International Science Index

International Journal of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering

Effect of Organics on Sr-90 and Cs-137 Partitioning in Nuclear Fuel Storage Ponds
Sellafield has a number of fuel storage ponds, some of which have been open to the air for a number of decades. This has caused corrosion of the fuel resulting in a release of some activity into solution, reduced water clarity, and accumulation of sludge at the bottom of the pond consisting of brucite (Mg(OH)2) and other uranium corrosion products. Both of these phases are also present as colloidal material. 90Sr and 137Cs are known to constitute a small volume of the radionuclides present in the pond, but a large fraction of the activity, thus they are most at risk of challenging effluent discharge limits. Organic molecules are known to be present also, due to the ponds being open to the air, with occasional algal blooms restricting visibility further. The contents of the pond need to be retrieved and safely stored, but dealing with such a complex, undefined inventory poses a unique challenge. This work aims to determine and understand the sorption-desorption interactions of 90Sr and 137Cs to brucite and uranium phases, with and without the presence of organic molecules from chemical degradation and bio-organisms. The influence of organics on these interactions has not been widely studied. Partitioning of these radionuclides and organic molecules has been determined through LSC, ICP-AES/MS, and UV-vis spectrophotometry coupled with ultrafiltration in both binary and ternary systems. Further detailed analysis into the surface and bonding environment of these components is being investigated through XAS techniques and PHREEQC modelling. Experiments were conducted in CO2-free or N2 atmosphere across a high pH range in order to best simulate conditions in the pond. Humic acid used in brucite systems demonstrated strong competition against 90Sr for the brucite surface regardless of the order of addition of components. Variance of pH did have a small effect, however this range (10.5-11.5) is close to the pHpzc of brucite, causing the surface to buffer the solution pH towards that value over the course of the experiment. Sorption of 90Sr to UO2 obeyed Ho’s rate equation and demonstrated a slow second-order reaction with respect to the sharing of valence electrons from the strontium atom, with the initial rate clearly dependent on pH, with the equilibrium concentration calculated at close to 100% sorption. There was no influence of humic acid seen when introduced to these systems. Sorption of 137Cs to UO3 was significant, with more than 95% sorbed in just over 24 hours. Again, humic acid showed no influence when introduced into this system. Both brucite and uranium based systems will be studied with the incorporation of cyanobacterial cultures harvested at different stages of growth. Investigation of these systems provides insight into, and understanding of, the effect of organics on radionuclide partitioning to brucite and uranium phases at high pH. The majority of sorption-desorption work for radionuclides has been conducted at neutral to acidic pH values, and mostly without organics. These studies are particularly important for the characterisation of legacy wastes at Sellafield, with a view to their safe retrieval and storage.
Effect of Thermal Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Eurofer Steel Grade
Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels like EUROFER97 are primary candidate structural materials for first wall application in the future demonstration (DEMO) fusion reactor. Existing steels of this type obtain their functional properties by a two-stage heat treatment, which consists of an annealing stage at 980°C for thirty minutes followed by quenching and an additional tempering stage at 750°C for two hours. This thermal quench and temper (Q&T) treatment creates a microstructure of tempered martensite with, as main precipitates, M23C6 carbides, with M = Fe, Cr and carbonitrides of MX type, e.g. TaC and VN. The resulting microstructure determines the mechanical properties of the steel. The ductility is largely determined by the tempered martensite matrix, while the resistance to mechanical degradation, determined by the spatial and size distribution of precipitates and the martensite crystals, plays a key role in the high temperature properties of the steel. Unfortunately, the high temperature response of EUROFER97 is currently insufficient for long term use in fusion reactors, due to instability of the matrix phase and coarsening of the precipitates at prolonged high temperature exposure. The objective of this study is to induce grain refinement by appropriate modifications of the processing route in order to increase the high temperature strength of a lab-cast EUROFER RAFM steel grade. The goal of the work is to obtain improved mechanical behavior at elevated temperatures with respect to conventionally heat treated EUROFER97. A dilatometric study was conducted to study the effect of the annealing temperature on the mechanical properties after a Q&T treatment. The microstructural features were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, hardness measurements, tensile tests at elevated temperatures and Charpy V-notch impact testing of KLST-type MCVN specimens were performed to study the mechanical properties of the furnace-heated lab-cast EUROFER RAFM steel grade. A significant prior austenite grain (PAG) refinement was obtained by lowering the annealing temperature of the conventionally used Q&T treatment for EUROFER97. The reduction of the PAG results in finer martensitic constituents upon quenching, which offers more nucleation sites for carbide and carbonitride formation upon tempering. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was found to decrease with decreasing martensitic block size. Additionally, an increased resistance against high temperature degradation was accomplished in the fine grained martensitic materials with smallest precipitates obtained by tailoring the annealing temperature of the Q&T treatment. It is concluded that the microstructural refinement has a pronounced effect on the DBTT without significant loss of strength and ductility. Further investigation into the optimization of the processing route is recommended to improve the mechanical behavior of RAFM steels at elevated temperatures.
A Qualitative Study for Establishing Critical Success Factors for PPPs in Research Reactors
The UAE is currently developing a peaceful nuclear energy program as part of its low Carbon energy strategy to meet future energy demands. Research of nuclear energy technologies is required to support nuclear energy generation projects and maximize their performance. Research of this type will require building an operating a research reactor (RR), a costly undertaking in most circumstances. Collaboration between government and private parties through public, private partnerships (PPP) can maximize the benefits expected from the adoption of an RR project. The aim of this research is to establish the critical success factors (CSF) for developing an RR project for newcomer countries, with the UAE taken as a case study, through the utilization of public, private partnerships (PPP). The results of this study were arrived at through the use of semi-structured interviews conducted with ten experts in the field of research reactors, using grounded theory method. Underutilization was identified as the main stumbling block that impairs the success of research reactors.
Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy
The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.
Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts
Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.
A Study of The Factors Predicting Radiation Exposure to Contacts of Saudi Patients Treated With Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131)
Aim: To measure exposure levels to family members and caregivers of Saudi patients treated with low dose I131 therapy, and household radiation exposure rate to predict different factors that can affect radiation exposure. Patients and methods: All adult self dependent patients with hyperthyroidism or cancer thyroid referred for low dose radioactive I131 therapy on outpatient basis are included. Radiation protection procedures are given to the participant and family members in details. TLD’s were dispensed to each participant in sufficient quantity for his/her family members living in the household. TLD’s are collected at fifth days post-dispense from patients who agreed to have a home visit during which the household is inspected and level of radiation contamination of surfaces was measured. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the current study, with a mean age of 43.1± 17.1 years Out of them 25 patients (78%) are females. I131 therapy was given in twenty patients (63%) for cancer thyroid of and for toxic goiter in the remaining twelve patients (37%), with an overall mean I131 dose of 24.1 ± 7.5mCi that is relatively higher in the former. The overall number of household family members and helpers of patients are 139, out of them77 are females (55.4%) & 62 are males (44.6%) with a mean age of 29.8± 17.6. The mean period of contact with the patient is 7.6 ±5.6hours. The cumulative radiation exposure shows that radiation exposure to all family members is below the exposure constraint (1mSv), with a range of 109 to 503uSv, and a mean value of 220.9±91 uSv. Numerical data shows a little higher exposure rate for family members of those who receive higher dose of I131 (patients with thyroid cancer) and household members who spent longer time with the patient, yet, the difference is statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Besides, no significant correlation was found between the degree of cumulative exposure of the family members to their gender, age, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors. In the 21 home visits all data from bedrooms, reception areas and kitchens are below hazardous limits (0.5uSv/h) apart from bathrooms that give a slightly higher reading of 0.57±0.39 uSv/h in those with cancer thyroid who receive a higher radiation dose. A statistically significant difference was found between radiation exposure rate in bathrooms used by the patient versus those used by family members only, with a mean value of exposure rate of 0.701±0.21 uSv/h and 0.17±0.82 uSv/h respectively, with a p-value of 0.018 (
Analytical and Experimental Assessment of Neutron Irradiation Induced Impact on Brazing and Insulating Material
Ceramic ring is being used in many components of fusion devices due to its good electrical and vacuum compatible properties. Ceramic to metal sealing becomes necessary when it is being used as a vacuum boundary. However, ceramic to stainless steel (SS) bonding is difficult due to different thermal expansion coefficient of both the material. Kovar, a metal alloy, having an equivalent thermal expansion of ceramic, is used as the intermediate boundary between ceramic and SS. Ceramic to kovar bonding is done using active titanium brazing. Established brazing method contains a certain amount of Silver(Ag) and certain other elements. When such brazed joint configuration used in any fusion reactors, generated neutron induces activation of some of the materials and transmutation of Silver to Cadmium(Cd). Due to the high outgassing rate of Cd, the amount of Ag is restricted beyond certain concentration for high vacuum systems. Hence it becomes essential to study the effect of neutron radiation on the material to ensure its applicability in a radiative environment of fusion reactors. This paper describes the estimation of % elemental existence in the material using Energy dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDAX) and analytical assessment of neutron irradiation on each of these elements in the form of activation using FISPACT-2007. Small ceramic-kovar brazed test sample with equivalent material composition and is irradiated experimentally using the Am-Be source. Post irradiation, gamma ray spectrum analysis is carried out to find the activity of existing elements. Correlation between this experimental and simulated data has been established. Both results confirm maximum activity for Ag. However, the amount of Ag and therefore produced Cd is very less. Further, microstructure analysis of pristine and irradiated samples was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cluster formation is observed on the ceramic surface after irradiation. Microhardness measurement of the sample reveals a slight increase in hardness of irradiated Kovar which might be due to radiation-induced hardening caused by microstructural changes as reported earlier.
Investigation into Micro-Grids with Renewable Energy Sources for Use as High Reliability Electrical Power Supply in a Nuclear Facility
The objective of this research work is to investigate the use of a micro-grid system to improve the reliability and availability of emergency electrical power in a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a safety-critical application that requires reliable electrical power for safe startup, operation and normal or emergency shutdown conditions. The majority of the nuclear facilities around the world utilize diesel generators as emergency power supply during loss of offsite power events. This study proposes the micro-grid system with distributed energy sources and energy storage systems for use as emergency power supply. The systems analyzed include renewable energy sources, decay heat recovery system and large scale energy storage system. The configuration of the micro-grid system is realized with guidelines of nuclear safety standards and requirements. The investigation results presented include performance analysis of the micro-grid system in terms of reliability and availability.
Internal Stresses and Structural Evolutions in Zr Alloys during Oxidation at High Temperature and Subsequent Cooling
In some hypothetical accidental situations, such as during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in pressurized water reactors, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed for a few minutes to steam at High Temperature (HT up to 1200°C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. Under LOCA-like conditions, the cladding undergoes a number of metallurgical changes (phase transformations, oxygen diffusion and growth of an oxide layer...) and is consequently submitted to internal stresses whose state evolves during the transient. These stresses can have an effect on the oxide structure and the oxidation kinetics of the material. They evolve during cooling, owing to differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the various phases and phase transformations of the metal and the oxide. These stresses may result in the failure of the cladding during quenching, once the material is embrittled by oxidation. In order to progress in the evaluation of these internal stresses, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in-situ under synchrotron radiation during HT oxidation and subsequent cooling on Zircaloy-4 sheet samples. First, structural evolutions, such as phase transformations, have been studied as a function of temperature for both the oxide layer and the metallic substrate. Then, internal stresses generated within the material oxidized at temperatures between 700 and 900°C have been evaluated thanks to the 2θ diffraction peak position shift measured during the in-situ experiments. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was performed on the samples after cooling in order to characterize their crystallographic texture. Furthermore, macroscopic strains induced by oxidation in the conditions investigated during the in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments were measured in-situ in a dilatometer.
Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Microstructure and Properties of Chromium Coatings on Zircaloy-4 Substrate
To enhance the safety of Light Water Reactor, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings materials are under development. In the framework of CEA-AREVA-EDF collaborative program on ATF cladding materials, CEA has engaged specific studies on chromium coated zirconium alloys. Especially for Loss-of-Coolant-Accident situations, chromium coated claddings have shown some additional 'coping' time before achieving full embrittlement of the oxidized cladding, when compared to uncoated references – both tested in steam environment up to 1300°C. Nevertheless, the behavior of chromium coatings and the stability of the Zr-Cr interface under neutron irradiation remain unknown. Two main points are addressed: 1. Bulk Cr behavior under irradiation: Due to its BCC crystallographic structure, Cr is prone to Ductile-to-Brittle-Transition at quite high temperature. Irradiation could be responsible for a significant additional DBTT shift towards higher temperatures. 2. Zircaloy/Cr interface behavior under irradiation: Preliminary TEM examinations of un-irradiated samples revealed a singular Zircaloy-4/Cr interface with nanometric intermetallic phase layers. Such particular interfaces highlight questions of how they would behave under irradiation - intermetallic zirconium phases are known to be more or less stable under irradiations. Another concern is a potential enhancement of chromium diffusion into the zirconium-alpha based substrate. The purpose of this study is then to determine the behavior of such coatings after ion irradiations, as a surrogate to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiations were performed at the Jannus-Saclay facility (France). 20 MeV Kr8+ ions at 400°C with a flux of 2.8x1011 were used to irradiate chromium coatings of 1-2 µm thick on Zircaloy-4 sheets substrate. At the interface, the calculated damage is close to 10 dpa (SRIM, Quick Calculation Damage mode). Thin foil samples were prepared with FIB for both as-received and irradiated coated samples. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and in-situ tensile tests in a Scanning Electron Microscope are being used to characterize the un-irradiated and irradiated materials. High Resolution TEM highlights a great complexity of the interface before irradiation since it is formed of an alternation of intermetallic phases – C14 and C15. The interfaces formed by these intermetallic phases with chromium and zirconium show semi-coherency. Chemical analysis performed before irradiation shows some iron enrichment at the interface. The chromium coating bulk microstructures and properties are also studied before and after irradiation. On-going in-situ tensile tests focus on the capacity of chromium coatings to sustain some plastic deformation when tested up to 350°C. The stability of the Cr/Zr interface is shown after ion irradiation up to 10 dpa. This observation constitutes the first result after irradiation on these new coated claddings materials.
Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water
The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.
Development of Scenarios for Sustainable Next Generation Nuclear System
The Republic of Korea has been facing strong storage crisis from nuclear waste generation as At Reactor (AR) temporary storage sites are about to reach saturation. Since the country is densely populated with a rate of 491.78 persons per square kilometer, Construction of High-level waste repository will not be a feasible option. In order to tackle the storage waste generation problem which is increasing at a rate of 350 tHM/Yr. and 380 tHM/Yr. in case of 20 PWRs and 4 PHWRs respectively, the study strongly focuses on the advancement of current nuclear power plants to GEN-IV sustainable and ecological nuclear systems by burning TRUs (Pu, MAs). First, Calculations has made to estimate the generation of SNF including Pu and MA from PWR and PHWR NPPS by using the IAEA code Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) for the period of 2016, 2030 (including the saturation period of each site from 2024~2028), 2089 and 2109 as the number of NPPS will increase due to high import cost of non-nuclear energy sources. 2ndly, in order to produce environmentally sustainable nuclear energy systems, 4 scenarios to burnout the Plutonium and MAs are analyzed with the concentration on burning of MA only, MA and Pu together by utilizing SFR, LFR and KALIMER-600 burner reactor after recycling the spent oxide fuel from PWR through pyro processing technology developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) which shows promising and sustainable future benefits by minimizing the HLW generation with regard to waste amount, decay heat, and activity. Finally, With the concentration on front and back end fuel cycles for open and closed fuel cycles of PWR and Pyro-SFR respectively, an overall assessment has been made which evaluates the quantitative as well as economical combativeness of SFR metallic fuel against PWR once through nuclear fuel cycle.
Financial Portfolio Optimization in Electricity Markets: Evaluation via Sharpe Ratio
Electricity plays an indispensable role in human life and the economy. It is a unique product or service that must be balanced instantaneously, as electricity is not stored, generation and consumption should be proportional. Effective and efficient use of electricity is very important not only for society, but also for the environment. A competitive electricity market is one of the best ways to provide a suitable platform for effective and efficient use of electricity. On the other hand, it carries some risks that should be carefully managed by the market players. Risk management is an essential part in market players’ decision making. In this paper, risk management through diversification is applied with the help of Markowitz’s Mean-variance, Down-side and Semi-variance methods for a case study. Performance of optimal electricity sale solutions are measured and evaluated via Sharpe-Ratio, and the optimal portfolio solutions are improved. Two years of historical weekdays’ price data of the Turkish Day Ahead Market are used to demonstrate the approach.
Study on Breakdown Voltage Characteristics of Different Types of Oils with Contaminations
Since long time ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used for liquid insulation in high voltage equipments. Mineral oils are widely used as insulation for transmission and distribution power transformers, capacitors and other high voltage equipment. Petroleum-based insulating oils have excellent dielectric properties such as high electric field strength, low dielectric losses and good long-term performance. Due to environmental consideration, an attempt to search the alternate liquid insulation is required. The influence of particles on the voltage breakdown in insulating oil and other liquids has been recognized for many years. Particles influence both AC and DC voltage breakdown in insulating oil. Experiments are conducted under AC voltage. The breakdown process starts with a microscopic bubble, an area of large distance where ions or electrons initiate avalanches. Insulating liquids drive their dielectric strength from the much higher density compare to gases. Experiments are carried out under High Voltage AC (HVAC) in different types of oils namely castor oil, vegetable oil and mineral oil. The Breakdown Voltage (BDV) with presence of moisture and particle contamination in different types of oils is studied. The BDV of vegetable oil is better when compared to other oils without contamination. The BDV of mineral oil is better when compared to other types of oils in presence of contamination.
The Model Establishment and Analysis of TRACE/MELCOR for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool
Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 plant in Taiwan. There is more concern for the safety of NPPs in Taiwan after Japan Fukushima NPP disaster occurred. Hence, in order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP spent fuel pool (SFP), by using TRACE, MELCOR, and SNAP codes, the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP SFP was performed. There were two main steps in this research. First, the Kuosheng NPP SFP models were established. Second, the transient analysis of Kuosheng SFP was done by TRACE and MELCOR under the cooling system failure condition (Fukushima-like condition). The results showed that the calculations of MELCOR and TRACE were very similar in this case, and the fuel uncover happened roughly at 4th day after the failure of cooling system. The above results indicated that Kuosheng NPP SFP may be unsafe in the case of long-term SBO situation. In addition, future calculations were needed to be done by the other codes like FRAPTRAN for the cladding calculations.
[Keynote Talk]: Analysis of Intelligent Based Fault Tolerant Capability System for Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Due to the fossil fuel exhaustion and environmental pollution, renewable energy sources especially solar photovoltaic system plays a predominant role in providing energy to the consumers. It has been estimated that by 2050 the renewable energy sources will satisfy 50% of the total energy requirement of the world. In this context, the faults in the conversion process require a special attention which is considered as a major problem. A fault which remains even for a few seconds will cause undesirable effects to the system. The presentation comprises of the analysis, causes, effects and mitigation methods of various faults occurring in the entire solar photovoltaic energy conversion process. In order to overcome the faults in the system, an intelligent based artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are proposed which can significantly mitigate the faults. Hence the presentation intends to find the problem in renewable energy and provides the possible solution to overcome it with simulation and experimental results. The work performed in a 3kWp solar photovoltaic plant whose results cites the improvement in reliability, availability, power quality and fault tolerant ability.
Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes
The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.
Application of Thermal Dimensioning Tools to Consider Different Strategies for the Disposal of High-Heat-Generating Waste
The principle of geological disposal is to isolate higher-activity radioactive wastes deep inside a suitable rock formation to ensure that no harmful quantities of radioactivity reach the surface environment. To achieve this, wastes will be placed in an engineered underground containment facility – the geological disposal facility (GDF) – which will be designed so that natural and man-made barriers work together to minimise the escape of radioactivity. Internationally, various multi-barrier concepts have been developed for the disposal of higher-activity radioactive wastes. High-heat-generating wastes (HLW, spent fuel and Pu) provide a number of different technical challenges to those associated with the disposal of low-heat-generating waste. Thermal management of the disposal system must be taken into consideration in GDF design; temperature constraints might apply to the wasteform, container, buffer and host rock. Of these, the temperature limit placed on the buffer component of the engineered barrier system (EBS) can be the most constraining factor. The heat must therefore be managed such that the properties of the buffer are not compromised to the extent that it cannot deliver the required level of safety. The maximum temperature of a buffer surrounding a container at the centre of a fixed array of heat-generating sources, arises due to heat diffusing from neighbouring heat-generating wastes, incrementally contributing to the temperature of the EBS. A range of strategies can be employed for managing heat in a GDF, including the spatial arrangements or patterns of those containers; different geometrical configurations can influence the overall thermal density in a disposal facility (or area within a facility) and therefore the maximum buffer temperature. A semi-analytical thermal dimensioning tool and methodology have been applied at a generic stage to explore a range of strategies to manage the disposal of high-heat-generating waste. A number of examples, including different geometrical layouts and chequer-boarding, have been illustrated to demonstrate how these tools can be used to consider safety margins and inform strategic disposal options when faced with uncertainty, at a generic stage of the development of a GDF.
Nuclear Safety and Security in France in the 1970s: A Turning Point for the Media
In France, in the main media, the concern about nuclear safety and security has not really appeared before the beginning of the 1970s. The gradual changes in its perception are studied here through the arguments given in the main French news magazines, linked with several parameters. As this represents a considerable amount of copies and thus of information, are selected here the main articles as well as the main “mental images” aiming to persuade the readers and which have led the public awareness to evolve. Indeed, in the 1970s, in France, these evolutions were not made in one day. Indeed, over the period, many articles were still in favor of nuclear power plants and promoted the technological advances that were made in this field. They had to be taken into account. But, gradually, grew up arguments and mental images discrediting the perception of nuclear technology. Among these were the environmental impacts of this industry, as the question of pollution progressively appeared. So, between 1970 and 1979, the language has changed, as the perceptible objectives of the communication, allowing to discern the deepest intentions of the editorial staffs of the French news magazines. This is all these changes that are emphasized here, over a period when the safety and security concern linked to the nuclear technology, to there a field for specialists, has become progressively a social issue seemingly open to all.
Sampling Effects on Secondary Voltage Control of Microgrids Based on Network of Multiagent
This paper studies a secondary voltage control framework of the microgrids based on the consensus for a communication network of multiagent. The proposed control is designed by the communication network with one-way links. The communication network is modeled by a directed graph. At this time, the concept of sampling is considered as the communication constraint among each distributed generator in the microgrids. To analyze the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids, by using Lyapunov theory and some mathematical techniques, the sufficient condition for such problem will be established regarding linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the necessity of the consideration of the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids.
Monte Carlo Neutronic Calculations on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)
In this study, time dependent neutronic analysis of incineration of minor actinides of a Laser Fusion Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) engine was performed. The calculations were carried out by using MCNP codes with ENDF/B.VI neutron data library. In the neutronic calculations, TRISO particles fueled with minor actinides with natural lithium coolant were performed. The natural lithium cooled LIFE engine used 10 % TRISO fuel minor actinides composition. Tritium breeding ratios (TBR) and energy multiplication factor (M) burnup values were computed as 1.46 and 3.75, respectively. The reactor operation time was calculated as ~ 21 years. The burnup values were obtained as ~1060 GWD/MT, respectively. As a result, the very higher burnup were achieved of LIFE engine.
Preliminary Study on the Removal of Solid Uranium Compound in Nuclear Fuel Production System
By sealing constraint, the system of nuclear fuel production penetrates a trace of air in during its service. The vapor in the air can react with material in the system and generate solid uranium compounds. These solid uranium compounds continue to accumulate and attached to the production equipment and pipeline of system, which not only affects the operation reliability of production equipment and give off radiation hazard as well after system retired. Therefore, it is necessary to select a reasonable method to remove it. Through the analysis of physicochemical properties of solid uranium compounds, halogenated fluoride compounds are selected as a cleaning agent, which can remove solid uranium compounds effectively. This paper studied the related chemical reaction under the condition of static test and results show that the selection of high fluoride halogen compounds can be removed solid uranium compounds completely. The study on the influence of reaction pressure with the reaction rate discovered a phenomenon that the higher the pressure, the faster the reaction rate.
Enhancement of Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Solar Storage System
Solar energy is available abundantly in the world, but it is not continuous and its intensity also varies with time. Due to above reason the acceptability and reliability of solar based thermal system is lower than conventional systems. A properly designed heat storage system increases the reliability of solar thermal systems by bridging the gap between the energy demand and availability. In the present work, two dimensional numerical simulation of the melting of heat storage material is presented in the horizontal annulus of double pipe latent heat storage system. Longitudinal fins were used as a thermal conductivity enhancement. Paraffin wax was used as a heat-storage or phase change material (PCM). Constant wall temperature is applied to heat transfer tube. Presented two-dimensional numerical analysis shows the movement of melting front in the finned cylindrical annulus for analyzing the thermal behavior of the system during melting.
CFD Simulation for Thermo-Hydraulic Performance V-Shaped Discrete Ribs on the Absorber Plate of Solar Air Heater
A computational investigation of various flow characteristics with artificial roughness in the form of V-types discrete ribs, heated wall of rectangular duct for turbulent flow with Reynolds number range (3800-15000) and p/e (5 to 12) has been carried out with k-e turbulence model is selected by comparing the predictions of different turbulence models with experimental results available in literature. The current study evaluates thermal performance behavior, heat transfer and fluid flow behavior in a v shaped duct with discrete roughened ribs mounted on one of the principal wall (solar plate) by computational fluid dynamics software (Fluent 6.3.26 Solver). In this study, CFD has been carried out through designing 3-demensional model of experimental solar air heater model analysis has been used to perform a numerical simulation to enhance turbulent heat transfer and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes analysis is used as a numerical technique and the k-epsilon model with near-wall treatment as a turbulent model. The thermal efficiency enhancement because of selected roughness is found to be 16-24%. The result predicts a significant enhancement of heat transfer as compared to that of for a smooth surface with different P’ and various range of Reynolds number.
Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System
Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.
The Model Establishment and Analysis of TRACE/FRAPTRAN for Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool
TRACE is developed by U.S. NRC for the nuclear power plants (NPPs) safety analysis. We focus on the establishment and application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN/SNAP models for Chinshan NPP (BWR/4) spent fuel pool in this research. The geometry is 12.17 m × 7.87 m × 11.61 m for the spent fuel pool. In this study, there are three TRACE/SNAP models: one-channel, two-channel, and multi-channel TRACE/SNAP model. Additionally, the cooling system failure of the spent fuel pool was simulated and analyzed by using the above models. According to the analysis results, the peak cladding temperature response was more accurate in the multi-channel TRACE/SNAP model. The results depicted that the uncovered of the fuels occurred at 2.7 day after the cooling system failed. In order to estimate the detailed fuel rods performance, FRAPTRAN code was used in this research. According to the results of FRAPTRAN, the highest cladding temperature located on the node 21 of the fuel rod (the highest node at node 23) and the cladding burst roughly after 3.7 day.
A Study on Long Life Hybrid Battery System Consists of Ni-63 Betavoltaic Battery and All Solid Battery
There is a limitation to power supply and operation by the chemical or physical battery in the space environment. Therefore, research for utilizing nuclear energy in the universe has been in progress since the 1950s, around the major industrialized countries. In this study, the self-rechargeable battery having a long life relative to the half-life of the radioisotope is suggested. The hybrid system is composed of betavoltaic battery, all solid battery and energy harvesting board. Betavoltaic battery can produce electrical power at least 10 years over using the radioisotope from Ni-63 and the silicon-based semiconductor. The electrical power generated from the betavoltaic battery is stored in the all-solid battery and stored power is used if necessary. The hybrid system board is composed of input terminals, boost circuit, charging terminals and output terminals. Betavoltaic and all solid batteries are connected to the input and output terminal, respectively. The electric current of 10 µA is applied to the system board by using the high-resolution power simulator. The system efficiencies are measured from a boost up voltage of 1.8 V, 2.4 V and 3 V, respectively. As a result, the efficiency of system board is about 75% after boosting up the voltage from 1V to 3V.
A Study on Evaluation for Performance Verification of Ni-63 Radioisotope Betavoltaic Battery
A betavoltaic battery converts nuclear energy released as beta particles (β-) directly into electrical energy. Betavoltaic cells are analogous to photovoltaic cells. The beta particle’s kinetic energy enters a p-n junction and creates electron-hole pairs. Subsequently, the built-in potential of the p-n junction accelerates the electrons and ions to their respective collectors. The major challenges are electrical conversion efficiencies and exact evaluation. In this study, the performance of betavoltaic battery was evaluated. The betavoltaic cell was evaluated in the same condition as radiation from radioactive isotope using by FE-SEM(field emission scanning electron microscope). The average energy of the radiation emitted from the Ni-63 radioisotope is 17.42 keV. FE-SEM is capable of emitting an electron beam of 1-30keV. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate betavoltaic cell without radioactive isotopes. The betavoltaic battery consists of radioisotope that is physically connected on the surface of Si-based PN diode. The performance of betavoltaic battery can be estimated by the efficiency of PN diode unit cell. The current generated by scanning electron microscope with fixed accelerating voltage (17keV) was measured by using faraday cup. Electrical characterization of the p-n junction diode was performed by using Nano Probe Work Station and I-V measurement system. The output value of the betavoltaic cells developed by this research team was 0.162 μw/cm2 and the efficiency was 1.14%.
Investigation of the Morphology and Optical Properties of CuAlO₂ Thin Film
Thin films of CuAlO2 were deposited on clean glass substrate using the chemical solution deposition (sol-gel) method of deposition with CuCl and AlCl3 taken as the starting materials. CuCl was dissolved in HCl while AlCl₃ in distilled water, pH value of the mixture was controlled by addition of NaOH. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of the deposited CuAlO₂ thin film. The surface morphology reveals an improved crystalline as annealing temperature increases. The results of the UV-vis and FT-IR spectrophotometry indicate that the absorbance for all the samples decreases sharply from a common value of about 89% at about 329 nm to a range of values of 56.2%-35.2% and the absorption / extinction coefficients of the films decrease with increase in annealing temperature from 1.58 x 10⁻⁶ to1.08 x 10⁻⁶ at about 1.14eV in the infrared region to about 1.93 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.29 x 10⁻⁶ at about 3.62eV in the visible region, the transmittance, reflectance and band gaps vary directly with annealing temperature, the deposited films were found to be suitable in optoelectronic applications.
Radio Labeling and Characterization of Cysteine and Its Derivatives with Tc99m and Study Its Bio-Distribution
An extensive series of radiopharmaceuticals have been explored in order to discover a better brain tumour diagnostic agent. Tc99m labelling with cysteine and its derivatives in liposomes shows effective tagging of about 70% to 80 %. Due to microscopic size it successfully crossed the brain barrier in 2 minutes which gradually decreases in 5 to 15 minutes. HMPAO labelled with Tc99m is another important radiopharmaceutical used to study brain perfusion but it comes with a flaw that it’s only functional during epilepsy. 1, 1 ECD is purely used in Tc99m ECD formulation; because it not only tends to cross the blood brain barrier but it can be metabolized which can be easily entrapped in human brain. Radio labelling of Cysteine with Tc99m at room temperature was performed which yielded no good results. Hence cysteine derivatives with salicylaldehyde were prepared that produced about 75 % yield for ligand. In order to perform it’s radio labelling a suitable solvent DMSO was selected and physical parameters were performed. Elemental analyser produced remarkably similar results for ligand as reported in literature. IR spectra of Ligand in DMSO concluded in the absence of SH stretch and presence of N-H vibration. Thermal analysis of the ligand further suggested its decomposition pattern with no distinct curve for a melting point. Radio labelling of ligand was performed which produced excellent results giving up to 88% labelling at pH 5.0. Clinical trials using Rabbit were performed after validating the products reproducibility. The radiopharmaceutical prepared was injected into the rabbit. Dynamic as well as static study was performed under the SPECT. It showed considerable uptake in the kidneys and liver considering it suitable for the Hypatobilliary study.