International Science Index

International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering

Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity among Adults and Older Adults from Black and Minority Ethnic Groups in the UK: A Meta-ethnographic Study
Older adults from socially disadvantaged groups and Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups experience a higher burden of physical inactivity. Physical inactivity among BME groups is associated with the disproportionately higher level of health inequalities. People from minority ethnic groups encounter more barriers to physical activity. However, this is not often reported. There is very limited review-level evidence on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity among older adults from BME groups in the UK. This study aims to answer the following research question: what are the barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation among adults and older adults from BME background in the UK? To address this, we conducted a review of qualitative studies investigating the barriers and opportunities for physical activity among of BME adults and older adults in the UK. Method: This study is nested in an interpretive paradigm of meta-ethnography. A structured search for published literature was conducted on 6 electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Allied and Complementary Medicine) from January 2007 to July 2017. Hand searching of the reference list of publications was performed in addition to a search conducted on Google Scholar to identify grey literature. Studies were eligible provided they employed any qualitative method and included participants identified as being BME, aged 50 and above, living in any community within the UK. In total, 1036 studies were identified from the structured search for literature, 718 studies were screened by titles after duplicates were removed. On applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final selection of 10 studies was considered eligible for synthesis. Quality assessment was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Logic maps were used to show the relationship between factors that impact on physical activity participation among adults and older adults Result: Six key themes emerged from the data: awareness of the links between physical activity and health, interaction, and engagement with health professionals, cultural expectations and social responsibilities, appropriate environment, religious fatalism and practical challenges. Findings also showed that the barriers and facilitators of physical activity exist at the individual, community, and socio-economic, cultural and environmental level. There was a substantial gap in research among Black African groups. Findings from the review also informed the design of an ongoing survey investigating the experience and attitude of adults from Somali backgrounds towards physical activity in the UK. Conclusion: Identifying the barriers and facilitators of physical activity among BME groups is a crucial step in addressing the widening inequality gap. Findings from this study highlight the importance of engaging local BME residents in the design of exercise facilities within the community. This will ensure that cultural and social concerns are recognized and properly addressed.
Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.
Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption
Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.
Formulation, Acceptability, and Characteristics of Instant Surabi Based on Composite Rice-Soybean Flour and Supplemented with Torbangun Powder for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children
The purpose of this study was to develop a formulation of instant Indonesian traditional pancake (Surabi) based on composite rice and soybean flour and supplemented with Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) powder as an alternative snack for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) children. Completely randomised factorial design by two factors which were the ratio of composite rice and soybean flour (75:25; 70:30; 65:35) as well as the addition of Torbangun powder (3%; 5%; 7%) was used in this study. This study revealed that the best formula was instant surabi with 65:35 composite rice and soybean flour and 5% addition of Torbangun powder by considering hedonic test result, functional aspect and nutrients contribution. Then, both chemical and physical characteristics from the best formula of instant surabi were measured. Nutrients content of the chosen instant surabi per 100 g wet basis were 62.68 g moisture, 1.30 g ash, 6.81 g protein, 0.75 g fat, 28.47 g carbohydrate, 88.62 mg calcium, 4.14 mg iron, and 144 kcal energy while physical characteristics, such as water activity, cohesiveness, and hardness were 0.97, 0.569, 5582.2 g force consecutively. The results of this research suggested that instant surabi which can be possibly beneficial for ADHD children had 65:35 for rice and soybean flour ratio as well as 5% for the addition of Torbangun powder.
Attenuation of Amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-Induced Neurotoxicity by Luteolin
Being a neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects a majority of the elderly demented worldwide. The key risk factors for AD are age, metabolic syndrome, allele status of APOE gene, head injuries and lifestyle. The progressive nature of AD is characterized by symptoms of multiple cognitive deficits exacerbated over time, leading to death within a decade from clinical diagnosis. However, it is revealed that AD originates via a prodromal phase that spans from one to few decades before symptoms first manifest. The key pathological hallmarks of AD brains are deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). However, the yet unknown etiology of the disease fails to distinguish mitochondrial dysfunction between a cause or an outcome. The absence of early diagnosis tools and definite therapies for AD have permitted recruits of nutraceutical-based approaches aimed at reducing the risk of AD by modulating lifestyle or be used as preventive tools during AD prodromal state before widespread neurodegeneration begins. The objective of the present study was to investigate beneficial effects of luteolin, a plant-based flavone compound, against AD. The neuroprotective effects of luteolin on amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity was measured using cultured human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cells. After exposure to 20μM Aβ (1-42) for 48 h, the neuroblastoma cells exhibited marked apoptotic death. Co-treatment of 20μM Aβ (1-42) with luteolin (0.5-5μM) significantly protected the cells against Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, as assessed by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] reduction assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cell death assay. The results suggest that luteolin prevents Aβ (1-42)-induced apoptotic neuronal death. However, further studies are underway to determine its protective mechanisms in AD including the activity against tau hyperphosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Role of Agriculture Equipment toward Food Security: Case Study of Agriculture Equipment Assistance during President Joko Widodo Era in Indonesia
Indonesia is an agrarian country endowed by fertile soil, supportive weather, and natural resources which can support agricultural activities. There are commodities which produced by local farmers. Even though Indonesia had commodities, it still imports stocks of staple food. To reduce the dependency on imported staple food, President Joko Widodo wants to generate more locally-produced staple food by giving 69.000 tractors, free seeds, and fertilizers to the local farmers. In Indonesia, the problem revolves around the amount of food production especially rice derived from farmers who cannot afford technologies which can support the agricultural activities. Moreover, they cannot afford seeds and fertilizers which can make the production of commodities more effective and have high quality. Therefore, the paper would like to answer how agriculture equipment assistance during President Joko Widodo era can give significant impact towards food security. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of agriculture equipment assistance and its impact towards Indonesia’s food security. This paper uses Boserup and Ruthenberg theory of agricultural intensification to link agriculture equipment and intensification of production which in the end will have impact towards food security through case study method. The paper affirms that the role of agricultural equipment assistance toward food security in Indonesia is significant toward Indonesia’s food production and security.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Children
Objectives: Intellectual disability (ID) ranks among the top 20 most costly disorders. A child with ID creates a wide set of challenges to the individual, family, and society, and overweight and obesity aggravate those challenges. People with ID have the right to attain optimal health like the rest of the population. They should be given priority to eliminate existing health inequities. Childhood obesity epidemic and associated factors among children, in general, has been well documented, while knowledge about overweight and obesity in children with ID is scarce. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 524 Chinese children with ID (males: 68.9%, mean age: 12.2 years) in Hong Kong in 2015. Children’s height and weight were measured at school. Parents, in the presence of their children, completed a self-administered questionnaire at home about the children’s physical activity (PA), eating habits, and sleep duration in a typical week as well as parenting practices regarding children’s eating and PA, and their socio-demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression estimated the potential risk factors for children being overweight. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with ID was 31.3%, which was higher than their general counterparts (18.7%-19.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the risk factors of overweight and obese in children with ID included: comorbidity with autism, the maternal side being overweight or obese, parenting practices with less pressure to eat more, children having shorter sleep duration, longer periods of sedentary behavior, and higher intake frequencies of sweetened food, fried food, and meats, fish, and eggs. Children born in other places, having snacks more frequently, and having irregular meals were also more likely to be overweight or obese, with marginal significance. Conclusions: Children with ID are more vulnerable to being overweight or obese than their typically developing counterparts. Identified risk factors in this study highlight a multifaceted approach to the involvement of parents as well as the modification of some children’s questionable behaviors to help them achieve a healthy weight.
The Persistence of Food Insecurity in U.S. Cancer Patients Who Receive Government Food Benefits
Food insecurity, which leads to adverse health outcomes and decreased the quality of life, can be more severe for cancer patients due to the nature of the disease and the impact of cancer treatment. Yet medically underserved cancer patients in the United States are more likely to be food insecure than the general population. This study examined the prevalence of food insecurity among cancer patients in safety net facilities in New York City who receive United States Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits compared to those who do not. This study utilized needs assessment data from the years 2012 to 2017 from patients enrolled in the Integrated Cancer Care Access Network (ICCAN), a patient navigation program for low socioeconomic status cancer patients. ICCAN is housed at several New York City Hospitals with large immigrant and minority populations. This study is a nested cohort of cancer patients with any cancer diagnosis receiving treatment participating in the ICCAN program at NYC safety net hospitals. United States Department of Agriculture food security scores, self-reported receipt of SNAP benefits, and presumed SNAP eligibility (based on household income) were analyzed. Six hundred and eighty-one cancer patients were enrolled. A majority of participants were female (71%), born in the U.S.(77%), and reported English as their primary language (65%). Almost half (44%) had not graduated from high school; 44% were covered by Medicaid health insurance (for low-income populations). Thirty-three percent received SNAP. Sixty-nine percent of participants who did not receive SNAP lived in food-insecure households and a statistically equivalent percentage, 68%, of those who did receive SNAP lived in food insecure households. While SNAP offers some assistance, it falls short of bringing a large percentage of low socioeconomic status cancer patients into a food secure state. Supplemental food programs for food insecure patients suffering from chronic diseases (which often pose an additional financial burden) are needed. SNAP monetary benefit amounts should take into consideration the additional financial burden posed by treatment costs and exceptional circumstances faced by cancer patients.
Correlates of Modes of Transportation to Work among Working Adults in Ernakulam District, Kerala
Transportation and urban planning is the least recognised area for physical activity promotion in India, unlike developed regions. Identifying the preferred transportation modalities and factors associated with it is essential to address these lacunae. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of modes of transportation to work, and its correlates among working adults in Ernakulam District, Kerala. A cross sectional study was conducted among 350 working individuals in the age group of 18-60 years, selected through multi-staged stratified random sampling in Ernakulam district of Kerala. The inclusion criteria were working individuals 18-60 years, workplace at a distance of more than 1 km from the home and who worked five or more days a week. Pregnant women/women on maternity leave and drivers (taxi drivers, autorickshaw drivers, and lorry drivers) were excluded. An interview schedule was used to capture the modes of transportation namely, public, private and active transportation, socio demographic details, travel behaviour, anthropometric measurements and health status. Nearly two-thirds (64 percent) of them used private transportation to work, while active commuters were only 6.6 percent. The correlates identified for active commuting compared to other modes were low socio-economic status (OR=0.22, CI=0.5-0.85) and presence of a driving license (OR=4.95, CI= 1.59-15.45). The correlates identified for public transportation compared to private transportation were female gender (OR= 17.79, CI= 6.26-50.31), low income (OR=0.33, CI= 0.11-0.93), being unmarried (OR=5.19, CI=1.46-8.37), presence of no or only one private vehicle in the house (OR=4.23, CI=1.24-20.54) and presence of convenient public transportation facility to workplace (OR=3.97, CI= 1.66-9.47). The association between body mass index (BMI) and public transportation were explored and found that public transport users had lesser BMI than private commuters (OR=2.30, CI=1.23-4.29). Policies that encourage active and public transportation needs to be introduced such as discouraging private vehicle through taxes, introduction of convenient and safe public transportation facility, walking/cycling paths, and paid parking facility.
Effects of Mild Heat Treatment on The Physical and Microbial Quality of Salak Apricot Cultivar
Şalak apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Şalak) is a specific variety grown in Igdir, Turkey. The fruit has distinctive properties distinguish it from other cultivars, such as its unique size, color, taste and higher water content. Drying is the widely used method for preservation of apricots. However, fresh consumption is preferred for Şalak apricot instead of drying due to its low dry matter content. Higher amounts of water in the structure and climacteric nature make the fruit sensitive against rapid quality loss during storage. Hence, alternative processing methods need to be introduced to extend the shelf life of the fresh produce. Mild heat (MH) treatment is of great interest as it can reduce the microbial load and inhibit enzymatic activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of mild heat treatment on the natural microflora found on Şalak apricot surfaces and some physical quality parameters of the fruit, such as color and firmness. For this purpose, apricot samples were treated at different temperatures between 40 and 60 ℃ for different periods ranging between 10 to 60 min using a temperature controlled water bath. Natural flora on the fruit surfaces was examined using standard plating technique both before and after the treatment. Moreover, any changes in color and firmness of the fruit samples were also monitored. It was found that control samples were initially containing 7.5 ± 0.32 log CFU/g of total aerobic plate count (TAPC), 5.8±0.31 log CFU/g of yeast and mold count (YMC), and 5.17 ± 0.22 log CFU/g of coliforms. The highest log reductions in TAPC and YMC were observed as 3.87-log and 5.8-log after the treatments at 60 ℃ and 50 ℃, respectively. Nevertheless, the fruit lost its characteristic aroma at temperatures above 50 ℃. Furthermore, great color changes (ΔE ˃ 6) were observed and firmness of the apricot samples was reduced at these conditions. On the other hand, MH treatment at 41 ℃ for 10 min resulted in 1.6-log and 0.91-log reductions in TAPC and YMC, respectively, with slightly noticeable changes in color (ΔE ˂ 3). In conclusion, application of temperatures higher than 50 ℃ caused undesirable changes in physical quality of Şalak apricots. Although higher microbial reductions were achieved at those temperatures, temperatures between 40 and 50°C should be further investigated considering the fruit quality parameters. Another strategy may be the use of high temperatures for short time periods not exceeding 1-5 min. Besides all, MH treatment with UV-C light irradiation can be also considered as a hurdle strategy for better inactivation results.
Protein Extraction by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction followed by Alkaline Extraction from Red Seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum (Spinosum) Used in Carrageenan Production
In 2014, the global amount of carrageenan production was 60,000 ton with a value of US$ 626 million. From this number, it can be estimated that the total dried seaweed consumption for this production was at least 300,000 ton/year. The protein content of these types of seaweed is 5 – 25%. If just half of this total amount of protein could be extracted, 18,000 ton/year of a high-value protein product would be obtained. The overall aim of this study was to develop a technology that will ensure further utilization of the seaweed that is used only as raw materials for carrageenan production as single extraction at present. More specifically, proteins should be extracted from the seaweed either before or after extraction of carrageenan with focus on maintaining the quality of carrageenan as a main product. Different mechanical, chemical and enzymatic technologies were evaluated. The optimized process was implemented in lab scale and based on its results; the new experiments were done a pilot and larger scale. In order to calculate the efficiency of the new upstream multi-extraction process, protein content was tested before and after extraction. After this step, the extraction of carrageenan was done and carrageenan content and the effect of extraction on yield were evaluated. The functionality and quality of carrageenan were measured based on rheological parameters. The results showed that by using the new multi-extraction process (submitted patent); it is possible to extract almost 50% of total protein without any negative impact on the carrageenan quality. Moreover, compared to the routine carrageenan extraction process, the new multi-extraction process could increase the yield of carrageenan and the rheological properties such as gel strength in the final carrageenan had a promising improvement. The extracted protein has initially been screened as a plant protein source in typical food applications. Further work will be carried out in order to improve properties such as color, solubility, and taste.
Dietary Intake, Serum Vitamin D Status, and Sun Exposure of Malaysian Women of Different Ethnicity
Vitamin D insufficiency is reported to be prevalent among women living in different altitudes including the equator where sunshine is available throughout the year. Multiple factors for vitamin D insufficiency include poor intake of vitamin D rich food and inadequate sun exposure, especially among women working indoor with a sedentary lifestyle. Furthermore, Muslim women in Malaysia whose attire covers the entire body are likely to receive poor sun exposure. This research determined serum vitamin D status, vitamin D intake and sun exposure of women aged 20-45 years of different ethnicity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Blood samples were collected from 106 women for determination of serum 25(OH)D levels. Information about vitamin D intake and sun exposure were obtained by interviewing the subjects using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall mean serum 25(OH)D was found to be 29.9 ± 14 nmol/L. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was prevalent and highest among the Malay women. Less than ten percent of the subjects in this study met the sufficient vitamin D level recommendation of ≥50 nmol/L. Intake of vitamin D rich food such as oily fishes was poor across the different ethnicity. Other dietary sources of vitamin D in the diet were fortified bread and skim milk. On the other hand, the median sunlight exposure of the subjects was 3.9 hours per week. The Malay women reported to have the highest duration being exposed to the sun. Nevertheless, due to cultural clothing practices, these women had the least body surface area exposed to sunlight, resulting in the lowest calculated sun index score compared to the Chinese and the Indians. Low intake of vitamin D rich foods and sun exposure were negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level. In conclusion, intake of food sources rich in vitamin D and adequate body surface area exposed to the sun are essential to ensure healthy vitamin D level. Supplementation of vitamin D may be recommended to women whom unable to meet these recommendations.
Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Trans Fat Content and Oxidative Parameters of Groundnut Oil
Heating/frying at elevated temperatures cause numerous physiochemical reactions including oxidative deterioration and trans fatty acid (TFA) formation; however Indian data on these parameters are scanty. The present study was designed to assess the effect of constant heating/frying on formation of TFAs and oxidative stability in groundnut oil. 750 mL of the oil was heated in a large iron karahi (utensil similar to a wok) and freshly cut potato strips were fried constantly at varying temperatures (160ºC, 180ºC, 200ºC, 220ºC, 230ºC). In each case, the oil sample was drawn after one hour and stored at –20ºC until analysed. While TFA was estimated using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (AOCS official method Ce 1h–05), other chemical parameters were assessed by AOCS official methods. Oil samples subjected to heating/frying at varying temperatures demonstrated a significant increase in TFAs (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids (p < 0.01) while there was a corresponding decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). Frying process demonstrated greater TFA formation (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.11±0.01g/100g; at 230ºC it being 2.33±0.05g/100g) as compared to heating alone (mean TFA at 160ºC being 0.07g±0.01/100g; at 230ºC it being 0.47±0.02g/100g), indicating that there was a significant difference in the generation of TFAs during the two thermal treatments (heating vs. frying; p=0.05). With increasing temperatures, acid value, p-anisidine value and total oxidation (TOTOX) value registered a significant increase (p < 0.01); however, peroxide value was found to be inconsistent. Thus, the formation of TFA and various oxidative parameters (except peroxide value) is directly influenced by the temperature of heating/frying. Since TFA formation and poor oxidative stability of oils can pose serious health concerns, food safety agencies/organizations need to devise appropriate policies, stringent food laws/standards and impose necessary safety regulations to curb oil abuse during the process of heating and frying. There is a dire need to raise consumer awareness regarding deleterious health effects of TFA and oxidative deterioration of oils at elevated temperatures employed during heating/frying procedures.
Nutritional Evaluation and the Importance of Traditional Vegetables That Sustain the Indigenous People of Malaysia
The growing unease over the matter of food security in the world is the result of a maturing realization that the genetic base of most human caloric intake from plants is dangerously narrow. Malaysia’s tropical rainforests have the potential to contribute to diet diversification and provide a source of nutrient-rich food as the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia have relied almost entirely on the jungle for food, fodder, medicine and fuel antithetical to what is happening today. This segregation of the Orang Asli from traditional lands and resources leads to severe loss of knowledge of biodiversity. In order to preserve these wild edibles, four different types of vegetables that are frequently consumed by the Orang Asli which consists of Rebu, Meranti, Saya and Pama were selected. These vegetables were then analysed to determine its proximate and mineral content to help ascertain claims and reaffirm the impact it can play in ensuring food and nutrition security, in addition to combating chronic diseases. From the results obtained, the Meranti had the highest crude fiber, iron and calcium content. Other minerals such as potassium, magnesium and copper were also found in varying content. These wild edibles could also contribute to education and bring awareness to younger generations as well as urban populations to start consuming more of these in their daily life as it could prevent various chronic diseases in Malaysia.
Bioavailability of Zinc to Wheat Grown in the Calcareous Soils of Iraqi Kurdistan
Knowledge of the zinc and phytic acid (PA) concentrations of staple cereal crops are essential when evaluating the nutritional health of national and regional populations. In the present study, a total of 120 farmers’ fields in Iraqi Kurdistan were surveyed for zinc status in soil and wheat grain samples; wheat is the staple carbohydrate source in the region. Soils were analysed for total concentrations of phosphorus (PT) and zinc (ZnT), available P (POlsen) and Zn (ZnDTPA) and for pH. Average values (mg kg-1) ranged between 403-3740 (PT), 42.0-203 (ZnT), 2.13-28.1 (POlsen) and 0.14-5.23 (ZnDTPA); pH was in the range 7.46-8.67. The concentrations of Zn, PA/Zn molar ratio and estimated Zn bioavailability were also determined in wheat grain. The ranges of Zn and PA concentrations (mg kg⁻¹) were 12.3-63.2 and 5400 – 9300, respectively, giving a PA/Zn molar ratio of 15.7-30.6. A trivariate model was used to estimate intake of bioaccessible Zn, employing the following parameter values: (i) maximum Zn absorption = 0.09 (AMAX), (ii) equilibrium dissociation constant of zinc-receptor binding reaction = 0.680 (KP), and (iii) equilibrium dissociation constant of Zn-PA binding reaction = 0.033 (KR). In the model, total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) (mg d⁻¹) as a function of total daily nutritional PA (mmole d⁻¹) and total daily nutritional Zn (mmole Zn d⁻¹) was estimated assuming an average wheat flour consumption of 300 g day⁻¹ in the region. Consideration of the PA and Zn intake suggest only 21.5±2.9% of grain Zn is bioavailable so that the effective Zn intake from wheat is only 1.84-2.63 mg d-1 for the local population. Overall results suggest available dietary Zn is below recommended levels (11 mg d⁻¹), partly due to low uptake by wheat but also due to the presence of large concentrations of PA in wheat grains. A crop breeding program combined with enhanced agronomic management methods is needed to enhance both Zn uptake and bioavailability in grains of cultivated wheat types.
In vitro Antioxidant, Anticancer Properties and Probiotic Characteristics of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains
Probiotic strains can potentially be used as bio-preservatives and functional food supplement. Eight lactic acid bacteria strains (LAB) Lactobacillus brevis NRRL B-4527; Streptococcus thermophilus BLM 58; Pediococcusacidilactici ATCC 8042; Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCUG 1452; Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436; Lactococcuslactis sub sp. lactisDSM 20481; Lactobacillus plantarum DMSZ 20079 and Lactobacillus plantarumTF103 were selected to screen the antioxidant, anticancer potential and probiotic properties. LAB strains exhibited good probiotic, antioxidant properties and showed antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogenic (Bacillus subtilis DB 100 host; Candida albicans ATCCMYA-2876; Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3584; Escherichia coli BA 12296; Klebsiellapneumoniae ATCC12296; Salmonella senftenberg ATCC 8400 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10788). Further, in vitro probiotic properties of eight strains displayed excellent acid tolerance, bile tolerance, simulated gastrointestinal juice tolerance, in vitro adhesion ability for HT-29 cell line. The antioxidant effect of intracellular and cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, namely, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS). The results showed that intracellular and cell-free supernatant of S. Thermophilus BLM 58, L. lactissubsp.lactis DSM 20481, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, L. brevis NRRL B-4527 strains possess excellent antioxidant capacity. The intracellular of S. Thermophilus BLM 58 and P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 also showed excellent anticancer activity against Caco-2, MCF-7, HepG-2, and PC-3. Antioxidative property of selected lactic acid bacteria strains would be useful in the functional food manufacturing industry. They could beneficially affect the consumer by providing dietary source of antioxidants.
Production and Evaluation of Jam Made from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Grape (Vitis vinifera)
This project studied the production and evaluation of jam produced from pineapple and grape at different level of ratio (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 100%). The proximate and sensory properties were determined using standard methods. The (GDZ) was the highest for protein, moisture, fat and ash, (KFJ) was the highest for carbohydrate. There were significant differences (p
The Impact of Encapsulated Raspberry Juice on the Surface Colour of Enriched White Chocolate
Chocolate is a complex rheological system usually defined as a suspension consisting of non-fat particles dispersed in cocoa butter as a continuous fat phase. Dark chocolate possesses polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated with beneficial effects. Milk chocolate is formulated with a lower percentage of cocoa bean liquor than dark chocolate and it often contains lower amounts of polyphenols, while in white chocolate the fat-free cocoa solids are left out completely. Following the current trend of development of functional foods, there is an idea to create enriched white chocolate with the addition of encapsulated bioactive compounds from berry fruits. The aim of this study was to examine the surface colour of enriched white chocolate with the addition of 6, 8, and 10% of raspberry juice encapsulated in maltodextrins, in order to preserve the stability, bioactivity, and bioavailability of the active ingredients. The surface color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. The addition of raspberry encapsulates led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate. Raspberry encapsulate changed the values of the lightness (L*), a* (red tone) and b* (yellow tone) measured on the surface of enriched chocolate in accordance with applied concentrations. White chocolate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest L* (74.6) and b* (20.31) values of all samples indicating the bright surface of the white chocolate, as well as a high share of a yellow tone. At the same time, white chocolate has the negative a* value (-1.00) on its surface which includes green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulate has the darkest surface with significantly (p < 0.05) lowest value of L* (42.75), where increasing of its concentration in enriched chocolates decreases their L* values. Chocolate with 6% of encapsulate has significantly (p < 0.05) highest value of L* (60.56) in relation to enriched chocolate with 8% of encapsulate (53.57), and 10% of encapsulate (51.01). a* value measured on the surface of white chocolate is negative (-1.00) tending towards green tones. Raspberry juice encapsulates increases red tone in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amounts (23.22, 30.85, and 33.32 in enriched chocolates with 6, 8, and 10% encapsulated raspberry juice, respectively). The presence of yellow tones in enriched chocolates significantly (p < 0.05) decreases with the addition of E (with b* value 5.21), from 10.01 in enriched chocolate with a minimal amount of raspberry juice encapsulates to 8.91 in chocolate with a maximum concentration of raspberry juice encapsulate. The addition of encapsulated raspberry juice to white chocolate led to the creation of new type of enriched chocolate with attractive color. The research in this paper was conducted within the project titled ‘Development of innovative chocolate products fortified with bioactive compounds’ (Innovation Fund Project ID 50051).
The Survival of Bifidobacterium Longum in Frozen Yoghurt Ice Cream and Its Properties Affected by Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Fat Content
Yoghurt ice cream (YIC) containing prebiotics and probiotics seems to be much more recognized among consumers who concern for their health. Not only can it be a benefit on consumers’ health but also its taste and freshness provide people easily accept. However, the survival of such probiotic especially Bifidobacterium longum, found in human gastrointestinal tract and to be benefit to human gut, was still needed to study in the severe condition as whipping and freezing in ice cream process. Low and full-fat yoghurt ice cream containing 2 and 10% (w/w) fat content (LYIC and FYIC), respectively was produced by mixing 20% yoghurt containing B. longum into milk ice cream mix. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) at 0, 1, and 2% (w/w) were separately used as prebiotic in order to improve the survival of B. longum. Survival of this bacteria as a function of ice cream storage time and ice cream properties were investigated. The results showed that prebiotic; especially FOS could improve viable count of B. longum. The more concentration of prebiotic used, the more is the survival of B. Longum. These prebiotics could prolong the survival of B. longum up to 60 days, and the amount of survival number was still in the recommended level (106 cfu per gram). Fat content and prebiotic did not significantly affect the total acidity and the overrun of all samples, but an increase of fat content significantly increased the fat particle size which might be because of partial coalescence found in FYIC rather than in LYIC. However, addition of GOS or FOS could reduce the fat particle size, especially in FYIC. GOS seemed to reduce the hardness of YIC rather than FOS. High fat content (10% fat) significantly influenced on lowering the melting rate of YIC better than 2% fat content due to the 3-dimension networks of fat partial coalescence theoretically occurring more in FYIC than in LYIC. However, FOS seemed to retard the melting rate of ice cream better than GOS. In conclusion, GOS and FOS in YIC with different fat content can enhance the survival of B. longum and affect physical and chemical properties of such yoghurt ice cream.
A Preliminary in vitro Investigation of the Acetylcholinesterase and α-Amylase Inhibition Potential of Pomegranate Peel Extracts
The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes them major global health problems. Recently, the inhibition of key enzyme activity is considered a potential treatment of both diseases. Specifically, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the key enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is a promising approach for the treatment of AD, while inhibition of α-amylase retards the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and, thus, reduces hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, commercially available AChE and α-amylase inhibitors are reported to possess side effects. Consequently, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatments for both diseases. In the present study, pomegranate peel (PP) was extracted using various solvents of increasing polarity, while two extraction methods were employed, the conventional maceration and the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The concentration of bioactive phytoconstituents, such as total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in the prepared extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and the aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-hyperglycemic activity of all extracts was determined using AChE and α-amylase inhibitory activity assays, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the extracts against AChE and α-amylase was characterized by estimating their IC₅₀ value using a dose-response curve, while galanthamine and acarbose were used as positive controls, respectively. Finally, the kinetics of AChE and α-amylase in the presence of the most inhibitory potent extracts was determined by the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The methanolic extract prepared using the UAE contained the highest amount of phytoconstituents, followed by the respective ethanolic extract. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner, while the increased anticholinesterase activity of the methanolic (IC₅₀ = 32 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC₅₀ = 42 μg/mL) extract was positively correlated with their TPC content. Furthermore, the activity of the aforementioned extracts was comparable to galanthamine. Similar results were obtained in the case of α-amylase, however, all extracts showed lower inhibitory effect on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme than on AChE, since the IC₅₀ value ranged from 84 to 100 μg/mL. Also, the α-amylase inhibitory effect of the extracts was lower than acarbose. Finally, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared by UAE inhibited both enzymes in a mixed (competitive/noncompetitive) manner since the Kₘ value of both enzymes increased in the presence of extracts, while the Vmax value decreased. The results of the present study indicate that PP may be a useful source of active compounds for the management of AD and DM. Moreover, taking into consideration that PP is an agro-industrial waste product, its valorization could not only result in economic efficiency but also reduce the environmental pollution.
Preparations of Fruit Nectars from Fresh Fruit Juices-Analyses before and after Storage
The consumption of beverages continues to grow worldwide due to increasing demography, but pure fruit juices and high-quality nectars can induce protective effects on human health because of their natural bioactive components. In contrast, sodas and gaseous drinks containing synthetic food additives are considered as responsible for consumers of several pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The nutritional and therapeutic virtues of fruit juices are generally a remarkable antioxidant power, anti-cancer activity linked to their richness of indigestible and indigestible sugars, vitamins, mineral salts, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. The main reasons, which led us to produce these fruit derivatives, are the non-availability of the fresh fruits mentioned above all along the year and also the existence of variations in the chemical composition of these different fruits as well as for the major or minor components. We tested, therefore, the physicochemical characteristics of each fruit juice and pulp apart and afterward those of the cocktails formulated. The fresh juices used during our experiments were obtained from the following fruits from north-central Algeria: prickly pear, pomegranate, melon, red oranges. The formulations of these fruit juices were tested after several trials comprising sensorial analysis, physicochemical factors (pH, titratable acidity, Brix degree, formal index, water content, total ash, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds) and microbial analysis after a storage period. To the pure juices proportions, citric acid E330, sucrose, and water were added followed by pasteurisation. These products were analysed from the physicochemical, microbial and sensorial viewpoints after a storage period of one month according to national legislation to evaluate their stability. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the prepared beverages had shown good physicochemical results, acceptable sensorial characteristics and microbial stability and safety before and after a storage period. We measured appreciable amounts of minor compounds with health properties.
Factors Associated with Weight Loss Maintenance after an Intervention Program
Introduction: The main challenge of obesity treatment is long-term weight loss maintenance. The 3 phases method is a weight loss program that combines a low carb and moderately high-protein diet, food supplements and a weekly one-to-one consultation with a certified nutritionist. Sustained weight control is the ultimate goal of phase 3. Success criterion was the minimum loss of 10% of initial weight and its maintenance after 12 months. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance after 12 months at the end of 3 phases method. Methods: The study included 199 subjects that achieved their weight loss goal (phase 3). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were obtained at the baseline and every week until the end of the program. Therapeutic adherence was measured weekly on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. Subjects were considered in compliance with nutritional recommendation and supplementation when their classification was ≥ 4. After 12 months of the method, the current weight and number of previous weight-loss attempts were collected by telephone interview. The statistical significance was assumed at p-values < 0.05. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS TM software v.21. Results: 65.3% of subjects met the success criterion. The factors which displayed a significant weight loss maintenance prediction were: greater initial percentage weight loss (OR=1.44) during the weight loss intervention and a higher number of consultations in phase 3 (OR=1.10). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the percentage weight loss during the weight loss intervention and the number of consultations in phase 3 may facilitate maintenance of weight loss after the 3 phases method.
The Influence of Apple Pomace on Colour and Chemical Composition of Extruded Corn Snack Product
Recovery of food wastes and their conversion to economically viable products will play a vital role for the management strategies in the years to come. Apple pomace may be considered as wastes, but they contain considerable amounts of high value reusable materials. Apple pomace, the by-product of apple juice and cider production, is a good source of fibre, particularly insoluble one. The remaining apple pulp contains 12% dry residue, which is half dietary fibre. Another remarkable aspect is its richness in polyphenols, components with antioxidant activity. Apple pomace could be an interesting alternative source for fibre and polyphenols in extruded corn meals. The extruded corn meals with the addition of finely ground apple pomace were prepared (the ratio of corn meal: apple pomace was 85:15 and 70:30). Characterization of the extrudates in terms of determining the chemical composition and colour was performed. The color of samples was measured by MINOLTA Chroma Meter CR-400 (Minolta Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) using D 65 lighting, a 2º standard observer angle and an 8-mm aperture in the measuring head. The following CIELab color coordinates were determined: L* – lightness, a* – redness to greenness and b* – yellowness to blueness. Protein content decreased significantly from 7.91% to 5.19% with increase in pomace from 0% to 30%, while total fibre content increase from 3.39% to 16.62%. The apple pomace addition produced extrudates with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a* value. This study has been fully supported by the Provincial Secretariat for High Education and Scientific Research of the Government of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, project 142-451-2483/2017 and the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project no. 31014).
Development and Characterization of Kefir Drinks from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)
This research is to study the utilization of pumpkin and winter melon as the main substrate for kefir fermentation in the production of pumpkin and winter melon-based fermented drinks. Optimized temperature and time were chosen for fermentation of pumpkin and winter melon. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were conducted to the end products: P (fermented pumpkin juice) and K (fermented winter melon juice). Ethanol content was detected at low concentration of 0.9% (v/wt) in P, and 1.0% (v/wt) in K. Level of glucose and fructose increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both fermented drinks when compared to unfermented pumpkin (CP) and winter melon (CK) juices. Total phenolic content in P & K was higher than CP and CK, while %DPPH inhibition of both decreased significantly. Total Lactobacilli counts in P & K were 8.9 and 7.88 log cfu/ml respectively, while acetic acid bacteria counts were 8.62 and 7.57 log cfu/ml respectively, yeast counts were 4.71 and 5 log cfu/ml, and no E.coli was detected in all samples. Sensory evaluation yield comparable properties in P & K. This concluded that pumpkin and winter melon fermented drinks inoculated by water kefir grains could be promising source of nutrients with probiotic potency.
Promoting Community Food Security and Empowerment among Somali Bantu Refugees: A Case for Community Kitchen Gardens
African refugees are among the fastest-growing populations in the United States and nearly half of these refugees come from Somalia, many of whom are Somali Bantus, the most marginalized group in Somali society. Yet limited research is available on Somali Bantu refugees although such studies have shown this population is disproportionately food insecure. However few studies explore this issue. Potential solutions that have shown promise in addressing food insecurity among this population and other refugee groups include community gardening and community cooking interventions. Limited studies explore the combination of these approaches, such as community gardens with a cooking component, commonly known as community kitchen gardens. However such existing studies have demonstrated this approach can be used to address community food security among refugee populations. Thus Empowerment Theory is used to guide an in-depth exploration of the potential benefits of using community kitchen gardens to increase community food security among Somali Bantu refugees. In addition, recommendations for future research, policy, and practice are offered following existing scholarly and grey source literature guidelines as informed by an empowerment perspective to best meet the needs of this under-researched and underserved yet growing population.
The Determination of Total Microbial Count and Prevalence of Salmonella in the Shrimp Supply in Khuzestan Province
Salmonella is one of the major causes of foodborne diseases throughout the world. Shrimp are an important commodity in world fishery trade. The microbiological quality of shrimp must be evaluated for assurance of shrimp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in shrimp sold in Khuzestan province. In this study, a total of 245 samples of shrimp sold in Khuzestan province were tested for Salmonella prevalence and total microbial population. The mean aerobic bacterial count in 50.2% of samples was 2200, in 29.8% of samples was 13,600, in 20% of samples was 36,700, and the mean aerobic bacterial count in the total samples was 20,000. (20,000 cfu/cc). Of the total samples, 33 samples were positive for Salmonella and the prevalence of Salmonella was determined 13.4%. These results indicate the possibility that shrimp contribute to foodborne infections. The improvement of shrimp quality is an important issue, and shrimp before consuming should be washed with water containing chlorine, with the aim of increasing safety. In addition, it should be avoided to eat shrimp as raw or not cooked properly.
Concentration of Zinc Micronutrients in Breast Milk Based on Determinant of Mother and Baby in Kassi-Kassi Health Center
Breast milk is the complex biological fluid mix of macronutrient and micronutrient that are considered as perfect food for babies. Zinc has a role in various biological functions and physical growth. This research aims to know the average zinc (Zn) micronutrients content of breast milk by determinants of infant (birth weight) and mother (nutritional status and food intake) and description of the pattern of mothers breastfeeding. The type of research used is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population was 41 mothers in Kassi-Kassi health center within one month. Sample research is mothers who gave birth at term and breastfed her baby. Sampling was done with random sampling technique involving 37 people. Samples of breast milk were analyzed in the laboratory by using the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry (AAS). This research find that from the samples (n=37) the average contents of zinc in the breast milk is 0,88±0,54 mg/L with the highest value on the group of low birth weight babies (1,13 ± 0,67mg/L), mothers who had normal nutritional status (0,981 ± 0,514 mg/L) and intake low zinc (0,94 ± 0,54 mg/L). Regarding breastfeeding pattern, 67,6% of the samples had had breastfeeding experience and 81,1% of breastfed more than eight times a day. In summary, the highest average value of the zinc content of breast milk was in the group of low birth weight babies, mother with normal nutritional status, and mothers having relatively low intake pattern.
Functionality and Application of Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates in Oil in Water Emulsions: Their Stabilities to Environmental Stresses
Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) were prepared from defatted rice bran of two different Thai rice cultivars (Plai-Ngahm-Prachinburi; PNP and Kaowdokmali 105; KDM105) using an enzymatic method. This research aimed to optimize enzyme-assisted protein extraction. In addition, the functional properties of RBPH and their stabilities to environmental stresses including pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 to 500 mM) and the thermal treatment (30 to 90°C) were investigated. Results showed that enzymatic process for protein extraction of defatted rice bran was as follows: enzyme concentration 0.075 gram/5 gram of protein, extraction temperature 50°C and extraction time 4 h. The obtained protein hydrolysate powders had a degree of hydrolysis (%) of 21.05% in PNP, and 19.92% in KDM105. The solubility of protein hydrolysates at pH 4-6 was ranged from 27.28-38.57% and 27.60-43.00% in PNP and KDM105, respectively. In general, antioxidant activities indicated by total phenolic content, FRAP, FIC, and ABTS of KDM105 had higher than PNP. In terms of functional properties, the emulsifying properties (EAI) was 8.78 m²/g protein in KDM105, whereas PNP was 5.05 m²/g protein. The foaming capacity at 5 minutes (%) was 47.33 and 52.98 in PNP and KDM105, respectively. Glutamine, Alanine, Valine, and Leucine are the major amino acid in protein hydrolysates where the total amino acid of KDM105 gave higher than PNP. Furthermore, we investigated environmental stresses on the stability of 5% oil in water emulsion (5% oil, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by RBPH (3.5%). The droplet diameter of emulsion stabilized by KDM105 was smaller (d < 250 nm) than produced by PNP. For environmental stresses, RBPH stabilized emulsions were stable at pH around 3 and 5-6, at high salt ( < 400 mM, pH7) and at temperatures range between 30-50 °C.
The Combination of Porcine Plasma Protein and Maltodextrin as Wall Materials on Microencapsulated Turmeric Oil Powder Quality
Turmeric is a natural plant herb and generally extracted as essential oil and widely used in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical products including insect repellent. However, turmeric oil is a volatile essential oil which is easy to be lost during storage or exposure to light. Therefore, biopolymers such as protein and polysaccharide can be used as wall materials to encapsulate the essential oil which will solve this drawback. Approximately 60% plasma from porcine blood contains 6-7% of protein content mainly albumin and globulin which can be a good source of animal protein at the low-cost biopolymer from by-product. Microencapsulation is a useful technique to entrap volatile compounds in the biopolymer matrix and protect them to degrade. The objective of this research was to investigate the different ratios of two biopolymers (PPP and maltodextrin; MD) as wall materials at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 at a fixed ratio of wall material: core material (turmeric oil) at 3:1 (oil in water) on the qualities of microencapsulated powder using freeze drying. It was found that the combination of PPP and MD showed higher solubility of microencapsules compared to the use of PPP alone (P < 0.05). Moreover, the different ratios of wall materials also affected on color (L*, a* and b*) of microencapsulated powder. Morphology of microencapsulated powder using a scanning electron microscope showed holes on the surface reflecting on free oil content and encapsulation efficiency of microencapsules. At least 50% of MD was needed to increase encapsulation efficiency of microencapsulates rather than using only PPP as the wall material (P < 0.05). Microencapsulated turmeric oil powder can be useful as food additives to improve food texture, as a biopolymer material for edible film and coating to maintain quality of food products.
Association between Dairy Consumption and a Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
A systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies were performed to assess the dose-response associations between specific types of dairy foods and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Studies of dairy foods and the risk of MetS and its components published up to June 2016 were searched using PubMed, EMBASE, and a reference search. Random-effects models were used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In a dose-response analysis of cohort studies and cross-sectional studies, the pooled RRs of MetS for a one-serving/day increment of total dairy and milk consumption (200 g/d) were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85–0.96) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79–0.95), respectively. The pooled RR of MetS for yogurt consumption (100 g/d) was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73–0.91). Total dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of MetS components such as hyperglycemia, elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A one-serving/day increment of milk was associated with a 12% lower risk of abdominal obesity, and a one-serving/day increment of yogurt was associated with a 16% lower risk of hyperglycemia. These associations were not significantly different by study design, study location, or adjustment factors. This meta-analysis showed that specific types of dairy consumption such as milk and yogurt as well as total dairy consumption were inversely associated with risk of MetS and its components.