International Science Index

International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

2594
91777
Frequency of BCR-ABL Fusion Transcript Types with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen Thailand
Abstract:
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the consistent involvement of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), which is derived from a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22, the main product of the t(9;22) (q34;q11) translocation, is found in the leukemic clone of at least 95% of CML patients. There are two major forms of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, involving ABL exon 2, but including different exons of BCR gene. The transcripts b2a2 (e13a2) or b3a2 (e14a2) code for a p210 protein. Another fusion gene leads to the expression of an e1a2 transcript, which codes for a p190 protein. Other less common fusion genes are b3a3 or b2a3, which codes for a p203 protein and e19a2 (c3a2) transcript, which codes for a p230 protein. Its frequency varies in different populations. In this study, we aimed to report the frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcript types with CML by multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Multiplex PCR for BCR-ABL was performed on 58 patients, to detect different types of BCR-ABL transcripts of the t (9; 22). All patients examined were positive for some type of BCR/ABL rearrangement. The majority of the patients (93.10%) expressed one of the p210 BCR-ABL transcripts, b3a2 and b2a2 transcripts were detected in 53.45% and 39.65% respectively. The expression of an e1a2 transcript showed 3.75%. Co-expression of p210/p230 was detected in 3.45%. Co-expression of p210/p190 was not detected. Multiplex PCR is useful, saves time and reliable in the detection of BCR-ABL transcript types. The frequency of one or other rearrangement in CML varies in different population.
2593
94237
The Joint Attention Training as Early Occupational Therapy Intervention in Children with Autism
Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of joint attention training on communication skills and visual perception skills in autistic children. Eight children between 4 and six years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form, Social Communication Questionnaire, Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 4 (MVPT-4) were applied to the participants before intervention and after the intervention. Joint attention training was given three times a week for six weeks in total 18 sessions. Four of the children with autism who participate in the study (50%) were male, four (50%) were female and the mean age was 5,25±0,70. The Social Communication Scale score for children with autism was 13.62 ± 3.73 before the joint attention training and 11.37 ± 4.10 after the training. It was observed that social communication skills improved, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Pre-education autistic children's Autism Behavioral Control score was 55,37 ± 9,94, whereas it was 40,12 ± 15,57 after training. There was a statistically significant improvement in sensory, relationship building, body and object use, language skills, social and self-care skills of autistic children in the autistic behavior checklist subscale after joint attention training (p < 0.05). MVPT 4 score before intervention in children with autism was 14.62 ± 6.65; and 19,50 ± 5,18 after the intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in visual perceptual skills without a motor in children with autism after the intervention (p < 0.05). This abstract is the pilot study of the joint attention training involving planned long-term (12 weeks) and more autistic children. A greater number of autistic children for longer period suggest that joint attention training will also lead to statistically significant improvements in social communication skills. It is thought that the joint attention training that is applied for a longer period in early childhood occupational therapy in children with autism will be beneficial for social communication, self-care skills and visual perception skills of autistic children.
2592
94328
Investigation of Effectiveness of Activity-Based Postural Stability Training on Occupational Performance in Individuals with Visually Impairment: Pilot Study
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is an investigation of the effect of person-centered, based on activity postural stability training on occupational performance levels in visually impaired individuals. Postural stability norm studies were performed on healthy individuals who were between 18 and 35 years of age in the Biodex Balance System to determine inclusion criteria before blind individuals were included in the study. Healthy young adult subjects who participated in the study were 127 (81 female, 46 male) aged 18-35 years with an average age of 22,49 ± 3,66 years. Postural stability was assessed with the Biodex Stability System (Biodex Medical System, New York, USA). In case of standing on two legs; static and dynamic postural stability were assessed. Nine blind individuals (4 female, 5 male) were included in the study between 18 and 35 years of age, average age 26 ± 5,85 which had a standard value above the standard value in the data obtained from this normative study and have visual acuity less than 6/60. Socio-demographic information of the individuals was recorded. Before the intervention, individuals were administered Canada Occupational Performance Scale (COPM). According to COPM, the activities that are forced in the areas of self-care, leisure time and productivity are determined. In addition, the performance and satisfaction values of COPM were determined. Individuals Hacettepe University Department of Occupational Therapy, Vocational Rehabilitation Center conducted postural stability training based on activity for 2 days a week for 12 weeks. The same measurements and evaluations were repeated after the training. The dynamic overall stability deviation of the participants before the intervention was 3.64 ± 0.97 while it was recorded as 2.25 ± 0.68 after the intervention. After the training, postural stability values such as medio-lateral stability, anterior-posterior stability ve overall stability were significantly improved (p < 0,01) in the Biodex Balance System evaluations. Participants' pre-training COPM performance scores were 4,16 ± 1,08 point, while post-training COPM performance scores increased to 6,05 ± 1,13 point, similarly, COPM satisfaction scores were 4,16 ± 1,29 point to 6,50 ± 1,11 point. It was observed that visually impaired individuals included in the study had a statistically significant increase in the positive side in the values of COPM performance and satisfaction (p < 0,01). Person-centered postural stability training based on activity in visually impaired individuals is thought to increase the occupational performance of the individual with visually impairment. It is suggested that education should be person-centered, while postural stability training based on activity is planned in visually impaired individuals.
2591
94339
The Relationship between Adaptive Behavior Levels of Autistic Adolescents and Life Satisfaction of Caregivers
Abstract:
The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between adaptive behavior levels of autistic adolescents and life satisfaction of caregivers. Material and Methods: 22 adolescents between 10 and 18 years of age and 22 caregivers between 30 and 60 years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form and Life Satisfaction Scale were administered to the caregivers when the socio-demographic information form, Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS-S: 2) were applied to the autistic adolescents participating in the study. Results and Discussion: Thirteen of the autistic adolescents participating in the study (59.1%) were male, 9 (40.9%) were female and the mean age was 11,95 ± 3,76. Twenty-one of the caregivers (95,45%) were female, 1 (4.54%) were male and the mean age was 40,95 ± 8,94. In the study, it was determined that there was a significant relationship between the adaptive behavior levels of the autistic adolescents and the life satisfaction of caregivers (p < 0.01). In addition, in autistic adolescents, there was a significant relationship between ABS-S:2' all other subparameters except menstruation, counts and time subparameters and life satisfaction of caregivers (p < 0.05). According to the study, the increase in the life skills of the autistic adolescents affects the life satisfaction of caregivers positively. It should be noted that while the practice of ergotherapy is planned, the independent living skills training given to the autistic adolescents plays an important role in improving the life satisfaction of caregivers.
2590
95806
The Therapeutic Effects of Acupuncture on Oral Dryness and Antibody Modification in Sjogren Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
Abstract:
Oral dryness is a common chief complaint among patients with Sjőgren syndrome (SS), which is a disorder currently known as autoantibodies production; however, to author’s best knowledge, there has been no satisfying pharmacy to relieve the associated symptoms. Hence the effectiveness of other non-pharmacological interventions such as acupuncture should be accessed. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) which evaluated the effectiveness of xerostomia in SS. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chongqing Weipu Database (CQVIP), China Academic Journals Full-text Database, AiritiLibrary, Chinese Electronic Periodicals Service (CEPS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database were searches through May 12, 2018 to select studies. Data for evaluation of subjective and objective xerostomia was extracted and was assessed with random-effects meta-analysis. After searching, a total of 541 references were yielded and five RCTs were included, covering 340 patients dry mouth resulted from SS, among whom 169 patients received acupuncture and 171 patients were control group. Acupuncture group was associated with higher subjective response rate (odds ratio 3.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.828 – 5.042, P < 0.001) and increased salivary flow rate (weighted mean difference [WMD] 3.066, 95% CI 2.969 – 3.164, P < 0.001), as an objective marker. In addition, two studies examined IgG levels, which were lower in the acupuncture group (WMD -166.857, 95% CI -233.138 - -100.576, P < 0.001). Therefore, in the present meta-analysis, acupuncture improves both subjective and objective markers of dry mouth with autoantibodies reduction in patients with SS and is considered as an option of non-pharmacological treatment for SS.
2589
95462
Tool Development for Assessing Antineoplastic Drugs Surface Contamination in Healthcare Services and Other Workplaces
Abstract:
Introduction: Healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) is a burning issue for occupational medicine practitioners. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure (BMOE) is an essential tool for assessing AD contamination of healthcare workers. In addition to BMOE, surface sampling is a useful tool in order to understand how workers get contaminated, to identify sources of environmental contamination, to verify the effectiveness of surface decontamination way and to ensure monitoring of these surfaces. The objective of this work was to develop a complete tool including a kit for surface sampling and a quantification analytical method for AD traces detection. The development was realized with the three following criteria: the kit capacity to sample in every professional environment (healthcare services, veterinaries, etc.), the detection of very low AD traces with a validated analytical method and the easiness of the sampling kit use regardless of the person in charge of sampling. Material and method: AD mostly used in term of quantity and frequency have been identified by an analysis of the literature and consumptions of different hospitals, veterinary services, and home care settings. The kind of adsorbent device, surface moistening solution and mix of solvents for the extraction of AD from the adsorbent device have been tested for a maximal yield. The AD quantification was achieved by an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Results: With their high frequencies of use and their good reflect of the diverse activities through healthcare, 15 AD (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, 5-FU, dacarbazin, etoposide, pemetrexed, vincristine, cytarabine, methothrexate, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, mitomycin C) were selected. The analytical method was optimized and adapted to obtain high sensitivity with very low limits of quantification (25 to 5000ng/mL), equivalent or lowest that those previously published (for 13/15 AD). The sampling kit is easy to use, provided with a didactic support (online video and protocol paper). It showed its effectiveness without inter-individual variation (n=5/person; n= 5 persons; p=0,85; ANOVA) regardless of the person in charge of sampling. Conclusion: This validated tool (sampling kit + analytical method) is very sensitive, easy to use and very didactic in order to control the chemical risk brought by AD. Moreover, BMOE permits a focal prevention. Used in routine, this tool is available for every intervention of occupational health.
2588
95465
Occupational Exposure and Contamination to Antineoplastic Drugs of Healthcare Professionals in Mauritania
Abstract:
Context: In Mauritania, the activity of the National Center of Oncology (NCO) has steadily risen leading to an increase in the handling of antineoplastic drugs (AD) by healthcare professionals. In this context, the AD contamination of those professionals is a major concern for occupational physicians. It has been evaluated using biological monitoring of occupational exposure (BMOE). Methods: The intervention took place in 2015, in 2 care units, and evaluated nurses preparing and/or infusing AD and agents in charge of hygiene. Participants provided a single urine sample, at the end of the week, at the end of their shift. Five molecules were sought using specific high sensitivity methods (UHPLC-MS/MS) with very low limits of quantification (LOQ) (cyclophosphamide (CP), Ifosfamide (IF), methotrexate (MTX): 2.5ng/L; doxorubicin (Doxo): 10ng/L; α-fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL, 5-FU metabolite): 20ng/L). A healthcare worker was considered as 'contaminated' when an AD was detected at a urine concentration equal to or greater than the LOQ of the analytical method or at trace concentration. Results: Twelve persons participated (6 nurses, 6 agents in charge of hygiene). Twelve urine samples were collected and analyzed. The percentage of contamination was 66.6% for all participants (n=8/12), 100% for nurses (6/6) and 33% for agents in charge of hygiene (2/6). In 62.5% (n=5/8) of the contaminated workers, two to four of the AD were detected in the urine. CP was found in the urine of all contaminated workers. FBAL was found in four, MTX in three and Doxo in one. Only IF was not detected. Urinary concentrations (all drugs combined) ranged from 3 to 844 ng/L for nurses and from 3 to 44 ng/L for agents in charge of hygiene. The median urinary concentrations were 87 ng/L, 15.1 ng/L and 4.4 ng/L for FBAL, CP and MTX, respectively. The Doxo urinary concentration was found 218ng/L. Discussion: There is no current biological exposure index for the interpretation of AD contamination. The contamination of these healthcare professionals is therefore established by the detection of one or more AD in urine. These urinary contaminations are higher than the LOQ of the analytical methods, which must be as low as possible. Given the danger of AD, the implementation of corrective measures is essential for the staff. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure is the most reliable process to identify groups at risk, tracing insufficiently controlled exposures and as an alarm signal. These results show the necessity to educate professionals about the risks of handling AD and/or to care for treated patients.
2587
95466
Proposals for the Practical Implementation of the Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure for Antineoplastic Drugs
Abstract:
Context: Most antineoplastic drugs (AD) have a potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or reprotoxic effect and are classified as 'hazardous to handle' by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Their handling increases with the increase of cancer incidence. AD contamination from workers who handle AD and/or care for treated patients is, therefore, a major concern for occupational physicians. As part of the process of evaluation and prevention of chemical risks for professionals exposed to AD, Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure (BMOE) is the tool of choice. BMOE allows identification of at-risk groups, monitoring of exposures, assessment of poorly controlled exposures and the effectiveness and/or wearing of protective equipment, and documenting occupational exposure incidents to AD. This work aims to make proposals for the practical implementation of the BMOE for AD. The proposed strategy is based on the French good practice recommendations for BMOE, issued in 2016 by 3 French learned societies. These recommendations have been adapted to occupational exposure to AD. Results: AD contamination of professionals is a sensitive topic, and the BMOE requires the establishment of a working group and information meetings within the concerned health establishment to explain the approach, objectives, and purpose of monitoring. Occupational exposure to AD is often discontinuous and 2 steps are essential upstream: a study of the nature and frequency of AD used to select the Biological Exposure Indice(s) (BEI) most representative of the activity; a study of AD path in the institution to target exposed professionals and to adapt medico-professional information sheet (MPIS). The MPIS is essential to gather the necessary elements for results interpretation. Currently, 28 urinary specific BEIs of AD exposure have been identified, and corresponding analytical methods have been published: 11 BEIs were AD metabolites, and 17 were AD. Results interpretation is performed by groups of homogeneous exposure (GHE). There is no threshold biological limit value of interpretation. Contamination is established when an AD is detected in trace concentration or in a urine concentration equal or greater than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytical method. Results can only be compared to LOQs of these methods, which must be as low as possible. For 8 of the 17 AD BEIs, the LOQ is very low with values between 0.01 to 0.05µg/l. For the other BEIs, the LOQ values were higher between 0.1 to 30µg/l. Results restitution by occupational physicians to workers should be individual and collective. Faced with AD dangerousness, in cases of workers contamination, it is necessary to put in place corrective measures. In addition, the implementation of prevention and awareness measures for those exposed to this risk is a priority. Conclusion: This work is a help for occupational physicians engaging in a process of prevention of occupational risks related to AD exposure. With the current analytical tools, effective and available, the (BMOE) to the AD should now be possible to develop in routine occupational physician practice. The BMOE may be complemented by surface sampling to determine workers' contamination modalities.
2586
96134
Eliminating Injury at Work Place and Realizing Vision Zero Using Accident Investigation and Analysis as Method: A Case Study
Abstract:
Accident investigation and analysis are useful to identify deficiencies in plant, process, and management practices and formulate preventive strategies for injury elimination. In India and other parts of the world, industrial accidents are investigated to know the causes and also to fulfill legal compliances. However, findings of investigation are seldom used appropriately to strengthen Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in expected lines. The mineral rich state of Odisha in eastern coast of India; known as a hub for Iron and Steel industries, witnessed frequent accidents during 2005-2009. This article based on study of 982 fatal ‘factory-accidents’ occurred in Odisha during the period 2001-2016, discusses the ‘turnaround-story’ resulting in reduction of fatal accident from 122 in 2009 to 45 in 2016. This paper examines various factors causing incidents; accident pattern in steel and chemical sector; role of climate and harsh weather conditions on accident causation. Software such as R, SQL, MS-Excel and Tableau were used for analysis of data. It is found that maximum fatality is caused due to ‘fall from height’ (24%); steel industries are relatively more accident prone; harsh weather conditions of summer increase chances of accident by 20%. Further, the study suggests that enforcement of partial work-restriction around lunch time during peak summer, screening and training of employees reduce accidents due to fall from height. The study indicates that learning from accident investigation and analysis can be used as a method to reduce work related accidents in the journey towards ‘Vision Zero’.
2585
96334
Chronic Pesticides Exposure and Certain Endocrine Functions Among Farmers in East Almnaif District, Ismailia, Egypt
Abstract:
Background: Exposure to pesticides is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers in developing countries. Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. Objective: To investigate thyroid and reproductive hormones and fasting blood glucose levels among farmers chronically exposed to pesticide from East Almnaif district, Ismailia governorate. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 farmers with active involvement pesticides handling and 43 participants not occupationally exposed to pesticides as the control group. A structured interview questionnaire measuring the sociodemographic characteristics, pesticides exposure characteristics, and safety measures was used. General examination including measurements of height, weight, and blood pressure was done. Moreover, levels of plasma cholinesterase enzyme (PChE), glucose, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones (TSH, T4, and testosterone) were determined. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding their age, educational level, smoking status, and body mass index. The mean duration of exposure was 20.60 11.06 years. Majority of farmers (76.7%) did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticides handling. The mean systolic blood pressure among exposed farmers was greater (134.88 17.18 mm Hg) compared to control group (125 14.69 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). The mean diastolic blood pressure was higher (84.02 8.69 mm Hg) compared to control group (78.79 8.98 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.006). The pesticide exposed farmers had statistically significant lower level of PChE (3969.93 1841U/L) than control group (4879.29 1950.08 U/L). Additionally, TSH level was significantly higher in exposed farmers (median =1.39µIU/ml) compared to controls (median = 0.91 µIU/ml) (p=0.032). While, the exposed group had a lower T4 level (6.91 1.91 µg/dl) compared to the control group (7.79 2.10µg/dl), with the statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.045). The exposed group had significantly lower level of testosterone hormone (median=3.37 ng/ml) compared to the control group (median= 6.22 ng/ml) (p=0.003). While, the exposed farmers had statistically insignificant higher level of fasting blood glucose (median =89 mg/dl) than the controls (median=88 mg/dl). Furthermore, farmers who did not use PPE had statistically significant lower level of T4 (6.57 1.81µg/dl) than farmers who used PPE during handling of pesticides (8.01 1.89 µg/dl). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to pesticides exerts disturbing action on reproductive function and thyroid function of the male farmers.
2584
96336
Occupational Stress and Lipid Profile among Drivers in Ismailia City, Egypt
Abstract:
Background: Occupational stress plays a crucial role in professional drivers' health. They are exposed to high workloads, low physical activity, high demand and low decisions as well as poor lifestyle factors including poor diet, sedentary work, and smoking. Dyslipidemia is a well-established modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Occupational stress and other forms of chronic stress have been associated with raised levels of atherogenic lipids. Although stress management has some evidence in improving lipid profile, the association between occupational stress and dyslipidemia is not clear. Objectives: To assess the relational between occupational stress and lipid profile among professional drivers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted at a large company in Ismailia City, Egypt, where, 131 professional drivers divided into 44 car drivers, 43 bus drivers, and 44 truck drivers were eligible after applying exclusion criteria. Occupational stress index (OSI), non-occupational risk factors of dyslipidemia were assessed using interview structured questionnaire. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile were measured. Results: The mean of total OSI score was 79.98 ± 6.14. The total OSI score is highest among truck drivers (82.16 ± 4.62), then bus drivers (80.26 ± 6.02) and lowest among car drivers (77.55 ± 6.79) with statistically significant. Eighty percent had Dyslipidemia. The duration of driving hours per day, exposure to passive smoking and increased BMI were the risk factors. No statistical significance between Total OSI score and dyslipidemia. Using, logistic regression analysis, occupational stress, duration of driving hours per day, and BMI were positive significant predictors for dyslipidemia. Conclusion: Professional drivers are exposed to occupational stress. A high proportion of drivers have dyslipidemia. Total OSI score doesn't have statistically significant relation with dyslipidemia.
2583
93279
Effect of Diet and Life Style Modification to Control the Plasma Glucose Level in the 60 Patients of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract:
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Uncontrolled or untreated GDM is associated with various adverse outcomes to the maternal and fetal health. Overt diabetes mellitus may also develop in such patients. It is universally accepted fact that first and foremost management to treat GDM is dietary control and lifestyle modification even before starting any oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) or insulin. So, proper dietary management and little changes in the patient’s lifestyle are very effective for reducing her plasma glucose level. Objectives: Proper counselling of the patients and flexibility in their lifestyle and diet can effectively control the plasma glucose level in GDM patients. Methods: Total 60 GDM patients of age > 18 years were taken. We had three counselling sessions with the patient and other members of the family like husband, parents, and in-laws at different intervals, discussed their lifestyle and diet pattern, helped them to eliminate the factors those had an adverse effect on plasma glucose level and promoted them to acquire a healthy lifestyle. We have counselled the patient and her family member separately and then together also. They have explained how increased plasma glucose level can be effectively controlled with the little modification in their diet and routine activities. They were also taught to remain stress-free during their rest of antenatal period. We have excluded the patients from our study who were diabetic before pregnancy and patients with other comorbid illnesses like hypothyroidism and valvular heart disease. Results and conclusions: Results were very rewarding as patients could acquire a lifestyle of their choice. They were happy because extra pill burden was not there. All the 60 patients were normoglycemic in remaining antenatal period, 48 patients were delivered normally and 12 patients underwent cesarean section due to various reasons.Regular counselling of the patients regarding their disease and little alterations in diet and lifestyle controlled the plasma glucose level much effectively. The things were more easier and effective when we included other family members during our counselling session because they play a major role in patient’s day to day activity and influence her life.
2582
92926
A Case of Prosthetic Vascular-Graft Infection Due to Mycobacterium fortuitum
Abstract:
Case presentation: A 69-year-old Japanese man presented with a low-grade fever and fatigue that had persisted for one month. The patient had an aortic dissection on the aortic arch 13 years prior, an abdominal aortic aneurysm seven years prior, and an aortic dissection on the distal aortic arch one year prior, which were all treated with artificial blood-vessel replacement surgery. Laboratory tests revealed an inflammatory response (CRP 7.61 mg/dl), high serum creatinine (Cr 1.4 mg/dL), and elevated transaminase (AST 47 IU/L, ALT 45 IU/L). The patient was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Following further workups on the inflammatory response, an enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) and a non-enhanced chest DWI (MRI) were performed. The patient was diagnosed with a pulmonary fistula and a prosthetic vascular graft infection on the distal aortic arch. After admission, the patient was administered Ceftriaxion and Vancomycine for ten days, but his fever and inflammatory response did not improve. On day 13 of hospitalization, a lung fistula repair surgery and an omental filling operation were performed, and Meropenem and Vancomycine were administered. The fever and inflammatory response continued, and therefore we took repeated blood cultures. M. fortuitum was detected in a blood culture on day 16 of hospitalization. As a result, we changed the treatment regimen to Amikacin (400 mg/day), Meropenem (2 g/day), and Cefmetazole (4 g/day), and the fever and inflammatory response began to decrease gradually. We performed a test of sensitivity for Mycobacterium fortuitum, and found that the MIC was low for fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The clinical course was good, and the patient was discharged after a total of 8 weeks of intravenous drug administration. At discharge, we changed the treatment regimen to Levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and Clarithromycin (800 mg/day), and prescribed these two drugs as a long life suppressive therapy. Discussion: There are few cases of prosthetic vascular graft infection caused by mycobacteria, and a standard therapy remains to be established. For prosthetic vascular graft infections, it is ideal to provide surgical and medical treatment in parallel, but in this case, surgical treatment was difficult and, therefore, conservative treatment was chosen. We attempted to increase the treatment success rate of this refractory disease by conducting a susceptibility test for mycobacteria and treating with different combinations of antimicrobial agents, which was ultimately effective. With our treatment approach, a good clinical course was obtained and continues at the present stage. Conclusion: Although prosthetic vascular graft infection resulting from mycobacteria is a refractory infectious disease, it may be curative to administer appropriate antibiotics based on the susceptibility test in addition to surgical treatment.
2581
94789
Still Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Despite Proper Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis
Abstract:
Chronic viral hepatitis B, C, and D can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and death. The proper treatment reduce the risk of development of HCC importantly, but not to zero point. Materials and Methods: We analysed retrospectively our chronic viral hepatitis B, C and D patients who attended to our Infectious Diseases policlinic between 2004-2018. From 589 biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis patients 3 have hepatocellular carcinoma on our follow up. First case is 74 years old patient. His HCV infection diagnosis was made 8 years ago. First treatment was pegylated interferon plus ribavirin only 28 weeks, because of HCV RNA breakthrough under treatment. In 2013 he was retreated with telaprevir, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin 24 weeks. But at the end of the therapy HCV RNA was found 1.290.000 IU/mL. He has abdominal ultrasonography (US) controls and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6 months intervals. All seemed normal until 2015 then he has an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and found HCC by chance. His treatment began in Oncology Clinic after verified with biopsy of HCC. And then sofosbuvir/ledipasvir was given to him for HCV 24 weeks. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was obtained. He is on cure for HCV infection and under control of Oncology for HCC. Second patient is 36 years old man. He knows his HBV infection since 2008. HBsAg and HBeAg positive; HDV RNA negative. Liver biopsy revealed grade:4, stage 3-4 according modified Knodell scoring system. In 2010 tenofovir treatment was began. His abdominal US and AFP were normal. His controls took place at 6 months intervals and HBV DNA negative, US, and AFP were normal until 2016 continuously. AFP found 37 above the normal range and then HCC was found in MRI. Third patient is 57 years old man. As hepatitis B infection was first diagnosed; he has cirrhosis and was began tenofovir as treatment. In short time he has HCC despite normal AFP values. Conclusion: In Mediterranian countries including Turkey naturally occurring pre-S/S variants are more than 75% of all chronic hepatitis B patients. This variants may contribute to the development of progressive liver damage and hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV-induced development of HCC is a gradual process and is affected by the duration of disease and viral genotype. All the chronic viral hepatitis patients should be followed up in 6 months intervals not only with US and AFP for HCC. Despite they have proper treatment there is always the risk development of HCC. Chronic hepatitis patients cannot be dropped from follow up even treated well.
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2580
96174
An Exploratory Retrospective Study on Life after Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury
Abstract:
Objective: Worldwide, adolescents present a greater risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) than other groups. However, to the author’s best knowledge, relatively little is known about recovery following TBI sustained during this particular time in development. This study used a qualitative stance to explore how sustaining a TBI during adolescence might impact upon a young person’s long-term psychological wellbeing as they adjust to adulthood, as well as what might support recovery. Method: Twelve young adults who had sustained one or multiple TBIs (mild-moderate) when aged between 13 and 17 participated in the study. Participants engaged in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences since their injuries, which occurred seven to eight years prior. Results: Thematic analysis highlighted three primary themes: (1) Ongoing impact on the adolescent: Various cognitive and physical symptoms can persist beyond the acute recovery stage, to potentially impact multiple life domains (e.g., academic, leisure, social) as well as the emotional wellbeing (e.g., mood and anxiety problems) of an adolescent. (2) The enduring impact of TBI into adulthood: Cognitive (notably, memory and executive difficulties), physical (e.g., fatigue, headaches), and emotional (e.g., grief, low mood, anxiety) symptoms may persist into adulthood. (3) Support: Young people identified various sources of support that they had, or wished they’d had (e.g., family, friends, psychoeducation), which might have helped. For some, it was important to maintain awareness of what they needed to stay well (e.g., limiting activities) on a long-term basis. Conclusions: Recovery from a TBI sustained during this crucial stage of development may be more complex than previously indicated by some quantitative studies. Cognitive and physical problems may persist to impact various life domains for the adolescent and, later, during adulthood. Supports that enable better understanding of what to expect following an injury, encourage involvement from family and peers and promote awareness of what is needed to maintain wellness may aid recovery.
2579
87076
Constructing a Grounded Theory of Parents' Musical Engagement with Their Premature Baby Contributing to Their Emerging Parental Identity in a Neonatal Unit
Abstract:
Scholarship highlights the need to further examine and better understand and foster the process of becoming a parent to a premature baby in the neonatal context to support the critical development of the parent-infant relationship. Music therapy research documents significant benefits of music therapy on neonatal physiological and neurodevelopmental function, reduced maternal anxiety and validating parents’ relationship with their premature baby, yet limited studies examine the role of music in supporting parental identity. This was a multi-site study, exploring parents’ musical engagement with their hospitalised baby and parental identity in a NU. In-depth interviews with nine parents of a premature baby across varying time points in their NU journey took place. Data collection and analysis was influenced by Constructive Grounded Theory methodology. Findings in the form of a substantive grounded theory illuminated the contribution of parents’ musical engagement on their sense of parental identity in the NU. Specifically, the significance of their baby’s level and type of response during musical interactions in influencing parents’ capacity to engage in musical dialogue with their baby emerged. Specific conditions that acted as both barriers and fosters in parents’ musical engagement across a high- risk pregnancy and NU admission also emerged. Recommendations for future research into the role of music and music therapy in supporting parental coping and transition to parenthood during a high-risk pregnancy and birth and beyond the NU will be discussed.
2578
88092
Cognitive Deficits and Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
Abstract:
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the deletion of approximately 60 genes on chromosome 22 and is associated with high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The presentation of these disorders in 22q11.2DS is reported to be comparable to idiopathic forms and therefore presents a valuable model for understanding mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders. Cognitive deficits are thought to be a core feature of neurodevelopmental disorders, and possibly manifest in behavioural and emotional problems. There have been mixed findings in 22q11.2DS on whether the presence of ADHD or ASD is associated with greater cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the influence of developmental stage has never been taken into account. The aim was therefore to examine whether the presence of ADHD or ASD was associated with cognitive deficits in childhood and/or adolescence in 22q11.2DS. We conducted the largest study to date of this kind in 22q11.2DS. The same battery of tasks measuring processing speed, attention and spatial working memory were completed by 135 participants with 22q11.2DS. Wechsler IQ tests were completed, yielding Full Scale (FSIQ), Verbal (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ). Age-standardised difference scores were produced for each participant. Developmental stages were defined as children (6-10 years) and adolescents (10-18 years). ADHD diagnosis was ascertained from a semi-structured interview with a parent. ASD status was ascertained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. Interaction and main effects of cognitive performance of those with or without a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD in childhood or adolescence were conducted with 2x2 ANOVA. Significant interactions were followed up with t-tests of simple effects. Adolescents with ASD displayed greater deficits in all measures (processing speed, p = 0.022; sustained attention, p = 0.016; working memory, p = 0.006) than adolescents without ASD; there was no difference between children with and without ASD. There were no significant differences on IQ measures. Both children and adolescents with ADHD displayed greater deficits on sustained attention (p = 0.002) than those without ADHD. There were no significant differences on any other measures for ADHD. Magnitude of cognitive deficit in individuals with 22q11.2DS varied by cognitive domain, developmental stage and presence of neurodevelopmental disorder. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS and ASD showed greater deficits on all measures, which suggests there may be a sensitive period in childhood to acquire these domains, or reflect increasing social and academic demands in adolescence. The finding of poorer sustained attention in children and adolescents with ADHD supports previous research and suggests a specific deficit which can be separated from processing speed and working memory. This research provides unique insights into the association of ASD and ADHD with cognitive deficits in a group at high genomic risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.
2577
89258
Insight into the Visual Attentional Correlates Underpinning Autistic-Like Traits in Fragile X and Down Syndrome
Abstract:
Genetic syndrome groups that feature high rates of autism comorbidity, like Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), have been presented as useful models for understanding risk and protective factors involved in the emergence of autistic traits. Yet despite reaching clinical thresholds, these ‘syndromic’ forms of autism appear to differ in important ways from the idiopathic or ‘non-syndromic’ autism phenotype. To uncover the true nature of these comorbidities, it is necessary to extend definitions of autism to include the cognitive characteristics of the disorder and to then apply this broadened conceptualisation to the study of syndromic autism profiles. The current study employs a variety of well-established eye-tracking paradigms to assess visual attentional performance in children with DS and FXS who reach thresholds for autism on the Social Communication Questionnaire. It investigates whether autism profiles in these children are accompanied by visual orienting difficulties (‘sticky attention’), decreased social attention, and enhanced visual search performance, all of which are characteristic of the idiopathic autism phenotype. Data is collected from children with DS and FXS aged between 6 and 10 years, in addition to two control groups matched on age and intellectual ability (i.e., children with idiopathic autism and neurotypical controls). Cross-sectional developmental trajectory analyses are conducted to enable visuo-attentional profile comparisons. Significant differences in the visuo-attentional processes underpinning autism presentations in children with FXS and DS are hypothesised, supporting notions of syndrome specificity. The study provides insight into the complex heterogeneity associated with syndromic autism presentations and autism per se, with clinical implications for the utility of autism intervention programmes in DS and FXS populations.
2576
90301
An Educational Approach to Support Family Witnessed Resuscitation: Enhancing Continued Professional Development through Animation
Abstract:
Background: Family witnessed resuscitation is endorsed by the Resuscitation Council UK, however a review of current literature and educational materials did not identify any focused resources aimed specifically at supporting healthcare staff to improve their communication skills when safely enabling families to be present during a resuscitation. Following discussion with key stakeholders including postgraduate medical trainers and trainees it became apparent that additional resources aimed at helping to equip staff with the communication skills necessary for these situations would be a welcome teaching aid. Summary of work: Stakeholders were identified including the Ambulance Service, resuscitation officers and key clinicians with an educational/ supervisory remit. Two short, animated, scenario based videos titled ‘Supporting Families During and After Paediatric Resuscitation/ Adult Resuscitation’ were produced. These complement a suite of existing videos used to support healthcare professionals gain increased preparedness with regard to a variety of challenging bereavement related conversations.Summary of results : Family witnessed resuscitation has been shown to improve the outcomes for those who are bereaved. However, NHS Education Scotland identified a gap in the availability of teaching materials to support practitioners negotiate these situations. This informed the development of two bespoke educational animations which have multiprofessional application within the adult and paediatric settings. Discussion and Conclusion: Use of video animation as a tool to support practitioners to enhance their communication skills in challenging death related situations is an innovative approach to continuing professional development. The versatile and accessible nature of these open resources which are quick to view allows for flexible learning out with traditional educational environments, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to be away from clinical duties. Video animation is an effective educational tool which can be used to support the development of enhanced communication skills in challenging situations. Its versatile application as both a structured and independent learning resource makes it an ideal format to deliver continuing professional development in a busy clinical environment.
2575
94213
The Effect of Implant Design on the Height of Inter-Implant Bone Crest: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of the Astra Tech Implant and Branemark Implant
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: In case of patients with missing teeth, multiple implant restoration has been widely used and is inevitable. To increase its survival rate, it is important to understand the influence of different implant designs on inter-implant crestal bone resorption. There are several implant systems designed to minimize loss of crestal bone, and the Astra Tech and Brånemark Implant are two of them. Aim/Hypothesis: The aim of this 10-year study was to compare the height of inter-implant bone crest in two implant systems; the Astra Tech and the Brånemark implant system. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 40 consecutively treated patients were utilized; 23 patients with 30 sites for Astra Tech system and 17 patients with 20 sites for Brånemark system. The implant restoration was comprised of splinted crown in partially edentulous patients. Radiographs were taken immediately after 1st surgery, at impression making, at prosthetics setting, and annually after loading. Lateral distance from implant to bone crest, inter-implant distance was gauged, and crestal bone height was measured from the implant shoulder to the first bone contact. Calibrations were performed with known length of thread pitch distance for vertical measurement, and known diameter of abutment or fixture for horizontal measurement using ImageJ. Results: After 10 years, patients treated with Astra Tech implant system demonstrated less inter-implant crestal bone resorption when implants had a distance of 3mm or less between them. In cases of implants that had a greater than 3 mm distance between them, however, there appeared to be no statistically significant difference in crestal bone loss between two systems. Conclusion and clinical implications: In the situation of partially edentulous patients planning to have more than two implants, the inter-implant distance is one of the most important factors to be considered. If it is impossible to make sure of having sufficient inter-implant distance, the implants with less micro gap in the fixture-abutment junction, less traumatic 2nd surgery approach, and the adequate surface topography would be choice of appropriate options to minimize inter-implant crestal bone resorption.
2574
87307
Peptide-Based Platform for Differentiation of Antigenic Variations within Influenza Virus Subtypes (Flutype)
Abstract:
The influenza viruses cause flu epidemics every year and serious pandemics in larger time intervals. The only cost-effective protection against influenza is vaccination. Due to rapid mutation continuously new subtypes appear, what requires annual reimmunization. For a correct vaccination recommendation, the circulating influenza strains had to be detected promptly and exactly and characterized due to their antigenic properties. During the flu season 2016/17, a wrong vaccination recommendation has been given because of the great time interval between identification of the relevant influenza vaccine strains and outbreak of the flu epidemic during the following winter. Due to such recurring incidents of vaccine mismatches, there is a great need to speed up the process chain from identifying the right vaccine strains to their administration. The monitoring of subtypes as part of this process chain is carried out by national reference laboratories within the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). To this end, thousands of viruses from patient samples (e.g., throat smears) are isolated and analyzed each year. Currently, this analysis involves complex and time-intensive (several weeks) animal experiments to produce specific hyperimmune sera in ferrets, which are necessary for the determination of the antigen profiles of circulating virus strains. These tests also bear difficulties in standardization and reproducibility, which restricts the significance of the results. To replace this test a peptide-based assay for influenza virus subtyping from corresponding virus samples was developed. The differentiation of the viruses takes place by a set of specifically designed peptidic recognition molecules which interact differently with the different influenza virus subtypes. The differentiation of influenza subtypes is performed by pattern recognition guided by machine learning algorithms, without any animal experiments. Synthetic peptides are immobilized in multiplex format on various platforms (e.g., 96-well microtiter plate, microarray). Afterwards, the viruses are incubated and analyzed comparing different signaling mechanisms and a variety of assay conditions. Differentiation of a range of influenza subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, as well as fine differentiation of single strains within these subtypes is possible using the peptide-based subtyping platform. Thereby, the platform could be capable of replacing the current antigenic characterization of influenza strains using ferret hyperimmune sera.
2573
94907
Impact of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests in the Emergency Department in Patients with Influenza-Like-Illness
Abstract:
Background: During winter season, influenza viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory illness in emergency department (ED) patients. To confirm the diagnosis of an influenza virus infection, standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is accurate but takes at least 24 hrs to generate a result. In ED patients, it is important to decide timely whether a patient has to be isolated due to influenza virus infection in case of in-house admission. Rapid PCR tests have an equivalent diagnostic accuracy to standard PCRs but produce a result in less than one hour. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of influenza virus infection in ED patients with influenza-like-illness and to identify risk factors for in-house admission. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, we enrolled consecutively ED patients with influenza-like-illness from two winter seasons (December to April 2015/16 and 2016/2017). During the ED stay, these patients were isolated according to the guidelines for acute respiratory illness. In case of in-house admission, rapid PCR tests were performed in these patients. The primary endpoint was to assess the prevalence of influenza virus infections and secondary, to identify signs and symptoms as well as further predictors that were associated with in-house admission due to the influenza virus infection. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The rapid PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test was performed in 842 ED patients with influenza-like-illness who were supposed to be admitted in-house. Hundred-eighty-two patients (21.6%) were influenza positive, mostly influenza A (n=149). There was no difference in age between influenza positive and negative patients (median 60 vs 63 years), in contrast, more female patients were influenza positive (48.4% vs 38.8%). Mostly, a symptomatic treatment was sufficient, whereas influenza positive tested ED patients received more often antiviral therapy comparing to negative tested patients (36.8% vs 1.8%). Three main symptoms leading to ED presentations were: 68.5% coughing, 52.9% fatigue and 44.9% dyspnea. Female ED patients (p = 0.039) presenting with cough (p < 0.001), fever (p = 0.002) and myalgia (p = 0.010) were at increased risk for an influenza virus infection. If dyspnea was additionally present to these symptoms, ED patients were more likely to have an influenza virus caused pneumonia when presenting in the ED (p = 0.006). Senior ED patients (p < 0.001) with influenza virus infection, known coronary heart diseases (p < 0.001) and symptoms such as fatigue (p < 0.001) and dyspnea (p < 0.001) were identified to be at high risk for in-house admission. Discussion and Conclusion: The rapid PCR test was positive in every fifth ED patient with influenza-like-illness and the likelihood increased if symptoms like cough, fever, and myalgia led to ED presentation. Rapid PCR tests are useful to plan rapid isolation measures in case of in-house admission to avoid contamination of other patients, to identify ED patients at risk for pneumonia and to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use but increase focused use of antiviral therapies if needed.
2572
96149
Feature Extraction Technique for Prediction the Antigenic Variants of the Influenza Virus
Abstract:
In genetics, the impact of neighboring amino acids on a target site is referred as the nearest-neighbor effect or simply neighbor effect. In this paper, a new method called wavelet particle decomposition representing the one-dimensional neighbor effect using wavelet packet decomposition is proposed. The main idea lies in known dependence of wavelet packet sub-bands on location and order of neighboring samples. The method decomposes the value of a signal sample into small values called particles that represent a part of the neighbor effect information. The results have shown that the information obtained from the particle decomposition can be used to create better model variables or features. As an example, the approach has been applied to improve the correlation of test and reference sequence distance with titer in the hemagglutination inhibition assay.
2571
88227
The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Abstract:
Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.
2570
91683
Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique
Abstract:
War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.
2569
92298
Hemodynamic Effects of Magnesium Sulphate Therapy in Critically Ill Infants and Children with Wheezy Chest
Abstract:
Intravenous and inhaled magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) had been recently used as an adjuvant therapy in cases suffering from the wheezy chest. Objective: We aimed to determine the possible change in the hemodynamic state in cases received intravenous or inhaled MgSO₄ in comparison to cases received standard treatment in critically ill infants and children with the wheezy chest. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comprised 81 patients suffering from wheezy chest divided into 3 groups. In addition to bronchodilators and systemic steroids, MgSO₄ was given by inhalation in group A, intravenously in group B, and group C didn't receive MgSO₄. The hemodynamic state was determined by assessment of blood pressure, heart rate, capillary refill time and the need for shock therapy or inotropic support just before and 24 hours after receiving treatment in 3 groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the hemodynamic state of the studied groups before and after treatment. Means of blood pressure were 102.2/63.2, 105.1/64.8 before and after inhaled MgSO₄; respectively. Means of blood pressure were 105.5/64.2, 104.1/64.9 before and after intravenous MgSO₄; respectively. Means of blood pressure were 107.4/62.8, 104.4/62.1 before and after standard treatment, respectively. There was a statistically insignificant reduction of the means of the heart rate in group A and group B after treatment rather than group C. There was no associated prolongation in capillary refill time and/or the need for inotropic support or shock therapy after treatment in the studied groups. Conclusion: MgSO₄ is a safe adjuvant therapy and not associated with significant alteration in the hemodynamic state in critically ill infants and children with the wheezy chest.
2568
88060
Prediction of Endotracheal Tube Size in Children by Predicting Subglottic Diameter Using Ultrasonographic Measurement versus Traditional Formulas
Abstract:
Background: Knowledge of the influence of the age of the child on laryngeal dimensions is essential for all practitioners who are dealing with paediatric airway. Choosing the correct endotracheal tube (ETT) size is a crucial step in pediatric patients because a large-sized tube may cause complications like post-extubation stridor and subglottic stenosis. On the other hand with a smaller tube, there will be increased gas flow resistance, aspiration risk, poor ventilation, inaccurate monitoring of end-tidal gases and reintubation may also be required with a different size of the tracheal tube. Recent advancement in ultrasonography (USG) techniques should now allow for accurate and descriptive evaluation of pediatric airway. Aims and objectives: This study was planned to determine the accuracy of Ultrasonography (USG) to assess the appropriate ETT size and compare it with physical indices based formulae. Methods: After obtaining approval from Institute’s Ethical and Research committee, and parental written and informed consent, the study was conducted on 100 subjects of either sex between 12-60 months of age, undergoing various elective surgeries under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation. The same experienced radiologist performed ultrasonography. The transverse diameter was measured at the level of cricoids cartilage by USG. After USG, general anesthesia was administered using standard techniques followed by the institute. An experienced anesthesiologist performed the endotracheal intubations with uncuffed endotracheal tube (Portex Tracheal Tube Smiths Medical India Pvt. Ltd.) with Murphy’s eye. He was unaware of the finding of the ultrasonography. The tracheal tube was considered best fit if air leak was satisfactory at 15-20 cm H₂O of airway pressure. The obtained values were compared with the values of endotracheal tube size calculated by ultrasonography, various age, height, weight-based formulas and diameter of right and left little finger. The correlation of the size of the endotracheal tube by different modalities was done and Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained. The comparison of the mean size of the endotracheal tube by ultrasonography and by traditional formula was done by the Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results: The predicted tube size was equal to best fit and best determined by ultrasonography (100%) followed by comparison to left little finger (98%) and right little finger (97%) and age-based formula (95%) followed by multivariate formula (83%) and body length (81%) formula. According to Pearson`s correlation, there was a moderate correlation of best fit endotracheal tube with endotracheal tube size by age-based formula (r=0.743), body length based formula (r=0.683), right little finger based formula (r=0.587), left little finger based formula (r=0.587) and multivariate formula (r=0.741). There was a strong correlation with ultrasonography (r=0.943). Ultrasonography was the most sensitive (100%) method of prediction followed by comparison to left (98%) and right (97%) little finger and age-based formula (95%), the multivariate formula had an even lesser sensitivity (83%) whereas body length based formula was least sensitive with a sensitivity of 78%. Conclusion: USG is a reliable method of estimation of subglottic diameter and for prediction of ETT size in children.
2567
88062
Effect of Preoperative Single Dose Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Post-Operative Quality of Recovery and Pain Relief after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Abstract:
Introduction: Post-operative quality of recovery is the key outcome in the perspective of anesthesiologist. It is directly related to patient satisfaction. This is unsurprising, considering most aspects of a poor quality recovery after surgery will impair satisfaction with care. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate effects of Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Quality of Recovery using QoR- 40 questionnaire and compare their effects. Material and methods: After obtaining the ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 67 patients of 18-60 years, ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I of 34 patients received 2mg/kg lignocaine diluted to 10ml with normal saline. Group 2 of 33 patients received 0.1 mg/kg I/V Dexamethasone diluted to 10ml with normal saline. QoR-40 was assessed on pre-operative day, and again QoR-40 was assessed at 24 hr post-operative day-1. Postoperative pain scores, nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were secondary outcomes. Results: The Global QoR-40 was more than 180 at 24 hr in both the groups. The Dexamethasone group had higher Global QoR-40 than lignocaine group 187.94 v/s 182.85. Amongst dimensions of QoR-40 Dexamethasone had statistically better physical comfort, physical independence, and pain relief as compared to Lignocaine. Positive items had excellent responses in Dexamethasone group. Headache, backache and sore throat were also less severe in Dexamethasone group as compared to Lignocaine group. Dexamethasone group had lower VAS compared to lignocaine group. Similarly, there was less fentanyl consumption in dexamethasone group (364.08 ± 127.31) in postoperative period when compared to the lignocaine group (412.31 ± 147.8). Group receiving dexamethasone had 36% increase in appetite compared to lignocaine group (17.6%), which facilitated early oral feeding. Frequency of PONV was less in group-2 at different time interval as compared to group 1. Total episode of PONV were 18 in group 1 and 7 in group 2. Statistically significant difference was seen among two groups (p value= 0.007). Use of antiemetic was more in group 1 as compared to group 2 at all the times, though it was not statistically significant at different time intervals. Antiemetics were administered to 18 patients in group 1 as compared to 5 patients in group 2 postoperatively. Statistically significant difference (p value= 0.011) was seen in total antiemetic consumption. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that pre-operative administration of a single dose of dexamethasone enhanced the quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to Lignocaine bolus dose.
2566
95432
Comparative Evaluation of Midazolam versus Dexmedetomidine in Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia
Abstract:
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a newly and highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedative, amnestic, sympatholytic, and analgesic properties. We compared the effects of intravenous DEX and midazolam that are used for the sedation purposes on combined spinal – epidural (CSE) anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. The study was conducted in prospective, randomized double-blind manner in which 50 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II in the age group of 20-85 years of either sex undergoing total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) under planned CSE anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia was given with 10mg bupivacaine in all patients. After checking the maximum sensory and motor level, the patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 25 each to receive intravenous continuous infusion dexmedetomidine (group D, loading 1.0 mcg/kg (for 10 minutes) + 0.5 mcg/kg/h) or midazolam (group M, loading 0.05 mg/kg (for 10 minutes) + 0.06mg/kg/h) for sedation. During operation, 2 groups were compared with respect to hemodynamic changes, sedation score and regression block level at the end of the surgery. The patients were followed-up 96 hours postoperatively for visual analog scale (VAS) scores, total analgesics consumption and other complications. Significant difference was observed in relation to the sensory block level at the end of surgery (5.8 ± 2.7 in group D and 3.5 ± 2.4 min in group M, P = 0.004). Pain scores were lower in the postoperative 24hours in the group D than group M. The intravenously injected dexmedetomidine is associated with prolonged sensory block and prolonged postoperative analgesia comparison to midazolam with a comparable incidences of side effects.
2565
93144
Clinical Implication of Hyper-Intense Signal Thyroid Incidentaloma on Time of Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Abstract:
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of hyper-intense signal thyroid incidentalomas on the time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) using correlation study with ultrasound (US). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3,505 non-contrast TOF-MRA performed at an institution between September 2014 and May 2017. Two radiologists correlated the thyroid incidentalomas detected on TOF-MRA with US features which was obtained within three months interval between MRA and US examinations in consensus method. Results: The prevalence of hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules incidentally detected on TOF-MRA was 1.2% (43/3505). Among them, 35 people (81.4%) underwent US examinations, and total 45 hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules were detected on US exams. Of these 45 nodules, 35 nodules (72.9%) were categorized as benign (K-TIRADS category 2) on US exams. Fine needle aspiration was performed on 9 nodules according to the indications recommended by Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. All except one high-suspicious thyroid nodule were confirmed as benign (Bethesda 2) on cytologic exams. One high-suspicious nodule on US showed a non-diagnostic result (Bethesda 1) on cytologic exam. However, this nodule collapsed after aspiration of thick colloid material. Conclusions: Our study showed that the most hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules detected on TOF-MRA were benign. Therefore, if a hyper-intense signal incidentaloma is found on TOF-MRA, further evaluation, especially invasive biopsy of the nodules could be suspended unless the patient had other symptoms or clinical factors suggesting the need for further evaluation.