International Science Index

International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering

Reducing Effect of Hawthorn Extract on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines Formation in Meatball
Introduction: Hawthorn is a wild fruit and its decreasing effects on the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been shown in both cell culture studies and clinical trials. Turkey is also a genetic center of hawthorn. Hawthorn fruit and leaves are rich in flavonoids and procyanidin content which have antioxidant activities/free radical scavenging. In this study, reducing effects of hawthorn extract on HCAs formation were investigated. Methods: Proximate composition, creatine/creatinine, reducing sugar of samples were analyzed for all treatments (0.5% and 1% hawthorn extract) in pan-fried and roasted chicken breast. HCAs (IQx, IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, Norharman, Harman, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC) analyzed from meat samples by HPLC. Results: The addition of 0.5% and 1% of the hawthorn extract before cooking showed both inhibitory and promoting effects on the formation of HCAs. By comparing the control group, both treatments (0.5% and 1% hawthorn extract) resulted in the reduction of Trp-P-2 (21.0%-100.0%) and AαC (34.48%-100.0%) concentration at different cooking methods. When creatine levels decreased, the contents of creatinine increased with heating process for all treatments. It was observed that cooking temperature increased, the moisture content decreased. In addition, the increase in pH values of samples by cooking was found. Discussion: The study showed that hawthorn extract could be effective inhibitors of HCAs formation. It may be suggested that hawthorn could be added into ready mixture spice sold in markets for food industry.
Adherence to the Qatari Dietary Guidelines: Gaps, Determinants, and Association with Cardiometabolic Risk amongst Adults
The Qatari Dietary Guidelines (QDGs) were developed as part of the national strategy to prevent chronic diseases. Based on data provided by the Qatar National STEPwise Survey, this cross-sectional study aims at characterizing gaps between the QDGs and usual dietary and lifestyle patterns in Qatar, identifying demographic and socioeconomic determinants of adherence to the QDGs and investigating the association between adherence and cardiometabolic risk amongst Qatari adults. The survey was carried on a nationally representative sample of Qatari subjects aged 18–64 years, and followed the guidelines set by the WHO for the STEPwise surveys of non-communicable disease risk factors. Data collection included socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors, biochemical assessment, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. To examine adherence to the guidelines, each specifc recommendation was matched to corresponding data drawn from the survey. To investigate the association of sociodemographic, lifestyle and cardiometabolic characteristics with adherence to the QDGs, an overall adherence score was calculated. The lowest adherence proportion was noted for legumes and fiber intake, with only 5% and 10 % of the study population meeting the recommendation for these foods groups, respectively. Over 85% of study participants did not meet the recommendations for fruits, vegetables or whole grains intake. Almost 70% of participants adhered to recommendations regarding dairy products, sitting less often and physical activity. While the majority of study participants used vegetable oil in lieu of animal fat in cooking and reported a less frequent consumption of meals outside home, only 50% were consuming fish, fast foods, sweetened beverages according to recommendations. In addtion, 70% of the study particpants were found to be either overweight or obese, and were consequently not adhering to the recommendations pertinent to the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Younger adults, the unemployed, the least educated and the smokers were identified as the population groups with lower adherence to the QDGs. Adherence was also found to be significantly inversely associated with elevated WC, high TG, and metabolic syndrome (OR:0.90, 95%CI:0.85-0.97; OR:0.88, 95%CI:0.77-0.99 and OR:0.87, 95%CI:0.77-0.98, respectively). The observed association between overall adherence to the QDGs and decreased risk of the metabolic syndrome risk may be viewed as an evidence-based confirmation of the heath promoting potential of these guidelines, a fact that should be built upon and highlighted in the implementation of the QDGs at the national level. Building on the identified gaps and vulnerable population groups, the study findings should provide a road map for the prioritization of interventions and the development of culture- specific programs aiming at promoting adherence to dietary guidelines in Qatar, while serving as a model to other countries in the GCC region.
Food Safety Management (FSM) in Central Elementary School Canteens
This descriptive study explored and evaluated the existing Food Safety Management in Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3. It utilized survey questionnaires, interview guide questions and validated knowledge test on food safety as tools in data gathering. Results of the study revealed that food safety management in the Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3 is a shared responsibility of the school principal and the canteen managers. It also showed that the schools applied different methods of communication, monitoring and evaluation of food safety management. It further revealed that not all the schools implement monitoring and evaluation process to assess their food safety compliance. The study also revealed that school canteens in the Region 3 lacks the necessary tools such as thermometers and timers to ensure proper monitoring of foods that were prepared and served in the canteen; canteen personnel lacks the basic knowledge and trainings on food safety and potential source of physical, chemical and biological hazards that could contaminate foods were present in the canteen facilities. Moreover, results showed that the implementation of the existing food safety management in the Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3 were below the expected level and there was still a need to strengthen the appreciation and advocacy on food safety management in school canteens of Region 3.
Chemical and Sensory Properties of Chardonnay Wines Produced in Different Oak Barrels
French oak and American oak barrels are most famous all over the world, but barrels of different origin can also be used for obtaining high quality wines. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of different Slavonian (Croatian) and French oak barrels on the quality of Chardonnay wine. Grapes were grown in Croatian wine growing region of Kutjevo in 2015. Chardonnay wines were tested for basic oenological parameters (alcohol, extract, reducing sugar, SO2, acidity), total polyphenols content (Folin-Ciocalteu method), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH method) and color density. Sensory evaluation was performed by students of viticulture/oenology. Samples produced by classical fermentation and ageing in French oak barrels, had better results for polyphenols and sensory evaluation (especially low toasting level) than samples in Slavonian barrels. All tested samples were scored as a “quality” or “premium quality” wines. Sur lie method of fermentation and ageing in Slavonian oak barrel had very good extraction of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity with the usage of authentic yeasts, while commercial yeast strain resulted in worse chemical and sensory parameters.
Desirable Fatty Acids in Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipid-Based Diets
Introduction: Research has stimulated animal production studies on solutions to decrease the level of saturated fatty acids and increase unsaturated in foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the dietary inclusion of lipid-based diets on the fatty acid profiles from finishing cattle. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months, and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After 63 days mean final live weight was 577.01 kg ± 11.34. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 hours at 2°C. Then, part of the M. longissimus thoracis of each animal was removed between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. The samples steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids was carried out in a gas chromatograph. Desirable fatty acids (FADes) were determined by the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid (C18:0). Results and Discussion: No differences (P>0.05) between the diets for the proportion of FADes in the meat of the animals in this study, according to the lipid sources used. The inclusion of protected fat or cottonseed in the diet did not change the proportion of FADes in the meat. The proportion mean of FADes in meat in the present study were: as pentadecanoic acid (C15:1 = 0.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 = 4.26%), heptadecanoic acid (C17:1 = 0.07%), oleic acid (C18:1n9c = 37.32%), γ-linolenic acid (0.94%) and α-linolenic acid (1.04%), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t = 0.50%), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3 = 0.03%), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 = 0.04%), erucic acid (C22:1n9 = 0.89%), docosadienoic acid (C22:2 = 0.04%) and stearic acid (C18:0 = 21.53%). Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected fatty acids profiles the desirable fatty acids in meat. Acknowledgements: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).
Roasting Degree of Cocoa Beans by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Based Electronic Nose System and Gas Chromatography (GC)
Roasting is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special favors are developed, moisture content is decreased, and better processing properties are developed. Therefore, determination of roasting degree of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products, and it also decides the commercial value of cocoa beans collected from cocoa farmers. The roasting degree of cocoa beans currently relies on human specialists, who sometimes are biased, and chemical analysis, which take long time and are inaccessible to many manufacturers and farmers. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was used to detecting the gas generated by cocoa beans with a different roasting degree (0min, 20min, 30min, and 40min) and the signals collected by gas sensors were used to train a three-layers ANN. Chemical analysis of the graded beans was operated by traditional GC-MS system and the contents of volatile chemical compounds were used to train another ANN as a reference to electronic nosed signals trained ANN. Both trained ANN were used to predict cocoa beans with a different roasting degree for validation. The best accuracy of grading achieved by electronic nose signals trained ANN (using signals from TGS 813 826 820 880 830 2620 2602 2610) turned out to be 96.7%, however, the GC trained ANN got the accuracy of 83.8%.
Modeling of Particle Reduction and Volatile Compounds Profile during Chocolate Conching by Electronic Nose and Genetic Programming (GP) Based System
Conching is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special flavors are developed, and smooth mouse feel the texture of the chocolate is developed due to particle size reduction of cocoa mass and other additives. Therefore, determination of the particle size and volatile compounds profile of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products. Currently, precise particle size measurement is usually done by laser scattering which is expensive and inaccessible to small/medium size chocolate manufacturers. Also, some other alternatives, such as micrometer and microscopy, can’t provide good measurements and provide little information. Volatile compounds analysis of cocoa during conching, has similar problems due to its high cost and limited accessibility. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was inserted to a conching machine and was used to monitoring the volatile compound profile of chocolate during the conching. A model correlated volatile compounds profiles along with factors including the content of cocoa, sugar, and the temperature during the conching to particle size of chocolate particles by genetic programming was established. The model was used to predict the particle size reduction of chocolates with different cocoa mass to sugar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1) at 8 conching time (15min, 30min, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 4h, 8h, and 24h). And the predictions were compared to laser scattering measurements of the same chocolate samples. 91.3% of the predictions were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 5% deviation. 99.3% were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 10% deviation.
Impact of Microwave and Air Velocity on Drying Kinetics and Rehydration of Potato Slices
Drying is one of the most used methods for food preservation, which extend shelf life of food and makes their transportation, storage and packaging easier and more economic. The commonly dried method is hot air drying. However, its disadvantages are low energy efficiency and long drying times. Because of the high temperature during the hot air drying, the undesirable changes in pigments, vitamins and flavoring agents occur which result in degradation of the quality parameters of the product. Drying process can also cause shrinkage, case hardening, dark color, browning, loss of nutrients and others. Recently, new processes were developed in order to avoid these problems. For example, the application of pulsed electric field provokes cell membrane permeabilisation, which increases the drying kinetics and moisture diffusion coefficient. Microwave drying technology has also several advantages over conventional hot air drying, such as higher drying rates and thermal efficiency, shorter drying time, significantly improved product quality and nutritional value. Rehydration kinetics of dried product is a very important characteristic of dried products. Current research has indicated that the rehydration ratio and the coefficient of rehydration are dependent on the processing conditions of drying. The present study compares the efficiency of two processes (1: room temperature air drying, 2: microwave/air drying) in terms of drying rate, product quality and rehydration ratio. In this work, potato slices (≈2.2g) with a thickness of 2 mm and diameter of 33mm were placed in the microwave chamber and dried. Drying kinetics and drying rates of different methods were determined. The process parameters included inlet air velocity (1 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2 m/s) and microwave power (50 W, 100 W, 200 W and 250 W) were studied. The evolution of temperature during microwave drying was measured. The drying power had a strong effect on drying rate, and the microwave-air drying resulted in 93% decrease in the drying time when the air velocity was 2 m/s and the power of microwave was 250 W. Based on Lewis model, drying rate constants (kDR) were determined. It was observed an increase from kDR=0.0002 s-1 to kDR=0.0032 s-1 of air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity was calculated by using Fick's law. The results show an increase of effective moisture diffusivity from 7.52×10-11 to 2.64×10-9 m2.s-1 for air velocity of 2 m/s and microwave/air (at 2m/s and 250W) respectively. The temperature of the potato slices increased for higher microwaves power, but decreased for higher air velocity. The rehydration ratio, defined as the weight of the the sample after rehydration per the weight of dried sample, was determined at different water temperatures (25℃, 50℃, 75℃). The rehydration ratio increased with the water temperature and reached its maximum at the following conditions: 200 W for the microwave power, 2 m/s for the air velocity and 75°C for the water temperature. The present study shows the interest of microwave drying for the food preservation.
Comparative Effects of Convective Drying on the Qualities of Some Leafy Vegetables
This paper reports an investigation of the comparative effects of drying on the quality of some leafy vegetables at three different temperatures namely: 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC. The vegetables investigated are spinach (Amaranthus cruentus); water leaf (Talinum triangulare); lettuce (Lactuca satuva); and fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis). These vegetables are available in abundance during raining season and are commonly consumed by average Nigerians. A convective dryer was used for the drying process at the stipulated temperatures which were maintained with the aid of a thermostat. The vegetable samples after washing was cut into smaller sizes of 0.4 cm-0.5 cm and loaded into the drying cage of the convective dryer. The daily duration of the drying is six hours from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm. The dried samples were thereafter subjected to microbial and proximate analyses. The result of the tests shows that the microbial load decreases as the drying temperature increases. As temperature increases, the moisture content and carbohydrate of all the samples decreases while the crude fiber, ash and protein increases. Percentage fat content decreases as drying temperature increases with the exception of fluted pumpkin. The shelf life of the vegetable samples increase with drying temperature, Spinach has the lowest shelf life followed by Fluted Pumpkin, followed by lettuce while Water Leaf has the highest shelf life at the three drying temperatures of 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC respectively.
Distribution, Seasonal Phenology and Infestation Dispersal of the Chickpea Leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Diptera: Agromizidae) on Two Winter and Spring Chickpea Varieties in Tunisia
In North Africa, the chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromizidae) is one of the major damaging pests affecting both spring and winter-planted chickpea. Damage is caused by the larvae which feed in the leaf mesophyll tissue, resulting in desiccation and premature leaf fall that can cause severe yield losses. In the present work, the distribution and the seasonal phenology of L. cicerina were studied on two chickpea varieties; a winter variety Beja 1 which is the most cultivated variety in Tunisia and a spring-sown variety Amdoun 1. The experiment was conducted during the cropping season 2015-2016. In the experimental research station Oued Beja, in the Beja region (36°44’N; 9°13’E). To determine the distribution and seasonal phenology of L. cicerina in both studied varieties Beja 1 and Amdoun 1, respectively 100 leave samples (50 from the top and 50 from the base) were collected from 10 chickpea plants randomly chosen from each field. The sampling was done during three development stages (i) 20-25 days before flowering (BFL), (ii) at flowering (FL) and (ii) at pod setting stage (PS). For each plant, leaves were checked from the base till the upper ones for the insect infestation progress into the plant in correlation with chickpea growth Stages. Fly adult populations were monitored using 8 yellow sticky traps together with weekly leaves sampling in each field. The traps were placed 70 cm above ground. Trap catches were collected once a week over the cropping season period. Results showed that L. cicerina distribution varied among both studied chickpea varieties and crop development stage all with seasonal phenology. For the winter chickpea variety Beja 1, infestation levels of 2%, 10.3% and 20.3% were recorded on the bases plant part for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively against 0%, 8.1% and 45.8% recorded for the upper plant part leaves for the same stages respectively. For the spring-sown variety Amdoun 1 the infestation level reached 71.5% during flowering stage. Population dynamic study revealed that for Beja 1 variety, L. cicerina accomplished three annual generations over the cropping season period with the third one being the most important with a capture level of 85 adult/trap by mid-May against a capture level of 139 adult/trap at the end May recorded for cv. Amdoun 1. Also, results showed that L. cicerina field infestation dispersal depends on the field part and on the crop growth stage. The border areas plants were more infested than the plants placed inside the plots. For cv. Beja 1, border areas infestations were 11%, 28% and 91.2% for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively, against 2%, 10.73% and 69.2% recorded on the on the inside plot plants during the for the same growth stages respectively. For the cv. Amdoun1 infestation level of 90% was observed on the border plants at FL and PS stages against an infestation level less than 65% recorded inside the plot.
Study on Preparation and Storage of Composite Vegetable Squash of Tomato, Pumpkin and Ginger
In the present world, production and consumption of fruit and vegetable beverages have increased owing to the healthy life style of the people. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop composite vegetable squash by incorporating nutritional, medicinal and organoleptic properties of tomato, pumpkin and ginger. Considering the finding of several preliminary studies, five formulations in different combinations tomato pumpkin were taken and their physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content and total sugar and organoleptic parameters such as colour, aroma, taste, nature, overall acceptability were analyzed. Then the best sample was improved by using 1 % ginger (50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+ 1% ginger). Best three formulations were selected for storage studied. The formulations were stored at 30 °C room temperature and 70-75% of RH for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters , organoleptic and microbial activity (total plate count, yeast and mold, E-coil) were analyzed during storage periods and protein content, fat content, ash were also analysed%.The study on the comparison of physico-chemical and sensory qualities of stored Squashes was done up to 12 weeks storage periods. The nutritional analysis of freshly prepared tomato pumpkin vegetable squash formulations showed increasing trend in titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, non -reducing sugar, total soluble solids and decreasing trend in ascorbic acid and reducing sugar with storage periods. The results of chemical analysis showed that, there were the significant different difference (p < 0.05) between tested formulations. Also, sensory analysis also showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) for organoleptic character characters between squash formulations. The highest overall acceptability was observed in formulation with 50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+1% ginger and all the all the formulations were microbiologically safe for consumption. Based on the result of physico-chemical characteristics, sensory attributes and microbial test, the Composite Vegetable squash with 50% tomato+50% pumpkin+1% ginger was selected as best formulation and could be stored for 12 weeks without any significant changes in quality characteristics.
Study on Ratio of Binder Compounds in Thai Northern Style Sausages
Thai northern style sausage (sai-ou) is originally cuisine made of chili paste, pork, and lard. It always serves with curry paste, vegetable, and rice. The meat and lard ingredients used can be substituted by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and King oyster (Pleurotus eryngii) mushroom (50:50 w/w) which is suitable for all people, especially vegetarians. However, the texture of mushroom type sai-ou had no homogenous texture due to no adhesiveness property of mushroom. Therefore, this research aimed to study the ratio of hydrocolloids (konjac flour (0-100%), konjac gel (0-100%) and Citri-fi®100 FG (0-2%)) on the physicochemical properties mushroom type sai-ou. The mixture design was applied by using Minitab 16 software. Nine formula were designed for the test. The values of moisture content and water activity of nine formula were ranged from 66.25-72.17% and 0.96-0.97. The pH values were 5.44-5.89. The optimal ratio of konjac flour, konjac gel and Citri-fi®100 FG (74.75:24.75:0.5 (w/w)) yielded the highest texture profiles (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) as well as color parameters (L*, a* and b*). Sensory results showed had higher acceptability scores in term of overall liking with the level of ‘like moderately’ (5.9 on 7 pointed scale). The mushroom type sai-ou sausage could be an alternative food for health-conscious consumers.
Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Dietary Intake
Background: There is a mutual relationship between sleep duration and obesity. We studied the relationship between sleep duration with obesity and dietary Intake. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 444 male students in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science. Dietary intake was analyzed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric indices were analyzed. Participants were being asked about their sleep duration and they were categorized into 3 groups according to their responses (less than 6 hours , Between 6 and 8 hours and More than 8 hours). Results: Macro nutrient, micro nutrient and antioxidant intake did not show significant difference between three groups. Moreover, we did not observe any significant difference between anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat). Conclusions: Our study results show no significant relationship between sleep duration, nutrition pattern, and obesity. Further study is recommended.
Encapsulation of Satureja Khuzestanica Essential Oil in Chitosan Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antifungal Activity
During the recent years, the six-fold growth of cancer in Iran has led the production of healthy products to become a challenge in the food industry. Due to the young population in the country, the consumption of fast foods is growing. The chemical cancer-causing preservatives are used to produce these products more than the standard; so using an appropriate alternative seems to be important. On the one hand, the plant essential oils show the high antimicrobial potential against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and on the other hand they are highly volatile and decomposed under the processing conditions. The study aims to produce the loaded chitosan nanoparticles with different concentrations of savory essential oil to improve the anti-microbial property and increase the resistance of essential oil to oxygen and heat. The encapsulation efficiency was obtained in the range of 32.07% to 39.92% and the particle size distribution of the samples was observed in the range of 150 to 210 nm. The range of Zeta potential was obtained between -11.9 to -23.1 mV. The essential oil loaded in chitosan showed stronger antifungal activity against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that the antioxidant property is directly related to the concentration of loaded essential oil so that the antioxidant property increases by increasing the concentration of essential oil. In general, it seems that the savory essential oil loaded in chitosan particles can be used as a food processor.
Securing Land Rights for Food Security in Africa: An Appraisal of Links Between Smallholders’ Land Rights and the Right to Adequate Food in Ethiopia
There are strong links between secure land rights and food security in Africa. However, as land is owned by governments, land users do not have adequate legislative protection. This article explores normative and implementation gaps in relation to small-scale farmers’ land rights under the Ethiopia’s law. It finds that the law facilitates eviction of small-scale farmers and indigenous peoples from their land without adequate alternative means of livelihood. It argues that as access to land and other natural resources is strongly linked to the right to adequate food, Ethiopia should reform its land laws in the light of its legal obligations under international human rights law to respect, protect and fulfill the right to adequate food and ensure freedom from hunger.
Effects of Drying and Extraction Techniques on the Profile of Volatile Compounds in Banana Pseudostem
Banana is one of the most important crops produced in large quantities in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Of the total plant material grown, approximately 40% is considered waste and left in the field to decay. This practice allows fungal diseases such as Sigatoka Leaf Spot to develop, limiting plant growth and spreading spores in the air that can cause respiratory problems in the surrounding population. The pseudostem is considered a waste residue of production (60 to 80 tonnes/ha/year), although it is a good source of dietary fiber and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). Strategies to process banana pseudostem into palatable, nutritious and marketable food materials could provide significant social and economic benefits. Extraction of VOC’s with desirable odor from dried and fresh pseudostem could improve the smell of products from the confectionary and bakery industries. Incorporation of banana pseudostem flour into bakery products could provide cost savings and improve nutritional value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drying methods and different banana species on the profile of volatile aroma compounds in dried banana pseudostem. The banana species analyzed were Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Fresh banana pseudostem samples were processed by either freeze-drying (FD) or heat pump drying (HPD). The extraction of VOC’s was performed at ambient temperature using vacuum distillation and the resulting, mostly aqueous, distillates were analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Optimal SPME adsorption conditions were 50 °C for 60 min using a Supelco 65 μm PDMS/DVB Stableflex fiber1. Compounds were identified by comparison of their electron impact mass spectra with those from the Wiley 9 / NIST 2011 combined mass spectral library. The results showed that the two species have notably different VOC profiles. Both species contained VOC’s that have been established in literature to have pleasant appetizing aromas. These included l-Menthone, D-Limonene, trans-linlool oxide, 1-Nonanol, CIS 6 Nonen-1ol, 2,6 Nonadien-1-ol, Benzenemethanol, 4-methyl, 1-Butanol, 3-methyl, hexanal, 1-Propanol, 2-methyl- acid، 2-Methyl-2-butanol. Results show banana pseudostem VOC’s are better preserved by FD than by HPD. This study is still in progress and should lead to the optimization of processing techniques that would promote the utilization of banana pseudostem in the food industry.
The Curse of Oil: Unpacking the Challenges to Food Security in the Nigeria's Niger Delta
While the Niger Delta region satisfies the global thirst for oil, the inhabitants have not been adequately compensated for the use of their ancestral land. Besides, the ruthless exploitation and destruction of the natural environment upon which the inhabitants of the Niger Delta depend for their livelihood and sustenance by the activities of oil multinationals, pose major threats to food security in the region and by implication, Nigeria in general, Africa, and the world, given the present global emphasis on food security. This paper examines the effect of oil exploitation on household food security, identify key gaps in measures put in place to address the changes to livelihoods and food security and explore what should be done to improve the local people access to sufficient, safe and culturally acceptable food in the Niger Delta. Data is derived through interviews with key informants and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with respondents in the local communities in the Niger Delta states of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers as well as relevant extant studies. The threat to food security is one important aspect of the human security challenges in the Niger Delta which has received limited scholarly attention. In addition, successive Nigerian governments have not meaningfully addressed the negative impacts of oil-induced environmental degradation on traditional livelihoods given the significant linkages between environmental sustainability, livelihood security, and food security. The destructive impact of oil pollution on the farmlands, crops, economic trees, creeks, lakes, and fishing equipment is so devastating that the people can no longer engage in productive farming and fishing. Also important is the limited access to modern agricultural methods for fishing and subsistence farming as fishing and farming are done using mostly crude implements and traditional methods. It is imperative and urgent to take stock of the negative implications of the activities of oil multinationals for environmental and livelihood sustainability, and household food security in the Niger Delta.
Potential Benefits and Adaptation of Climate Smart Practices by Small Farmers Under Three-Crop Rice Production System in Vietnam
Rice growing area is increasing to meet the food demand of increasing population. Mostly, rice is growing on lowland, small landholder fields in most part of the world, which is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture fields. The strategies such as, altering water and residues (carbon) management practices are assumed to be essential to mitigate the GHG emissions from flooded rice system. The actual implementation and potential of these measures on small farmer fields is still challenging. A field study was conducted on red river delta in Northern Vietnam to identify the potential challenges and barriers to the small rice farmers for implementation of climate smart rice practices. The objective of this study was to develop and access the feasibility of climate smart rice prototypes under actual farmer conditions. Field and scientific oriented framework was used to meet our objective. The methodological framework composed of six steps: i) identification of stakeholders and possible options, ii) assessment of barrios, drawbacks/advantages of new technologies, iii) prototype design, iv) assessment of mitigation potential of each prototype, v) scenario building and vi) scenario assessment. A farm survey was conducted to identify the existing farm practices and major constraints of small rice farmers. We proposed the two water (pre transplant+midseason drainage and early+midseason drainage) and one straw (full residue incorporation) management option keeping in views the farmers constraints and barriers for implementation. To test new typologies with existing prototypes (midseason drainage, partial residue incorporation) at farmer local conditions, a participatory field experiment was conducted for two consecutive rice seasons at farmer fields. Following the results of each season a workshop was conducted with stakeholders (farmers, village leaders, cooperatives, irrigation staff, extensionists, agricultural officers) at local and district level to get feedbacks on new tested prototypes and to develop possible scenarios for climate smart rice production practices. The farm analysis survey showed that non-availability of cheap labor and lacks of alternatives for straw management influence the small farmers to burn the residues in the fields except to use for composting or other purposes. Our field results revealed that application of early season drainage significantly mitigates (40-60%) the methane emissions from residue incorporation. Early season drainage was more efficient and easy to control under cooperate manage system than individually managed water system, and it leads to both economic (9-11% high rice yield, low cost of production, reduced nutrient loses) and environmental (mitigate methane emissions) benefits. The participatory field study allows the assessment of adaptation potential and possible benefits of climate smart practices on small farmer fields. If farmers have no other residue management option, full residue incorporation with early plus midseason drainage is adaptable and beneficial (both environmentally and economically) management option for small rice farmers.
Potential Use of Cnidoscolus Chayamansa Leaf from Mexico as High-Quality Protein Source
Poverty and food insecurity are still incident problems in the developing countries, where population´s diet is based on cereals which are lack in protein content. Nevertheless, during last years the use of native plants has been studied as an alternative source of protein in order to improve the nutritional intake. Chaya crop also called Spinach tree, is a prehispanic plant native from Central America and South of Mexico (Mayan culture), which has been especially valued due to its high nutritional content particularly protein and some medicinal properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein isolation processing from Chaya leaf harvest in Yucatan, Mexico on its structure quality in order: i) to valorize the Chaya crop and ii) to produce low-cost and high-quality protein. Chaya leaf was extruded, clarified and recovered using: a) acid precipitation by decreasing the pH value until reach the isoelectric point (3.5) and b) thermal coagulation, by heating the protein solution at 80 °C during 30 min. Solubilized protein was re-dissolved in water and spray dried. The presence of Fraction I protein, known as RuBisCO (Rubilose-1,5-biphosfate carboxylase/oxygenase) was confirmed by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) where molecular weight bands of 55 KDa and 12 KDa were observed. The infrared spectrum showed changes in protein structure due to the isolation method. The use of high temperatures (thermal coagulation) highly decreased protein solubility in comparison to isoelectric precipitated protein, the nutritional properties according to amino acid profile was also disturbed, showing minor amounts of overall essential amino acids from 435.9 to 367.8 mg/g. Chaya protein isolate obtained by acid precipitation showed higher protein quality according to essential amino acid score compared to FAO recommendations, which could represent an important sustainable source of protein for human consumption.
Physicochemical and Sensorial Evaluation of Astringency Reduction in Cashew Apple (Annacardium occidentale L.) Powder Processing in Cookie Elaboration
Cashew agroindustry obtained from cashew apple crop (Anacardium occidentale L.) generates large amounts of unused waste in Campeche, Mexico. Despite having a high content of nutritional compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, fiber, carbohydrates, and minerals, it is not consumed due to its astringent sensation. The aim of this work was to develop a processing method for cashew apple waste in order to obtain a powder with reduced astringency able to be used as an additive in the food industry. The processing method consisted first in reducing astringency by inducing tannins from cashew apple peel to react and form precipitating complexes with a colloid rich in proline and histidine. Then cashew apples were processed to obtain a dry powder. Astringency reduction was determined by total phenolic content and evaluated by sensorial analysis in cashew-apple-powder based cookies. Total phenolic content in processed powders showed up to 72% lower concentration compared to control samples. The sensorial evaluation indicated that cookies baked using cashew apple powder with reduced astringency were 96.8% preferred. Sensorial characteristics like texture, color and taste were also well-accepted attributes. In conclusion, the method applied for astringency reduction is a viable tool to produce cashew apple powder with desirable sensorial properties to be used in the development of food products.
Improving the Logistic System to Secure Effective Food Fish Supply Chain in Indonesia
Indonesia is a world’s major fish producer which can feed not only its citizens but also the people of the world. Currently, the total annual production is 11 tons and expected to double by the year of 2050. Given the potential, fishery has been an important part of the national food security system in Indonesia. Despite such a potential, a big challenge is facing the Indonesians in making fish the reliable source for their food, more specifically source of protein intake. The long geographic distance between the fish production centers and the consumer concentrations has prevented effective supply chain from producers to consumers and therefore demands a good logistic system. This paper is based on our research, which aimed at analyzing the fish supply chain and is to suggest relevant improvement to the chain. The research was conducted in the Year of 2016 in selected locations of Java Island, where intensive transaction on fishery commodities occur. Data used in this research comprises secondary data of time series reports on production and distribution and primary data regarding distribution aspects which were collected through interviews with purposively selected 100 respondents representing fishers, traders and processors. The data were analyzed following the supply chain management framework and processed following logistic regression and validity tests. The main findings of the research are as follows. Firstly, it was found that improperly managed connectivity and logistic chain is the main cause for insecurity of availability and affordability for the consumers. Secondly, lack of quality of most local processed products is a major obstacle for improving affordability and connectivity. The paper concluded with a number of recommended strategies to tackle the problem. These include rationalization of the length of the existing supply chain, intensification of processing activities, and improvement of distribution infrastructure and facilities.
The Impact of Legislation on Waste and Losses in the Food Processing Sector in the UK/EU
Introduction: European weight regulations with respect to food products require a full understanding of regulation guidelines to assure regulatory compliance. It is suggested that the complexity of regulation leads to practices which result to over filling of food packages by food processors. Purpose: To establish current practices by food processors and the financial, sustainable and societal impacts on the food supply chain of ineffective food production practices. Methods: An analysis of food packing controls with 10 companies of varying food categories and quantitative based research of a further 15 food processes on the confidence in weight control analysis of finished food packs within their organisation. Results: A process floor analysis of manufacturing operations focussing on 10 products found over fill of packages ranging from 4.8% to 20.2%. Standard deviation figures for all products showed a potential for reducing average weight of the pack whilst still retain the legal status of the product. In 20% of cases, an automatic weight analysis machine was in situ however weight packs were still significantly overweight. Collateral impacts noted included the effect of overfill on raw material purchase and added food miles often on a global basis with one raw material alone creating 10,000 extra food miles due to the poor weight control of the processing unit. A case study of a meat and bakery product will be discussed with the impact of poor controls resulting from complex legislation. The case studies will highlight extra energy costs in production and the impact of the extra weight on fuel usage. If successful a risk assessment model used primarily on food safety but adapted to identify waste /sustainability risks will be discussed within the presentation.
Improved Food Security and Alleviation of Cyanide Intoxication through Commercialization and Utilization of Cassava Starch by Tanzania Industries
Starchy tuberous roots of cassava provide food for people but also find application in various industries. Recently there has been the focus of concentrated research efforts to fully exploit its potential as a sustainable multipurpose crop. High starch yield is the important trait for commercial cassava production for the starch industries. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava root poses a health challenge in the use of cassava for food. Farming communities where cassava is a staple food, prefer bitter (high cyanogenic) varieties as protection from predators and thieves. As a result, food insecure farmers prefer growing bitter cassava. This has led to cyanide intoxication to this farming communities. Cassava farmers can benefit from marketing cassava to starch producers thereby improving their income and food security. This will decrease dependency on cassava as staple food as a result of increased income and be able to afford other food sources. To achieve this, adequate information is required on the right cassava cultivars and appropriate harvesting period so as to maximize cassava production and profitability. This study aimed at identifying suitable cassava cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production. Six commonly grown cultivars were identified and planted in a complete random block design and further analysis was done to assess variation in physicochemical characteristics, starch yield and cyanogenic potentials across three environments. The analysis showed that there is a difference in physicochemical characteristics between landraces (p ≤ 0.05), and can be targeted to different industrial applications. Among landraces, dry matter (30-39%), amylose (11-19%), starch (74-80%) and reducing sugars content (1-3%) varied when expressed on a dry weight basis (p ≤ 0.05); however, only one of the six genotypes differed in crystallinity and mean starch granule particle size, while glucan chain distribution and granule morphology were the same. In contrast, the starch functionality features measured: swelling power, solubility, syneresis, and digestibility differed (p ≤ 0.05). This was supported by Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), which highlighted the divergence among the cassavas based on starch functionality, permitting suggestions for the targeted uses of these starches in diverse industries. The study also illustrated genotypic difference in starch yield and cyanogenic potential. Among landraces, Kiroba showed potential for maximum starch yield (12.8 t ha-1) followed by Msenene (12.3 t ha-1) and third was Kilusungu (10.2 t ha-1). The cyanide content of cassava landraces was between 15 and 800 ppm across all trial sites. GGE biplot analysis further confirmed that Kiroba was a superior cultivar in terms of starch yield. Kilusungu had the highest cyanide content and average starch yield, therefore it can also be suitable for use in starch production.
Microbiological Quality of Baru Almond under Different Processing and Storage Conditions
The fruits from different baru trees were obtained in Santa Izabel municipality in Goias State, Brazil. The harvest was carried out between August to October/2015, when the fruits were in physiological ripe point. Fruits were collected randomically considering good external aspects without signs of animal attack, spoilage or dirt. This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological post harvest quality of baru almond under different processing and storage conditions. The baru almonds were toasted at 50 °C, 100 °C and 150 °C and non toasted, after that, they were chilled to room temperature, packing in plastic bag and storaged in three different temperatures (7 °C, 28 °C and -19 °C) for six months. Coliforms at 35 °C and 45 °C analyzes were carried out in triplicate each month and the results obtained were evaluated in a descriptive way. Only non toasted baru almond presented contamination compared to other treatments. This result indicates heat treatments were effective to controlling contamination in baru almonds for six months. The results of coliforms at 35°C shown that only non toasted baru almond presented contamination during the storage time with 0.53 NMP/g in first month and 0.3 NMP/g in the sixth month. The treatments T50, T100 and T150 presented coliforms counting
Physical Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Green Banana Mayonnaise
The banana presents a high nutritional value because it presents itself as an energy source due to the presence of starches and sugars in its composition, in addition to the vitamins A and C and minerals such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and magnesium others to a lesser extent, also being one of the fruits which have a major losses post-harvest decay, since it is highly perishable, not allowing the cold use for storage, thus giving rise to the idea that industrialization is one way more suitable for a better use of production. This work aimed to develop four formulations of green banana mayonnaise, evaluating physical chemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were donated by a local farmer from Itapuranga-GO. The materials and fruits were sanitized with a 100 mg.L-1 chlorine solution and bananas were boiled for 25 minutes, peeled, sliced, blended, added ingredients and stored in sterilized glass bottles. Titritable acidity, pH, humidity and ash analysis were performed in triplicate. Sensory analisys were carried out to acceptability (taste, consistence, aroma, flavor and global aspects) with 50 non trained panelists. For pH, the results shown to natural, pepper and rosé formulations there were no significance difference between them. For titritable acidity, the higher value was to mustard formulation who presented significance difference from the other ones, besides pepper and rosé didn't differ statistically each other. For humidity, natural and rosé presented higher values compared to the other ones. For sensory analysis, pepper and rosé shown higher scores for all evaluated attributes compared to other ones, been the formulations more accepted by panelists. The green banana mayonnaise showed promise as a form of alternative consumption for a better use of this fruit.
Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds from Coleus Using Response Surface Methodology
Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) have detrimental effects on human health through several mechanisms. On the other hand, antioxidant molecules reduce free radical generation in biologic systems. Synthetic antioxidants, which are used in food industry, have also negative impact on human health. Therefore recognition of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins can solve these problems simultaneously. Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides) with red leaves is a rich source of anthocyanins compounds. In this study we evaluated the effect of time (10, 20 and 30 min) and temperature (40, 50 and 60° C) on optimization of anthocyanin extraction using surface response method. In addition, the study was aimed to determine maximum extraction for anthocyanin from coleus plant using ultrasound method. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for extraction were 39.84 min at 69.25° C. At this point, total compounds were achieved 3.7451 mg 100 ml⁻¹. Furthermore, under optimum conditions, anthocyanin concentration, extraction efficiency, ferric reducing ability, total phenolic compounds and EC50 were registered 3.221931, 6.692765, 223.062, 3355.605 and 2.614045, respectively.
Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment
Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.
Quality of Low Fat Traditional Pork Sausage Containing Transglutaminase
Commercial traditional pork sausages (Moo Yaw) were produced by added more than 30% of pork fat for appetite customer. The pork sausages texture were softness, firmness, juiciness and smooth. If the pork sausages contained less fat, their textures were hardness, dryness and incoherence. This research investigated production of low fat traditional pork sausage containing transglutaminase for improved its sensory properties and nutritive values. The enzyme pork sausage composed of transglutaminase, soybean cake, rice bran oil and other ingredients. Consumer acceptance test was done by comparing the enzyme pork sausage with the 3 commercial pork sausage with 95 consumer. The enzyme pork sausage was accepted 92.6% and was preferred in all attributes over the 3 commercial pork sausages such as appearance, color, flavor, taste, firmness and overall liking. The enzyme pork sausage was high protein but low total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and carbohydrate. The enzyme pork sausage was lower calorie (90 kcal) than the commercial reference pork sausage (150 kcal) 64%. The morphological texture of the enzyme pork sausage was smooth and consistency when analyzed by SEM.
The Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Instant Fruit Green Tea Powders
Green tea, mangosteen and pomegranate contain high levels of bioactive compounds which have multiple antioxidant and great potential in food applications. The aim of this study was to produce and determine catechin contents, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of two instant fruit green tea powders which were green tea fortified with mangosteen juice and green tea fortified with pomegranate juice. The hot water extract of green tea was mixed with mangosteen juice or pomegranate juice at a ratio of 30 % (v/v), and then spray-dried using a spray dryer. The results showed that the optimal drying conditions of both powders were the inlet air temperature of 170°C, outlet air temperature was controlled at 90°C and maltodextrin concentration of 30% which contained the highest total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity in the products. The instant green tea with mangosteen powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 19.18 (mg gallic acid/kg), 85.44 (mg/kg) and 4,334 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The instant green tea with pomegranate powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 32.72 (mg gallic acid/kg), 156.36 (mg/kg) and 6,283 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The phenolic compounds in instant green tea with mangosteen powder comprised tannic acid (2,156.87 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (898.23 mg/kg) and rutin (13.74 mg/kg). And the phenolic compounds in instant green tea with pomegranate powder comprised tannic acid (2,275.82 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (981.23 mg/kg), rutin (14.97 mg/kg) and i-quercetin (5.86 mg/kg).
Carbohydrate-Based Recommendations as a Basis for Dietary Guidelines
Recently a number of renewed dietary guidelines have been published by various health authorities. The aim of the present work was 1) to review the processes (systematic approach/review, inclusion of public consultation) and methodological approaches used to identify and select the underpinning evidence base for the established recommendations for total carbohydrate (CHO), fiber and sugar consumption, and 2) examine how differences in the methods and processes applied may have influenced the final recommendations. A search of WHO, US, Canada, Australia and European sources identified 13 authoritative dietary guidelines with the desired detailed information. Each of these guidelines was evaluated for its scientific basis (types and grading of the evidence) and the processes by which the guidelines were developed Based on the data retrieved the following conclusions can be drawn: 1) Generally, a relatively high total CHO and fiber intake and limited intake of sugars (added or free) is recommended. 2) Even where recommendations are quite similar, the specific, justifications for quantitative/qualitative recommendations differ across authorities. 3) Differences appear to be due to inconsistencies in underlying definitions of CHO exposure and in the concurrent appraisal of CHO-providing foods and nutrients as well the choice and number of health outcomes selected for the evidence appraisal. 4) Differences in the selected articles, time frames or data aggregation method appeared to be of rather minor influence. From this assessment, the main recommendations are for: 1) more explicit quantitative justifications for numerical guidelines and communication of uncertainty; and 2) greater international harmonization, particularly with regard to underlying definitions of exposures and range of relevant nutrition-related outcomes.