International Science Index

International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering

Concentration of Zinc Micronutrients in Breast Milk Based on Determinant of Mother and Baby in Kassi-Kassi Health Center
Breast milk is the complex biological fluid mix of macronutrient and micronutrient that are considered as perfect food for babies. Zinc has a role in various biological functions and physical growth. This research aims to know the average zinc (Zn) micronutrients content of breast milk by determinants of infant (birth weight) and mother (nutritional status and food intake) and description of the pattern of mothers breastfeeding. The type of research used is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population was 41 mothers in Kassi-Kassi health center within one month. Sample research is mothers who gave birth at term and breastfed her baby. Sampling was done with random sampling technique involving 37 people. Samples of breast milk were analyzed in the laboratory by using the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry (AAS). This research find that from the samples (n=37) the average contents of zinc in the breast milk is 0,88±0,54 mg/L with the highest value on the group of low birth weight babies (1,13 ± 0,67mg/L), mothers who had normal nutritional status (0,981 ± 0,514 mg/L) and intake low zinc (0,94 ± 0,54 mg/L). Regarding breastfeeding pattern, 67,6% of the samples had had breastfeeding experience and 81,1% of breastfed more than eight times a day. In summary, the highest average value of the zinc content of breast milk was in the group of low birth weight babies, mother with normal nutritional status, and mothers having relatively low intake pattern.
in vitro Assessment of Bioactive Properties and Dose-Dependent Antioxidant Activities of Commercial Grape Cultivars in Taiwan
Grapes are excellent sources of bioactive compounds, which have been suggested to be responsible for lowering the risk of chronic diseases. Fresh and freeze-dried extracts of Kyoho and Jubilee, commercial grape varieties available in Taiwan and attractive for their quality berries, were investigated for their total phenolics and total flavonoids contents and related dose-dependent antioxidants properties using various in vitro assays. The efficiency of the extraction yield ranged from 7.10 % to 25.53 % (w/w), depending on solvent used. Fresh samples of Kyoho and Jubilee exhibited total polyphenolic contents (351.56 ± 23.08 and 328.67 ± 16.54 µg GAE/mL, respectively), whereas Kyoho freeze-dried methanol: water extracts contains the good levels of total flavonoids (4767.82 ± 22.20 µg QE/mL). Kyoho and Jubilee freeze-dried extracts exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents. There was a weak correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid assays (r= -0.05, R2 = 0.02, p > 0.05). Kyoho fresh and freeze-dried samples showed the DPPH (11.51 – 77.82 %), superoxide scavenging activity (33.61 – 81.95 %), and total antioxidant inhibition (92.01 – 99.28 %), respectively. Total flavonoids were statistically correlated with EC50 DPPH scavenging radicals (r =0.91, p < 0.01), EC50 nitric oxide (r = 0.25, p > 0.05), and EC50 lipid peroxidation radicals (r = 0.38, p > 0.05). These results suggested that the two commercial grape cultivars in Taiwan could be used as a good source of natural antioxidants. Thus, consumption of grapes as a source antioxidant might lower the risk of chronic diseases. Moreover, future studies will investigate and develop phenolic acid profile for the cultivars in Taiwan.
Solvent and CO2-Supercritical Extraction of Bencyo Isotiocianate to Tropaeolum majus L.
Tropaeolum majus is a wild plant native to Peru containing bioactive compounds important in industry and health. The objective of the work was the extraction of benzyl isothiocyanate from the leaves. Two extraction methods, solvent and supercritical CO2 were used. The leaves were crushed and lyophilized to obtain a humidity of 6%, and fineness modulus of 4.8. For solvent extraction, the glucosinolates were hydrolyzed using potassium phosphate buffer pH 7, and extraction with dichloromethane, the extract was purified using the resprep C18 activated columns with ethanol: water (1: 1). For the extraction with supercritical CO2, it was worked at pressures of 200 and 300 Bar; and 50, 60 and 70 ° C temperature, the extraction was performed with a supercritical fluid extractor unit Speed SFE BASIC Brand: Poly science, from which the oleoresin was obtained. After obtaining the oleoresin, in both cases benzyl isothiocyanate was identified by thin layer chromatography using 98% benzyl isothiocyanate as the standard, and as the mobile phase hexane: dichloromethane (4: 2) as the mobile phase. The quantification of the benzyl isothiocyanate was performed by HPLC. The best oleoresin yield of the supercritical CO2 extraction was obtained at 300 Bar and 60 ° C (35%); And the highest yield in the benzyl isothiocyanate content was obtained at 300 Bar and 70 ° C for a time of 30 minutes. A content of 252.53 ± 0.11 mg BIT / 100gms was obtained for solvent extraction and 117.15 ± 0.21 mg BIT / 100gms per supercritical CO2.
Edge Enhancement Visual Methodology for Fat Amount and Distribution Assessment in Dry-Cured Ham Slices
Dry-cured ham is an uncooked meat product particularly appreciated for its peculiar sensory traits among which lipid component plays a key role in defining quality and, consequently, consumers’ acceptability. Usually, fat content and distribution are chemically determined by expensive, time-consuming, and destructive analyses. Moreover, different sensory techniques are applied to assess product conformity to desired standards. In this context, visual systems are getting a foothold in the meat market envisioning more reliable and time-saving assessment of food quality traits. The present work aims at developing a simple but systematic and objective visual methodology to assess fat amount of dry-cured ham slices, in terms of total, intermuscular and intramuscular fractions. To the aim, 160 slices from 80 PDO dry-cured hams were evaluated by digital image analysis and Soxhlet extraction. RGB images were captured by a flatbed scanner, converted in grey-scale images, and segmented based on intensity histograms as well as on a multi-stage algorithm aimed at edge enhancement. The latter was performed applying the Canny algorithm, which consists of image noise reduction, calculation of the intensity gradient for each image, spurious response removal, actual thresholding on corrected images, and confirmation of strong edge boundaries. The approach allowed for the automatic calculation of total, intermuscular and intramuscular fat fractions as percentages of the total slice area. Linear regression models were run to estimate the relationships between the image analysis results and the chemical data, thus allowing for the prediction of the total, intermuscular and intramuscular fat content by the dry-cured ham images. The goodness of fit of the obtained models was confirmed in terms of coefficient of determination (R²), hypothesis testing and pattern of residuals. Good regression models have been found being 0.73, 0.82, and 0.73 the R2 values for the total fat, the sum of intermuscular and intramuscular fat and the intermuscular fraction, respectively. In conclusion, the edge enhancement visual procedure brought to a good fat segmentation making the simple visual approach for the quantification of the different fat fractions in dry-cured ham slices sufficiently simple, accurate and precise. The presented image analysis approach steers towards the development of instruments that can overcome destructive, tedious and time-consuming chemical determinations. As future perspectives, the results of the proposed image analysis methodology will be compared with those of sensory tests in order to develop a fast grading method of dry-cured hams based on fat distribution. Therefore, the system will be able not only to predict the actual fat content but it will also reflect the visual appearance of samples as perceived by consumers.
A Model to Assist Military Mission Planners in Identifying and Assessing Variables Impacting Food Security
The U.S. military plays an increasing role in supporting political stability efforts, and this includes efforts to prevent the food insecurity that can trigger political and social instability. This paper presents a model that assists military commanders in identifying variables that impact food production and distribution in their areas of operation (AO), in identifying connections between variables and in assessing the impacts of those variables on food production and distribution. Through use of the model, military units can better target their data collection efforts and can categorize and analyze data within the data categorization framework most widely-used by military forces—PMESII-PT (Political, Military, Economic, Infrastructure, Information, Physical Environment and Time). The model provides flexibility of analysis in that commanders can target analysis to be highly focused on a specific PMESII-PT domain or variable or conduct analysis across multiple PMESII-PT domains. The model is also designed to assist commanders in mapping food systems in their AOs and then identifying components of those systems that must be strengthened or protected.
Environmental Risk of Pharmaceuticals, Drugs of Abuse and Stimulant Caffeine in Marine Water: A Case Study in the North-Western of Spain
The region of Galicia, found in north-western (NW) Spain, is a national and world leader in shellfish, especially mussel production, and recognized for its fishing industry. Few studies have evaluated the presence of emerging contaminants in NW Spain, with those published mainly concerning the continental aquatic environment. The objective of this study was to identify the environmental risk posed by the presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in this important coastal region. The presence of sixteen pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines, anxiolytics, and caffeine), and 19 drugs of abuse (cocainics, amphetamine-like compounds, opiates and opioids, lysergic compounds, and cannabinoids) was assessed in 23 sites located in the Rías (Coastal inlets) of Muros, Arousa, and Pontevedra (NW Spain). Twenty-two of these locations were affected by waste-water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, and one represented the effluent of one of these WWTPs. Venlafaxine was the pharmaceutical compound detected at higher concentration in the three Rías, with a maximum value of 291 ng/L at the site Porto do Son (Ría de Muros). Total concentration in the three Rías was 819,26 ng/L. Next, citalopram and lorazepam were the most prevalent compounds detected. Metabolite of cocaine benzoylecgonine was the drug of abuse with the highest concentration, measured at 972 ng/L in the Ría of Noia WWTP (no dilution). This compound was also detected at 142 ng/L in the site La Isla de Aros, Ría of Pontevedra. Total concentration for the three Rías was 1210 ng/L. Ephedrine was also detected at high level in the three Rías, with a total concentration of 579,28 ng/L. The results obtained for caffeine show maximum and average concentrations of 857 ng/L Isla de Arosa, Ría de Pontevedra the highest measured in seawater in Spain. A preliminary hazard assessment was carried out by comparing these measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for aquatic organisms. Six out of the 22 seawater samples resulted in a Hazard Quotient (HQ) from chronic exposure higher than 1 with the highest being 17.14, indicating a high probability of adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In addition, the risk was assessed on the basis of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT).
Culture Medium Design Based on Whey for the Growth and Bacteriocin Production of Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus
Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a competitive strategy for substrate and habitat. Those peptides have a potential use as food biopreservatives due to their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, avoiding the use of additives that can be harmful to consumers. The industrial production of bacteriocins is currently expensive; one of the options to be competitive is the development of economic culture media, for example, with the use of agro-industrial wastes such as whey. This study evaluated the growth and production of bacteriocins from four strains: Pediococcus pentosaceus 63, Pediococcus pentosaceus 145, Pediococcus pentosaceus 146 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 147 isolated from ‘minas cheese’ (artisanal cheese made from raw milk in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) in order to select a strain with growth at high rates and higher antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes 104 after incubation on the culture medium designed with whey and other components. The media used were: MRS broth, modified MRS broth (using different sources of carbon and nitrogen and different amounts of micronutrients) and a culture medium designed by a factorial design using whey and other components. The final biomass concentrations of the four strains in MRS broth after 24 hours of incubation were very similar 9.25, 9.33, 9.25 and 9.22 (log CFU/mL) for P. pentosaceus 63, P. pentosaceus 145, P. pentosaceus 146 and P. pentosaceus 147 respectively. In the same assays, antimicrobial activity of 3200 AU/mL for the first three and of 12800 AU/mL for P. pentosaceus 147 were obtained. Culture of P. pentosaceus 63 on modified MRS broth, showed the effect of some sources of carbon on the activity of bacteriocin, obtaining 12800 AU/mL with dextrose and 25600 AU/mL with maltose. Cultures of P. pentosaceus 145, 146 and 147 with these same sugars presented activity of 12800 AU/mL. It was observed that the modified MRS medium using whey increased the antimicrobial activity of the strains at 16000, 6400, 16000 and 19200 AU/mL for each strain respectively, keeping the biomass at values close to 9 log units. About nitrogen sources, it was observed that the combination of peptone (10 g /L), meat extract (10 g/L) and yeast extract (5 g/L) promoted the highest activity (12800 AU/mL), and in all cases MgSO4, MnSO4, K2HPO4 and ammonium citrate at low concentrations adversely affected bacteriocin production. Because P. pentosaceus 147 showed the highest antimicrobial activity in the presence of whey, it was used to evaluate the culture medium (peptone (10 g/L), meat extract (8 g/L), yeast extract (2 g/L), Tween® 80 (1 g/L), ammonium citrate (2 g/L), sodium acetate (5 g/L), MgSO4 (0.2 g/L), MnSO4 (0.04 g/L)). With the designed medium added with whey, 9.34 log units of biomass concentration and 19200 AU/mL were achieved for P. pentosaceus 147. The above suggest that the new medium promotes the antimicrobial activity of P. pentosaceus 147 allowing the use of an economic medium using whey.
In vitro Antioxidant, Anticancer Properties and Probiotic Characteristics of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains
Probiotic strains can potentially be used as bio-preservatives and functional food supplement. Eight lactic acid bacteria strains (LAB) Lactobacillus brevis NRRL B-4527; Streptococcus thermophilus BLM 58; Pediococcusacidilactici ATCC 8042; Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCUG 1452; Lactobacillus curvatus ATCC 51436; Lactococcuslactis sub sp. lactisDSM 20481; Lactobacillus plantarum DMSZ 20079 and Lactobacillus plantarumTF103 were selected to screen the antioxidant, anticancer potential and probiotic properties. LAB strains exhibited good probiotic, antioxidant properties and showed antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogenic (Bacillus subtilis DB 100 host; Candida albicans ATCCMYA-2876; Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3584; Escherichia coli BA 12296; Klebsiellapneumoniae ATCC12296; Salmonella senftenberg ATCC 8400 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10788). Further, in vitro probiotic properties of eight strains displayed excellent acid tolerance, bile tolerance, simulated gastrointestinal juice tolerance, in vitro adhesion ability for HT-29 cell line. The antioxidant effect of intracellular and cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, namely, resistance to hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS). The results showed that intracellular and cell-free supernatant of S. Thermophilus BLM 58, L. lactissubsp.lactis DSM 20481, P. acidilactici ATCC 8042, L. brevis NRRL B-4527 strains possess excellent antioxidant capacity. The intracellular of S. Thermophilus BLM 58 and P. acidilactici ATCC 8042 also showed excellent anticancer activity against Caco-2, MCF-7, HepG-2, and PC-3. Antioxidative property of selected lactic acid bacteria strains would be useful in the functional food manufacturing industry. They could beneficially affect the consumer by providing dietary source of antioxidants.
Impact of Preventive Health Practices on Chronic Heart Disease in the US: A Secondary Data Analysis
Objective: The aim of the study was to examine how exercise, health care access, cholesterol awareness, and hypertension affect coronary heart disease (CHD) or myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) administered telephone surveys that collected data on the variables stated above from 53 states or territories using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) systems were used and analyzed for the study. The primary outcome of interest was CHD or MI. Participants’ sex, income, and education were used as covariates. A binomial logistic regression was performed on 24,306 observations to evaluate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Results: Those who have had their cholesterol checked in past five years and those who have high blood pressure, are more likely to experience CHD or MI compared to those who have not had their cholesterol checked or do not have high blood pressure. Access to health care was not found to have a significant impact on chronic heart condition. The results also indicate that those who exercise regularly are less likely to experience CHD or MI compared to those who don’t. Males are more likely to experience CHD or MI compared to females. As income and educational level increase people’s likelihood of experiencing CHD or MI decrease. Conclusion: Most of the results found from the study are intuitive except for the relationship between cholesterol check and CHD or MI. The results demonstrate the importance of creating awareness on preventive health practices among people through public health campaigns.
Effects of Plasma Technology in Biodegradable Films for Food Packaging
Biodegradable films for food packaging have gained growing attention due to environmental pollution caused by synthetic films and the interest in the better use of resources from nature. Important research advances were made in the development of materials from proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. However, the commercial use of these new generation of sustainable materials for food packaging is still limited due to their low mechanical and barrier properties that could compromise the food quality and safety. Thus, strategies to improve the performance of these materials have been tested, such as chemical modifications, incorporation of reinforcing structures and others. Cold plasma is a versatile, fast and environmentally friendly technology. It consists of a partially ionized gas containing free electrons, ions, and radicals and neutral particles able to react with polymers and start different reactions, leading to the polymer degradation, functionalization, etching and/or cross-linking. In the present study, biodegradable films from fish protein prepared through the casting technique were plasma treated using an AC glow discharge equipment. The reactor was preliminary evacuated to ~7 Pa and the films were exposed to air plasma for 2, 5 and 8 min. The films were evaluated by their mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and changes in the protein structure were observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Potential cross-links and elimination of surface defects by etching might be the reason for the increase in tensile strength and decrease in the elongation at break observed. Among the times of plasma application tested, no differences were observed when higher times of exposure were used. The X-ray pattern showed a broad peak at 2θ = 19.51º that corresponds to the distance of 4.6Å by applying the Bragg’s law. This distance corresponds to the average backbone distance within the α-helix. Thus, the changes observed in the films might indicate that the helical configuration of fish protein was disturbed by plasma treatment. SEM images showed surface damage in the films with 5 and 8 min of plasma treatment, indicating that 2 min was the most adequate time of treatment. It was verified that plasma removes water from the films once weight loss of 4.45% was registered for films treated during 2 min. However, after 24 h in 50% of relative humidity, the water lost was recovered. WVP increased from 0.53 to 0.65².kPa after plasma treatment during 2 min, that is desired for some foods applications which require water passage through the packaging. In general, the plasma technology affects the properties and structure of fish protein films. Since this technology changes the surface of polymers, these films might be used to develop multilayer materials, as well as to incorporate active substances in the surface to obtain active packaging.
The Effect of a Probiotic: Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and Its Products on Growth Performance and Disease Resistance of Orange-Spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides
The aim of this study was to investigate a probiotic, Leuconostoc mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide and dextran, on growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune responses, and pathogen resistance of spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The grouper were fed control and diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%), isomaltooligosaccharide (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (I + B4), and dextran (0.15%) + L. mesenteroides B4 (107 CFU/g) (D + B4) for 8 weeks. The result showed that final weights and percent weight gains of the grouper fed diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4 and I + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The activities of digestive enzymes in the grouper fed with I + B4 were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05), too. After challenge with Vibrio harveyi, the enzyme activities of antiprotease and lysozyme as well as of respiratory burst of the fish fed with I + B4 and D + B4 were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). The grouper fed with the both diets also had higher survival rates than that of the control group after the challenge. Overall, the study indicated that feeding diets supplemented with L. mesenteroides B4, and its products, isomaltooligosaccharide, and dextran could be an effective method for enhancing the growth performance and disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper.
Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry
Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.
Development and Evaluation of Whey-Based Drink: An Approach to Protect Environmental Pollution
Whey is a valuable by-product of dairy industry comprising of precious nutrients lactose, protein, vitamins and minerals for the human food but considered as a pollutant due to its biological activity. So, there is a need to develop nutritious whey products to overcome the problem of environmental pollution. This project was planned to develop a whey drink at different pasteurization temperatures and its quality was evaluated during storage. The result indicated that pH, acidity, total soluble solids and lactose content changed significantly (p < 0.01) due to lactic acid production during storage. Non-significant (p > 0.05) effects were detected on the protein and ash content of whey drink. Fat and viscosity changed significantly with respect to storage only. Sensory evaluation of whey drink revealed that both treatments remained acceptable while whey drink pasteurized at 75°C/30 minutes (WD2) gained more sensory score compared to whey drink pasteurized at 65°C/30minutes (WD1).
Effect of Non-Fat Solid Ratio on Bloom Formation in Untempered Chocolate
The relationship between the non-fat solid ratio and bloom formation in untempered chocolate was investigated using two types of chocolate: model chocolate made of varying cocoa powder ratios (46, 49.5 and 53%) and cocoa butter, and commercial Lindt chocolate with varying cocoa content (70, 85 and 90%). X-ray diffraction and colour measurement techniques were used to examine the polymorphism of cocoa butter and the surface whiteness index (WI), respectively. The polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter was highly correlated with the changes of WI during 30 days of storage since it led to the redistribution of fat within the chocolate matrix and resulted in a bloomed surface. The change in WI indicated a similar bloom rate in the chocolates, but the model chocolates with a higher cocoa powder ratio had more pronounced total bloom. This is due to a higher ratio of non-fat solid particles on the surface resulting in microscopic changes in morphology. The ratio of non-fat solids is an important factor in determining the extent of bloom but not the bloom rate.
The Production of B-Group Vitamin by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Importance in Food Industry
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been used commonly in the food industry. They can be used as natural preservatives because acidifying carried out in the medium can protect the last product against microbial spoilage. Besides, other metabolites produced by LAB during fermentation period have also an antimicrobial effect on pathogen and spoilage microorganisms in the food industry. LAB are responsible for the desirable and distinctive aroma and flavour which are observed in fermented food products such as pickle, kefir, yogurt, and cheese. Various LAB strains are able to produce B-group vitamins such as folate (B11), riboflavin (B2) and cobalamin (B12). Especially wild-type strains of LAB can produce B-group vitamins in high concentrations. These cultures may be used in food industry as a starter culture and also the microbial strains can be used in encapsulation technology for new and functional food product development. This review is based on the current applications of B-group vitamin producing LAB. Furthermore, the new technologies and innovative researches about B vitamin production in LAB have been demonstrated and discussed for determining their usage availability in various area in the food industry.
Antioxidant Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Fruits at Three Different Stages of Maturity in Food Systems
Morinda citrifolia L., commonly known as noni fruit, is rich in phytochemicals. This study investigated the phytophenolics content and antioxidant activity of green, mature green and ripe noni fruits. The vitamin C content ranged from 41.12 ± 0.083 to 143.63 ± 0.146 mg / 100 ml in fresh noni fruits. Ripe fruits contained the highest level of ascorbic acid followed by mature green and green fruits (p < 0.05). The total phenol content ranged from 0.909 (green) to 2.305 (ripe) mg / g of FW whilst the total flavonoid content ranged from 1.054 (green) to 2.116 (ripe) mg/g of FW. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the Morinda citrifolia L. extracts was also analysed using FRAP and TEAC assays. The reducing power of the fruit extracts as assessed by the FRAP assay decreased in the following order: ripe > mature green > green (p < 0.05). The TEAC values ranged from 0.2631 to 0.8921 µmol / g FW, with extracts of fruits at the mature green stage having highest values followed by fruits at the ripe and green stage respectively (p < 0.05). High correlation values were obtained between total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid contents and the TEAC and FRAP assays (r > 0.8). Noni fruit extracts (0.2 and 0.4 % m / m) were compared with BHT (0.02 % m / m) on their ability to protect canola oil and mayonnaise, prepared with canola oil, against lipid oxidation during storage at 40°C. Mature green and ripe extracts, at both concentrations, were more effective than BHT in retarding oxidation in both food systems as evidenced by peroxide value and conjugated diene value determinations. Noni extracts were also very effective in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in tuna fish homogenates, assessed using TBARS assay. Noni fruits at the mature green and ripe stages represent a potential source of natural antioxidants for use a food additive.
Phenolic Composition of Wines from Cultivar Carménère during Aging with Inserts to Barrels
Sensory and nutraceutical characteristics of a wine are determined by different chemical compounds, such as organic acids, sugars, alcohols, polysaccharides, aromas, and polyphenols. The polyphenols correspond to secondary metabolites that are associated with the prevention of several pathologies, and those are responsible for color, aroma, bitterness, and astringency in wines. These compounds come from grapes and wood during aging in barrels, which correspond to the format of wood most widely used in wine production. However, the barrels is a high-cost input with a limited useful life (3-4 years). For this reason, some oenological products have been developed in order to renew the barrels and increase their useful life in some years. These formats are being used slowly because limited information exists about the effect on the wine chemical characteristics. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different laubarrel renewal systems (staves and zigzag) on the polyphenolic characteristics of a Carménère wine (Vitis vinifera), an emblematic cultivar of Chile. For this, a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and three replicates per treatment was used. The treatments were: new barrels (T0), used barrels during 4 years (T1), scraped used barrels (T2), used barrels with staves (T3) and used barrels with zigzag (T4). The study was performed for 12 months, and different spectrophotometric parameters (phenols, anthocyanins, and total tannins) and HPLC-DAD (low molecular weight phenols) were evaluated. The wood inputs were donated by Toneleria Nacional and corresponded to products from the same production batch. The total phenols content increased significantly after 40 days, while the total tannin concentration decreased gradually during the study. The anthocyanin concentration increased after 120 days of the assay in all treatments. Comparatively, it was observed that the wine of T2 presented the lowest values of these polyphenols, while the T0 and T4 presented the highest total phenol contents. Also, T1 presented the highest values of total tannins in relation to the rest of the treatments in some samples. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD were 7 flavonoids (epigallocatechin, catechin, procyanidin gallate, epicatechin, quercetin, rutin and myricetin) and 14 non-flavonoids (gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, trans-cutaric, vanillinic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids; tyrosol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, trans-resveratrol and cis-resveratrol). Tyrosol was the most abundant compound, whereas ellagic acid was the lowest in the samples. Comparatively, it was observed that the wines of T2 showed the lowest concentrations of flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenols during the study. In contrast, wines of T1, T3, and T4 presented the highest contents of non-flavonoid polyphenols. In summary, the use of barrel renovators (zig zag and staves) is an interesting alternative which would emulate the contribution of polyphenols from the barrels to the wine.
Evaluation of Differential Interaction between Flavanols and Saliva Proteins by Diffusion and Precipitation Assays on Cellulose Membranes
Astringency is a drying, roughing, and sometimes puckering sensation that is experienced on the various oral surfaces during or immediately after tasting foods. This sensation has been closely related to the interaction and precipitation between salivary proteins and polyphenols, specifically flavanols or proanthocyanidins. In addition, the type and concentration of proanthocyanidin influences significantly the intensity of the astringency and consequently the protein/proanthocyanidin interaction. However, most of the studies are based on the interaction between saliva and highly complex polyphenols, without considering the effect of monomeric proanthoancyanidins present in different foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different monomeric proanthocyanidins on the diffusion and precipitation of salivary proteins. Thus, solutions of catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin (0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10 mg/mL) were mixed with human saliva (1: 1 v/v). After incubation for 5 min at room temperature, 15 µL aliquots of each mix were dotted on a cellulose membrane and allowed to dry spontaneously at room temperature. The membrane was fixed, rinsed and stained for proteins with Coomassie blue. After exhaustive washing in 7% acetic acid, the membrane was rinsed once in distilled water and dried under a heat lamp. Both diffusion area and stain intensity of the protein spots were semiqualitative estimates for protein-tannin interaction (diffusion test). The rest of the whole saliva-phenol solution mixtures of the diffusion assay were centrifuged, and 15-μL aliquots from each of the supernatants were dotted on a cellulose membrane. The membrane was processed for protein staining as indicated above. The blue-stained area of protein distribution corresponding to each of the extract dilution-saliva mixtures was quantified by Image J 1.45 software. Each of the assays was performed at least three times. Initially, salivary proteins display a biphasic distribution on cellulose membranes, that is, when aliquots of saliva are placed on absorbing cellulose membranes, and free diffusion of saliva is allowed to occur, a non-diffusible protein fraction becomes surrounded by highly diffusible salivary proteins. In effect, once diffusion has ended, a protein-binding dye shows an intense blue-stained roughly circular area close to the spotting site (non-diffusible fraction) (NDF) which becomes surrounded by a weaker blue-stained outer band (diffusible fraction) (DF). Likewise, the diffusion test showed that epicatechin caused the complete disappearance of DF from saliva with 2 mg/mL. Also, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin caused a similar effect with 4 mg/mL, while catechin generated the same effect at 8 mg/mL. In the precipitation test, the use of epicatechin and gallocatechin generated evident precipitates at the bottom of the Eppendorf tubes. In summary, the flavanol type differentially affects the diffusion and precipitation of saliva, which would affect the sensation of astringency perceived by consumers.
Radical Scavenging Activity of Protein Extracts from Pulse and Oleaginous Seeds
Antioxidants are nowadays attractive not only for the countless benefits to the human and animal health, but also for the perspective of use as food preservative instead of synthetic chemical molecules. In this study, the radical scavenging activity of six protein extracts from pulse and oleaginous seeds was evaluated. The selected matrices are Pisum sativum (yellow pea from two different origins), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lupinus luteus cv Mister (lupin) and Glycine max (soybean), since they are economically interesting for both human and animal nutrition. The seeds were grinded and proteins extracted from 20mg powder with a specific vegetal-extraction kit. Proteins have been quantified through Bradford protocol and scavenging activity was revealed using DPPH assay, based on radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) absorbance decrease in the presence of antioxidants molecules. Different concentrations of the protein extract (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µg/ml) were mixed with DPPH solution (DPPH 0,004% in ethanol 70% v/v). Ascorbic acid was used as a scavenging activity standard reference, at the same six concentrations of protein extracts, while DPPH solution was used as control. Samples and standard were prepared in triplicate and incubated for 30 minutes in dark at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 517nm (ABS30). Average and standard deviation of absorbance values were calculated for each concentration of samples and standard. Statistical analysis using t-students and p-value were performed to assess the statistical significance of the scavenging activity difference between the samples (or standard) and control (ABSctrl). The percentage of antioxidant activity has been calculated using the formula [(ABSctrl-ABS30)/ABSctrl]*100. The obtained results demonstrate that all matrices showed antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid, used as standard, exhibits a 96% scavenging activity at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. At the same conditions, sunflower, safflower and yellow peas revealed the highest antioxidant performance among the matrices analyzed, with an activity of 74%, 68% and 70% respectively (p < 0.005). Although lupin and soybean exhibit a lower antioxidant activity compared to the other matrices, they showed a percentage of 46 and 36 respectively. All these data suggest the possibility to use undervalued edible matrices as antioxidants source. However, further studies are necessary to investigate a possible synergic effect of several matrices as well as the impact of industrial processes for a large-scale approach.
Effects of Temperature and Cysteine Addition on Formation of Flavor from Maillard Reaction Using Xylose and Rapeseed Meal Peptide
The Maillard reaction can produce the flavor enhancing substance through the chemical crosslinking between free amino group of the protein or polypeptide with the carbonyl of the reducing sugar. In this research, solutions of rapeseed meal peptide and D-xylose with or without L-cysteine (RXC or RX) were heated over a range of temperatures (80-140 °C) for 2 h. It was observed that RXs had a severe browning,while RXCs accompanied by more pH decrement with the temperature increasing. Then the correlation among data of quantitative sensory descriptive analysis, free amino acid (FAA) and GC–MS of RXCs and RXs were analyzed using the partial least square regression method. Results suggested that the Maillard reaction product (MRPs) with cysteine formed at 120 °C (RXC-120) had greater sensory properties especially meat-like flavor compared to other MRPs. Meanwhile, it revealed that glutamic and glycine not only had a positive contribution to meaty aroma but also showed a significant and positive influence on umami taste of RXs based on the FAA data. Moreover, the sulfur-containing compounds showed a significant positive correlation with the meat-like flavor of RXCs, while RXs depended on furans and nitrogenous-containing compounds with more caramel-like flavor. Therefore, a MRP with strong meaty flavor could be obtained at 120 °C by addition of cysteine.
Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.
Effect of Aronia Juice on Membrane Lipid Oxidation in Women with Aerobic Training Activity
Physical activity is well known for its beneficial health implications, however, excess oxygen consumption may impair oxidative status of the cell, and thus affect membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Polyphenols are well-established antioxidants, which can incorporate in cell membranes and protect them from oxidation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how an 8-week aerobic training alters erythrocyte FA composition, and to what extent polyphenol-rich Aronia juice (AJ) counteracts these potential alterations. We included 28 healthy women aged 19-29, with mean body mass index (BMI) of 21.2±2.7kg/m² and waist circumference of 78,2±7,6 cm, and assigned them into three groups. The first group performed 1hour of aerobic training three times per week (P); the second group trained and received 100 ml/day AJ as a part of their regular diet (PA), while the third group was the control one (C). Study analyses were performed at the baseline and at the end of the intervention and included anthropometric and biochemical measurements, as well as gas-liquid chromatography determination of the erythrocyte FA profile. Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS 20.0, with p
Development of a Prototype Time-Temperature Indicator for Monitoring Rice Cooking Process
Nowadays, a time-temperature indicator or TTI is developed to monitor the food product quality because it is simple, cost-effective and user-friendly devices. The operation of a TTI based on mechanical, chemical or systems that change irreversibly from the time of their activation. In this work, TTI was developed based on chemical reaction, Maillard reaction, to monitor food quality during processing. The color parameter (L*, a* and b*) from was measured over time at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C. The color was changed from pale yellow to very dark brown. The activation energy (Ea) of TTI which calculated from Arrhenius equation was 94.45 kJ/mol. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the TTI from Arrhenius plot at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C were 0.9271, 0.9796, 0.9763 and 0.9396 respectively. From the result of Ea, the new TTI could be used to monitor the quality of foodstuff, which quality decrease was mainly caused by the growth of microorganism (83.68–251.04 kJ/mol), nonenzyme browning (104.6–209.2 kJ/mol) and the loss of nutrients (83.68–125.52 kJ/mol). This research aims to develop TTI for rice cooking process. Therefore, the kinetic of rice cooking was determined by measuring the hardness value of cooked parboiled pre-germinated brown rice (KDML 105 variety) over time. The activation energy of rice cooking, derived from Arrhenius plots of cooking rate constant was 14.86 kJ/mole. The difference between the Ea of the TTI which developed in this research and the Ea of rice cooking was more than 40 kJ/mole. It means that the minimum energy that required to start chemical reaction of TTI was higher than those of rice cooking process. Therefore, the TTI should be adjusted to obtain Ea similar to Ea of rice cooking process by the Maillard reaction factors, such as pH, temperature, reactant concentrations and the ratio between reactants.
Effect of Sprouting Period of Proximate Composition, Functional Properties and Mineral Content on Malted Sorghum Flour
Effect of sprouting period on proximate, functional and mineral properties of malted sorghum flour was evaluated. The study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of sprouting period on malted sorghum flour produced. The malted sorghum flour was obtained by sorting, weighing, washing, steeping, draining, germination, drying, dry milling, sieving. Malted sorghum flour was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties and mineral contents. Moisture, protein, fat content, crude fiber, ash contents and carbohydrate of 24 and 48 hours, were in the range of 10.50-11.0, 11.17-11.17, 1.50-4.00, 2.50-1.50, 1.50-1.54 and 73.15-70.79% respectively. Bulk density ranged between 0.64 and 0.59g/ml, water and oil absorption capacities ranged between 139.3 and 150.0 and 217.3 and 222.7g/g respectively. Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were also range of 12.5, 59.3-60.0, 3.22-3.25, 3.80-3.90 and 3.22-3.25 mg/100g respectively. The results indicate that the germination of red sorghum resulted in the enhancement of the nutritional quality and its functional properties.
Effect of Dehydration Methods of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Functional Properties of Starch Flour Extracted from Maize
Effect of the dehydrated method on proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch was evaluated. The study was carried and to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch produced using three different drying methods namely (sun) (oven) and (cabinet) drying methods. The corn starch was obtained by cleaning, steeping, milling, sieving, dewatering and drying corn starch was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and mineral properties to determine the nutritional properties, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate were in the range of 9.35 to 12.16, 6.5 to 10.78 1.08 to 2.5, 1.08 to 2.5, 4.0 to 5.2, 69.58 to 75.8% respectively. Bulk density range between 0.610g/dm3 to 0.718 g/dm3, water, and oil absorption capacities range between 116.5 to 117.25 and 113.8 to 117.25 ml/g respectively. Swelling powder had value varying from 1.401 to 1.544g/g respectively. The results indicate that the cabinet method had the best result item of the quality attribute.
Evaluation of Functional Properties and Antimicrobial Efficiency of Polymeric Film Containing Phytoncide for Cheese Packaging Application
The purpose of this study is to develop the cheese packaging film with an antimicrobial function to extend its shelf life during storage. The functional films are prepared by incorporating a series of phytoncide encapsulated in urethane shell formation which is suitable for use as antimicrobial materials into polyvinyl alcohol by a casting method. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the films is evaluated against the selected pathogens of fungus (Penicillium spp.) and bacteria (E. coli and L. monocytogenes) which are directly affected by the quality loss and safety of processed Mozzarella cheese. The mechanical, morphological, barrier properties of the prepared films are also experimented. It observes that the mixtures may be uniformly dispersed in the LDPE film structure. The results demonstrate that film prepared by incorporating 5% (w/w) of phytoncide has a good inhibitory effect against the tested pathogens compared to that incorporating mixtures with the respective different levels. The incorporation of phytoncide oil on the PVA film also significantly affected the mechanical and gas barrier properties of the films as the role of the plasticizer. The results of this study showed that Phytoncide Oil could be incorporated in functional films for cheese packaging.
Moderate Electric Field and Ultrasound as Alternative Technologies to Raspberry Juice Pasteurization Process
Raspberry is well-known as a good source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanin. Some studies pointed out the importance of these bioactive compounds consumption, which is related to the decrease of the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The most consumed raspberry products are juices, yogurts, ice creams and jellies and, to ensure the safety of these products, raspberry is commonly pasteurized, for enzyme and microorganisms inactivation. Despite being efficient, the pasteurization process can lead to degradation reactions of the bioactive compounds, decreasing the products healthy benefits. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasound (US) technologies application on the pasteurization process of raspberry juice and compare the results with conventional pasteurization process. For this, phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content and physical-chemical parameters (pH, color changes, titratable acidity) of the juice were evaluated before and after the treatments. Moreover, microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms, molds and yeast were performed in the samples before and after the treatments, to verify the potential of these technologies to inactivate microorganisms. All the pasteurization processes were performed in triplicate for 10 min, using a cylindrical Pyrex® vessel with a water jacket. The conventional pasteurization was performed at 90 °C using a hot water bath connected to the extraction cell. The US assisted pasteurization was performed using 423 and 508 W cm-2 (75 and 90 % of ultrasound intensity). It is important to mention that during US application the temperature was kept below 35 °C; for this, the water jacket of the extraction cell was connected to a water bath with cold water. MEF assisted pasteurization experiments were performed similarly to US experiments, using 25 and 50 V. Control experiments were performed at the maximum temperature of US and MEF experiments (35 °C) to evaluate only the effect of the aforementioned technologies on the pasteurization. The results showed that phenolic compounds concentration in the juice was not affected by US and MEF application. However, it was observed that the US assisted pasteurization, performed at the highest intensity, decreased anthocyanin content in 33 % (compared to in natura juice). This result was possibly due to the cavitation phenomena, which can lead to free radicals formation and accumulation on the medium; these radicals can react with anthocyanin decreasing the content of these antioxidant compounds in the juice. Physical-chemical parameters did not present statistical differences for samples before and after the treatments. Microbiological analyses results showed that all the pasteurization treatments decreased the microorganism content in two logarithmic cycles. However, as values were lower than 1000 CFU mL-1 it was not possible to verify the efficacy of each treatment. Thus, MEF and US were considered as potential alternative technologies for pasteurization process, once in the right conditions the application of the technologies decreased microorganism content in the juice and did not affected phenolic and anthocyanin content, as well as physical-chemical parameters. However, more studies are needed regarding the influence of MEF and US processes on microorganisms’ inactivation.
Moderate Electric Field Influence on Carotenoids Extraction Time from Heterochlorella Luteoviridis
Carotenoids are high value added pigments that can be alternatively extracted from some microalgae species. However, the application of carotenoids synthetized by microalgae is still limited due to the utilization of organic toxic solvents. In this context, studies involving alternative extraction methods have been conducted with more sustainable solvents to replace and reduce the solvent volume and the extraction time. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the extraction time of carotenoids from the microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis using moderate electric field (MEF) as a pre-treatment to the extraction. The extraction methodology consisted of a pre-treatment in the presence of MEF (180 V) and ethanol (25 %, v/v) for 10 min, followed by a diffusive step performed for 50 min using a higher ethanol concentration (75 %, v/v). The extraction experiments were conducted at 30 °C and, to keep the temperature at this value, it was used an extraction cell with a water jacket that was connected to a water bath. Also, to enable the evaluation of MEF effect on the extraction, control experiments were performed using the same cell and conditions without voltage application. During the extraction experiments, samples were withdrawn at 1, 5 and 10 min of the pre-treatment and at 1, 5, 30, 40 and 50 min of the diffusive step. Samples were, then, centrifuged and carotenoids analyses were performed in the supernatant. Furthermore, an exhaustive extraction with ethyl acetate and methanol was performed, and the carotenoids content found for this analyses was considered as the total carotenoids content of the microalgae. The results showed that the application of MEF as a pre-treatment to the extraction influenced the extraction yield and the extraction time during the diffusive step; after the MEF pre-treatment and 50 min of the diffusive step, it was possible to extract up to 60 % of the total carotenoids content. Also, results found for carotenoids concentration of the extracts withdrawn at 5 and 30 min of the diffusive step did not presented statistical difference, meaning that carotenoids diffusion occurs mainly in the very beginning of the extraction. On the other hand, the results for control experiments showed that carotenoids diffusion occurs mostly during 30 min of the diffusive step, which evidenced MEF effect on the extraction time. Moreover, carotenoids concentration on samples withdrawn during the pre-treatment (1, 5 and 10 min) were below the quantification limit of the analyses, indicating that the extraction occurred in the diffusive step, when ethanol (75 %, v/v) was added to the medium. It is possible that MEF promoted cell membrane permeabilization and, when ethanol (75 %) was added, carotenoids interacted with the solvent and the diffusion occurred easily. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that MEF promoted the decrease of carotenoids extraction time due to the increasing of the permeability of the cell membrane which facilitates the diffusion from the cell to the medium.
Antioxidant Potential of Sunflower Seed Cake Extract in Stabilization of Soybean Oil
Lipid oxidation is one of the most important deteriorating processes in oil industry, resulting in the losses of nutritional value of oils as well as changes in color, flavor and other physiological properties. Autoxidation of lipids occurs naturally between molecular oxygen and the unsaturation of fatty acids, forming fat-free radicals, peroxide free radicals and hydroperoxides. In order to avoid the lipid oxidation in vegetable oils, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butyl hydro-quinone (TBHQ) are commonly used. However, the use of synthetic antioxidants has been associated with several health side effects and toxicity. The use of natural antioxidants as stabilizers of vegetable oils is being suggested as a sustainable alternative to synthetic antioxidants. The alternative that has been studied is the use of natural extracts obtained mainly from fruits, vegetables and seeds, which have a well-known antioxidant activity related mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. The sunflower seed cake is rich in phenolic compounds (1 4% of the total mass), being the chlorogenic acid the major constituent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro application of the phenolic extract obtained from the sunflower seed cake as a retarder of the lipid oxidation reaction in soybean oil and to compare the results with a synthetic antioxidant. For this, the soybean oil, provided from the industry without any addition of antioxidants, was subjected to an accelerated storage test for 17 days at 65 °C. Six samples with different treatments were submitted to the test: control sample, without any addition of antioxidants; 100 ppm of synthetic antioxidant BHT; mixture of 50 ppm of BHT and 50 ppm of phenolic compounds; and 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds concentration in the extract was expressed in gallic acid equivalents. To evaluate the oxidative changes of the samples, aliquots were collected after 0, 3, 6, 10 and 17 days and analyzed for the peroxide, diene and triene conjugate values. The soybean oil sample initially had a peroxide content of 2.01 ± 0.27 meq of oxygen/kg of oil. On the third day of the treatment, only the samples treated with 100, 500 and 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds showed a considerable oxidation retard compared to the control sample. On the sixth day of the treatment, the samples presented a considerable increase in the peroxide value (higher than 13.57 meq/kg), and the higher the concentration of phenolic compounds, the lower the peroxide value verified. From the tenth day on, the samples had a very high peroxide value (higher than 55.39 meq/kg), where only the sample containing 1200 ppm of phenolic compounds presented significant oxidation retard. The samples containing the phenolic extract were more efficient to avoid the formation of the primary oxidation products, indicating effectiveness to retard the reaction. Similar results were observed for dienes and trienes. Based on the results, phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (the major phenolic compound of sunflower seed cake), can be considered as a potential partial or even total substitute for synthetic antioxidants.
Degradation of Total Polyphenolic Compounds Found in Strawberry Pomace at Different Storage Conditions
Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are widely used in food industry for production of juices. This causes production of high amounts of strawberry pomace. It would be beneficial to develop a novel approach to the utilization of these waste materials. Previously the health promoting properties of phenolic compounds were associated with their antioxidative activities. Strawberries contain phenolic compounds which decrease the proclivity to several chronic diseases such as types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Natural phenolic compounds are easily degradable because of their sensitivity to light, oxygen, and heat. Phenolic compounds can undergo degradation easily. Storage conditions of phenolic compounds or phenolic compound containing fruits affect the polyphenolic content found in fruits. Moreover, cold storage of phenolics can extend their shelf life. The objective of this research was to study the effects of storage conditions on the total polyphenolic content of strawberry pomace. Total polyphenolic content was investigated by means of Folin–Ciocalteu method. Strawberry pomace was the residue obtained after strawberry juice production. The pomace was kept in three different mediums having different temperatures; namely, fridge, freezer, and deep freezer. They have the inner temperatures of +4 °C, -18 °C and -82 °C for fridge, freezer, and deep freezer, respectively. The analyses were conducted by Folin method by using ethanol:acetic acid:water (50:8:42 v/v) mixture in order to solve the phenolic compounds found in pomace. As expected, the result of total phenolic content analysis of strawberry pomace was the lowest when stored in fridge (+4 °C) as compared to freezer (-18 °C) and deep-freezer (-82 °C) after waiting 45 days. The results of total phenolic content analysis of strawberry pomace kept in fridge, freezer, and deep-freezer were found as 2.41, 6.72 and 7.15 mg GA/g pomace, respectively. The strawberry pomace had 10.61 mg GA/g pomace; therefore the best storage condition is found as deep freezer in order to prevent phenolic loss. For further studies, encapsulation of strawberry pomace could be perfomed in order to increase the durability of polyphenolic compounds.