- has been studied and commissioned. Main dosimetric parameters of the RPL system, such as reproducibility, linearity, and filed size influence were assessed. In a similar way, the response of radiochromic EBT3 type film was investigated for purposes of IVD. Both systems were calibrated in terms of entrance surface dose. Results of the dosimetric commissioning of RPL and EBT3 for IVD, and their pre-clinical implementation through end-to-end test cases are presented. The RPL dosimetry seems more recommendable for hyper-fractionated schemes with larger fields and curved patient contours, as those in chest wall irradiations, where the use of more than one dosimeter could be required. The radiochromic system involves smaller corrections with field size, but it sensibility is lower; hence it is more adequate for hypo-fractionated treatments with smaller fields.
Co-Registered Identification and Treatment of Skin Tumor with Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Therapy
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables to provide advantages of noninvasive imaging, high resolution, and high imaging speed. In this study, we integrated OCT and a CW laser for tumor diagnosis and treatment. The axial and transverse resolutions of the developed OCT system are 3 μm and 1 μm, respectively. The frame rate of OCT system is 30 frames/s. In this study, the tumor cells were implanted into the mice skin and scanned by OCT to observe the morphological and angiographic changes. With OCT imaging, 3D microstructures and skin angiography of mice skin can be simultaneously acquired, which can be utilized for identification of the tumor distribution. Then, the CW laser beam can be accurately controlled to expose on the center of the tumor, according to the OCT results. Moreover, OCT was used to monitor the induced photothermolysis and to evaluate the treatment outcome. The results showed that OCT-guided laser therapy could efficiently improve the treatment outcome and the extra damage induced by CW can be greatly reduced. Such OCT-guided laser therapy system could be a potential tool for dermatological applications.
Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process
Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.
Raman Tweezers Spectroscopy Study of Size Dependent Silver Nanoparticles Toxicity on Erythrocytes
Raman Tweezers technique has become prevalent in single cell studies. This technique combines Raman spectroscopy which gives information about molecular vibrations, with optical tweezers which use a tightly focused laser beam for trapping the single cells. Thus Raman Tweezers enabled researchers analyze single cells and explore different applications. The applications of Raman Tweezers include studying blood cells, monitoring blood-related disorders, silver nanoparticle-induced stress, etc. There is increased interest in the toxic effect of nanoparticles with an increase in the various applications of nanoparticles. The interaction of these nanoparticles with the cells may vary with their size. We have studied the effect of silver nanoparticles of sizes 10nm, 40nm, and 100nm on erythrocytes using Raman Tweezers technique. Our aim was to investigate the size dependence of the nanoparticle effect on RBCs. We used 785nm laser (Starbright Diode Laser, Torsana Laser Tech, Denmark) for both trapping and Raman spectroscopic studies. 100 x oil immersion objectives with high numerical aperture (NA 1.3) is used to focus the laser beam into a sample cell. The back-scattered light is collected using the same microscope objective and focused into the spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Vyon iHR320 with 1200grooves/mm grating blazed at 750nm). Liquid nitrogen cooled CCD (Symphony CCD-1024x256-OPEN-1LS) was used for signal detection. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to separate the blood components. 1.5 ml of silver nanoparticles was washed twice with distilled water leaving 0.1 ml silver nanoparticles in the bottom of the vial. The concentration of silver nanoparticles is 0.02mg/ml so the 0.03mg of nanoparticles will be present in the 0.1 ml nanoparticles obtained. The 25 ul of RBCs were diluted in 2 ml of PBS solution and then treated with 50 ul (0.015mg) of nanoparticles and incubated in CO2 incubator. Raman spectroscopic measurements were done after 24 hours and 48 hours of incubation. All the spectra were recorded with 10mW laser power (785nm diode laser), 60s of accumulation time and 2 accumulations. Major changes were observed in the peaks 565 cm-1, 1211 cm-1, 1224 cm-1, 1371 cm-1, 1638 cm-1. A decrease in intensity of 565 cm-1, increase in 1211 cm-1 with a reduction in 1224 cm-1, increase in intensity of 1371 cm-1 also peak disappearing at 1635 cm-1 indicates deoxygenation of hemoglobin. Nanoparticles with higher size were showing maximum spectral changes. Lesser changes observed in case of 10nm nanoparticle-treated erythrocyte spectra.
The Stable Isotopic Composition of Pedogenic Carbonate in the Minusinsk Basin, South Siberia
Carbonate minerals’ isotopic composition is widely used as a proxy for environmental parameters of the past. Pedogenic carbonate coatings on lower surfaces of coarse rock fragments are studied in order to indicate the climatic conditions and predominant vegetation under which they were formed. The purpose of the research is to characterize the isotopic composition of carbonate pedofeatures in soils of Minusink Hollow and estimate its correlation with isotopic composition of soil pore water, precipitation, vegetation and parent material. The samples of pedogenic carbonates, vegetation, carbonate parent material, soil water and precipitation water were analyzed using the Delta-V mass spectrometer with options of a gas bench and element analyser. The soils we studied are mainly Kastanozems that are poorly moisturized, therefore soil pore water was extracted by ethanol. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates was analyzed in 3 key sites. Kazanovka Khakass state national reserve, Hankul salt lake, region of Sayanogorsk aluminum smelter. Vegetation photosynthetic pathway in the region is mainly C3. δ18O values of carbonate coatings in soils of Kazanovka vary in a range from −7.49 to −10.5‰ (vs V-PDB), and the smallest value −13.9‰ corresponds the coatings found between two buried soil horizons which 14C dates are 4.6 and 5.2 kyr BP. That may indicate cooler conditions of late Holocene than nowadays. In Sayanogorsk carbonates’ δ18O range is from −8.3 to −11.1‰ and near the Hankul Lake is from −9.0 to −10.2‰ all ranges are quite similar and may indicate coatings’ uniform formation conditions. δ13C values of carbonate coatings in Kazanovka vary from −2.5 to −6.7‰, the highest values correspond to the soils of Askiz and Syglygkug rivers former floodplains. For Sayanogorsk the range is from −4.9 to −6.8‰ and for Hankul from −2.3 to −5.7‰, where the highest value is for the modern salt crust. δ13C values of coatings strongly decrease from inner (older) to outer (younger) layers of coatings, that can indicate differences connected with the diffusion of organic material. Carbonate parent material δ18O value in the region vary from −11.1 to −12.0‰ and δ13C values vary from −4.9 to −5.7‰. Soil pore water δ18O values that determine the oxygen isotope composition of carbonates vary due to the processes of transpiration and mixing in the studied sites in a wide range of −2.0 to −13.5‰ (vs V-SMOW). Precipitation waters show δ18O values from -6.6‰ in May and -19.0‰ in January (snow) due to the temperature difference. The main conclusions are as follows: pedogenic carbonates δ13C values (−7…−2,5‰) show no correlation with modern C3 vegetation δ13C values (−30…−26‰), expected values under such vegetation are (−19…−15‰) but are closer to C4 vegetation. Late Holocene climate for the Minusinsk Hollow according to obtained data on isotope composition of carbonates and soil pore water chemical composition was dryer and cooler than present, that does not contradict with paleocarpology data obtained for the region. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (grant №14-27-00083).
Supply Chain Risk Management: A Meta-Study of Empirical Research
The existing supply chain risk management (SCRM) research is currently chaotic and somewhat disorganized, and the topic has been addressed conceptually more often than empirically. This paper, using both qualitative and quantitative data, employs a modified Meta-study method to investigate the SCRM empirical research published in quality journals over the period of 12 years (2004-2015). The purpose is to outline the extent research trends and the employed research methodologies (i.e., research method, data collection and data analysis) across the sub-field that will guide future research. The synthesized findings indicate that empirical study on risk ripple effect along an entire supply chain, industry-specific supply chain risk management and global/export supply chain risk management has not yet given much attention than it deserves in the SCRM field. Besides, it is suggested that future empirical research should employ multiple and/or mixed methods and multi-source data collection techniques to reduce common method bias and single-source bias, thus improving research validity and reliability. In conclusion, this paper helps to stimulate more quality empirical research in the SCRM field via identifying promising research directions and providing some methodology guidelines.