International Science Index

International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

1912
94554
Humans Trust Building in Robots with the Help of Explanations
Abstract:
The field of robotics is advancing rapidly to the point where robots have become an integral part of the modern society. These robots collaborate and contribute productively with humans and compensate some shortcomings from human abilities and complement them with their skills. Effective teamwork of humans and robots demands to investigate the critical issue of trust. The field of human-computer interaction (HCI) has already examined trust humans place in technical systems mostly on issues like reliability and accuracy of performance. Early work in the area of expert systems suggested that automatic generation of explanations improved trust and acceptability of these systems. In this work, we augmented a robot with the user-invoked explanation generation proficiency. To measure explanations effect on human’s level of trust, we collected subjective survey measures and behavioral data in a human-robot team task into an interactive, adversarial and partial information environment. The results showed that with the explanation capability humans not only understand and recognize robot as an expert team partner. But, it was also observed that human's learning and human-robot team performance also significantly improved because of the meaningful interaction with the robot in the human-robot team. Moreover, by observing distinctive outcomes, we expect our research outcomes will also provide insights into further improvement of human-robot trustworthy relationships.
1911
96224
Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Simulation for a Vertical Plate and a Square Cylinder Pair
Abstract:
The flow behaviour of non-Newtonian fluid is quite complicated, although both the pseudoplastic (n < 1, n being the power index) and dilatant (n > 1) fluids under this category are used immensely in chemical and process industries. A limited research work is carried out for flow over a bluff body in non-Newtonian flow environment. In the present numerical simulation we control the vortices of a square cylinder by placing an upstream vertical splitter plate for pseudoplastic (n=0.8), Newtonian (n=1) and dilatant (n=1.2) fluids. The position of the upstream plate is also varied to calculate the critical distance between the plate and cylinder, below which the cylinder vortex shedding suppresses. Here the Reynolds number is considered as Re = 150 (Re = U∞a/ν, where U∞ is the free-stream velocity of the flow, a is the side of the cylinder and ν is the maximum value of kinematic viscosity of the fluid), which comes under laminar periodic vortex shedding regime. The vertical plate is having a dimension of 0.5a × 0.05a and it is placed at the cylinder centre-line. Gambit 2.2.30 is used to construct the flow domain and to impose the boundary conditions. In detail, we imposed velocity inlet (u = U∞), pressure outlet (Neumann condition), symmetry (free-slip boundary condition) at upper and lower domain. Wall boundary condition (u = v = 0) is considered both on the cylinder and the splitter plate surfaces. The unsteady 2-D Navier Stokes equations in fully conservative form are then discretized in second-order spatial and first-order temporal form. These discretized equations are then solved by Ansys Fluent 14.5 implementing SIMPLE algorithm written in finite volume method. Here, fine meshing is used surrounding the plate and cylinder. Away from the cylinder, the grids are slowly stretched out in all directions. To get an account of mesh quality, a total of 297 × 208 grid points are used for G/a = 3 (G being the gap between the plate and cylinder) in the streamwise and flow-normal directions respectively after a grid independent study. The computed mean flow quantities obtained from Newtonian flow are agreed well with the available literatures. The results are depicted with the help of instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields. Qualitative and quantitative noteworthy differences are obtained in the flow field with the changes in rheology of fluid. Also, aerodynamic forces and vortex shedding frequencies differ with the gap-ratio and power index of the fluid. We can conclude from the present simulation that fluent is capable to capture the vortex dynamics of unsteady laminar flow regime even in the non-Newtonian flow environment.
1910
96288
Vortex Control by a Downstream Splitter Plate in Psudoplastic Fluid Flow
Abstract:
Pseudoplastic (n
1909
94491
Diagnosis and Condition Monitoring of Broken Bar Problem in Induction Motors Base Wavelet Analysis and Empirical Mode Decomposition Method: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran
Abstract:
Nowadays, induction motors have a significant role in industries. Condition Monitoring (CM) of these equipment has gained a remarkable importance during the recent years; due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk and uncertainty levels. Using motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is one of the most important techniques in CM. This method can be used for rotor broken bars detection. Signal processing methods such as Fourier transformation (FFT), Wavelet transformation and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) are used for analyzing MCSA output data. In this study, these signal processing methods are used for broken bar problem detection of Mobarakeh steel company induction motors. Based on wavelet transformation method, an index for fault detection, CF, is introduced which is the Variation of maximum to the mean of wavelet transformation coefficients. We find that in the broken bar condition the amount of CF factor is greater than the healthy condition. Based on EMD method, the energy of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) is calculated and finds that when motor bars become broken the energy of IMFs increases.
1908
94779
Effect of Different Parameters of Converging-Diverging Vortex Finders on Cyclone Separator Performance
Authors:
Abstract:
The present study is done to explore design modifications of the vortex finder, as it has a significant effect on the cyclone separator performance. It is evident that modifications of the vortex finder improve the performance of the cyclone separator significantly. The study conducted strives to improve the overall performance of cyclone separators by utilizing a converging-diverging (CD) vortex finder instead of the traditional uniform diameter vortex finders. The velocity and pressure fields inside a Stairmand cyclone separator with body diameter 0.29m and vortex finder diameter 0.1305m are calculated. The commercial software, Ansys Fluent v14.0 is used to simulate the flow field in a uniform diameter cyclone and six cyclones modified with CD vortex finders. Reynolds stress model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence on the fluid and particulate phases, discrete phase model is used to calculate the particle trajectories. The performance of the modified vortex finders is compared with the traditional vortex finder. The effects of the lengths of the converging and diverging sections, the throat diameter and the end diameters of the convergent divergent section are also studied to achieve enhanced performance. The pressure and velocity fields inside the vortex finder are presented by means of contour plots and velocity vectors and changes in the flow pattern due to variation of the geometrical variables are also analysed. Results indicate that a convergent-divergent vortex finder is capable of decreasing the pressure drop than that achieved through a uniform diameter vortex finder. It is also observed that the end diameters of the CD vortex finder, the throat diameter and the length of the diverging part of the vortex finder have a significant impact on the cyclone separator performance. Increase in the lower diameter of the vortex finder by 66% results in 11.5% decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop (Euler number) with 5.8% decrease in separation efficiency. Whereas 50% decrease in the throat diameter gives 5.9% increase in the Euler number with 10.2% increase in the separation efficiency and increasing the length of the diverging part gives 10.28% increase in the Euler number with 5.74% increase in the separation efficiency. Increasing the upper diameter of the CD vortex finder is seen to produce an adverse effect on the performance as it increases the pressure drop significantly and decreases the separation efficiency. Increase in length of the converging is not seen to affect the performance significantly. From the present study, it is concluded that convergent-divergent vortex finders can be used in place of uniform diameter vortex finders to achieve a better cyclone separator performance.
1907
93583
Numerical Validation of Liquid Nitrogen Phase Change in a Star-Shaped Ambient Vaporizer
Abstract:
Gas Nitrogen where has a boiling point of -189.52oC at atmospheric pressure widely used in the industry. Nitrogen that used in the industry should be transported in liquid form to the plant area. Ambient air vaporizer (AAV) generally used for vaporization of cryogenic gases such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid natural gas (LNG), and liquid argon (LAR) etc. AAV is a group of star-shaped fin vaporizer. The design and the effect of the shape of fins of the vaporizer is one of the most important criteria for the performance of the vaporizer. In this study, the performance of AAV working with liquid nitrogen was analyzed numerically in a star-shaped aluminum finned pipe. The numerical analysis is performed in order to investigate the heat capacity of the vaporizer per meter pipe length. By this way, the vaporizer capacity can be predicted for the industrial applications. In order to achieve the validation of the numerical solution, the experimental setup is constructed. The setup includes a liquid nitrogen tank with a pressure of 9 bar. The star-shaped aluminum finned tube vaporizer is connected to the LN2 tank. The inlet and the outlet pressure and temperatures of the LN2 of the vaporizer are measured. The mass flow rate of the LN2 is also measured and collected. The comparison of the numerical solution is performed by these measured data. The ambient conditions of the experiment are given as boundary conditions to the numerical model. The surface tension and contact angle have a significant effect on the boiling of liquid nitrogen. Average heat transfer coefficient including convective and nucleated boiling components should be obtained for liquid nitrogen saturated flow boiling in the finned tube. Fluent CFD module is used to simulate the numerical solution. The turbulent k-ε model is taken to simulate the liquid nitrogen flow. The phase change is simulated by using the evaporation-condensation approach used with user-defined functions (UDF). The comparison of the numerical and experimental results will be shared in this study. Besides, the performance capacity of the star-shaped finned pipe vaporizer will be calculated in this study. Based on this numerical analysis, the performance of the vaporizer per unit length can be predicted for the industrial applications and the suitable pipe length of the vaporizer can be found for the special cases.
1906
95043
Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth
Abstract:
Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.
1905
95436
Performance Improvement of Piston Engine in Aeronautics by Means of Additive Manufacturing Technologies
Abstract:
The reduction of greenhouse gases and pollution emissions is a worldwide environmental issue. The amount of CO₂ released by an aircraft is associated with the amount of fuel burned, so the improvement of engine thermo-mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption is a significant technological driver for aviation. Moreover, with the prospect that avgas will be phased out, an engine able to use more available and cheaper fuels is an evident advantage. An advanced aeronautical diesel engine, because of its high efficiency and ability to use widely available and low-cost jet and diesel fuels, is a promising solution to achieve a more fuel-efficient aircraft. On the other hand, a Diesel engine has generally a higher overall weight, if compared with a gasoline one of same power performances. Fixing the MTOW (Max Take-Off Weight) and the operational payload, this extra-weight reduces the aircraft fuel fraction, partially vinifying the associated benefits. Therefore, an effort in weight saving manufacturing technologies is likely desirable. In this work, in order to achieve the mentioned goals, innovative Electron Beam Melting (EBM), Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies were applied to two-stroke, common rail, GF56 Diesel engine, developed by the CMD company for aeronautic applications. For this purpose, a consortium of academic, research and industrial partners, including CMD company, Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), University of Naples Federico II and University of Salerno carried out a technological project, funded by the Italian Minster of Education and Research (MIUR). The project aimed to optimize the baseline engine in order to improve its performance and increase its airworthiness features. This project was focused on the definition, design, development, and application of enabling technologies for performance improvement of GF56. Weight saving of this engine was pursued through application of EBM-AM technologies and in particular using Arcam AB A2X machine, available at CIRA. The 3D printer processes titanium alloy micro-powders, and it was employed to realize new connecting rods of GF56 engine with an additive-oriented design approach. After a preliminary investigation of EBM process parameters and a thermo-mechanical characterization of titanium alloy samples, additive manufactured, innovative connecting rods were fabricated. These engine elements were structurally verified, topologically optimized, 3D printed and suitably post-processed. Finally, the overall performance improvement, on a typical General Aviation aircraft, was estimated, substituting the conventional engine with the optimized GF56 propulsion system.
1904
82227
Optimal Peer-To-Peer On-Orbit Refueling Mission Planning with Complex Constraints
Abstract:
On-Orbit Refueling is of great significance in extending spacecrafts' lifetime. The problem of minimum-fuel, time-fixed, Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning is addressed here with the particular aim of assigning fuel-insufficient satellites to the fuel-sufficient satellites and optimizing each rendezvous trajectory. Constraints including perturbation, communication link, sun illumination, hold points for different rendezvous phases, and sensor switching are considered. A planning model has established as well as a two-level solution method. The upper level deals with target assignment based on fuel equilibrium criterion, while the lower level solves constrained trajectory optimization using special maneuver strategies. Simulations show that the developed method could effectively resolve the Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning problem and deal with complex constraints.
1903
91177
The Influence of Ice Topography on Sliding over Ice
Abstract:
Winter brings snow and ice in the Northern Europe and with it the need to move safely over ice. It has been customary to select an appropriate material surface for movement over ice, but another way to influence the interaction with ice is to modify the ice surface. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of ice topography on initiating movement over ice and on sliding velocity over ice in the laboratory and real-life conditions. The ice was prepared smooth, scratched or with solidified ice-droplets to represent the surface of ice after ice rain. In the laboratory, the coefficient of friction and the sliding velocity were measured, but the sliding velocity measured at the skeleton push-start facility. The scratched ice surface increased the resistance to movement and also showed the slowest sliding speed. Sliding was easier on the smooth ice and ice covered with frozen droplets. The contact surface was measured to determine the effect of contact area with sliding. Results from laboratory tests will be compared to loading under heavier loads to show the influence of load on sliding over different ice surfaces. This outcome provides a useful indicator for pedestrians and road traffic on the safety of movement over different ice surfaces as well as a reference for those involved with winter sports.
1902
92194
Combining Nitrocarburisation and Dry Lubrication for Improving Component Lifetime
Abstract:
Nitrocarburisation is a surface hardening technique often applied to improve the wear resistance of steel surfaces. It is considered to be a promising solution in comparison with other processes such as flame spraying, owing to the formation of a diffusion layer which provides mechanical integrity, as well as its cost-effectiveness. To improve other tribological properties of the surface such as the coefficient of friction (COF), dry lubricants are utilized. Currently, the lifetime of steel components in many applications using either of these techniques individually are faced with the limitations of the two: high COF for nitrocarburized surfaces and low wear resistance of dry lubricant coatings. To this end, the current study involves the creation of a hybrid surface using the impregnation of a dry lubricant on to a nitrocarburized surface. The mechanical strength and hardness of Gerster SA’s nitrocarburized surfaces accompanied by the impregnation of the porous outermost layer with a solid lubricant will create a hybrid surface possessing both outstanding wear resistance and a low friction coefficient and with high adherence to the substrate. Gerster SA has the state-of-the-art technology for the surface hardening of various steels. Through their expertise in the field, the nitrocarburizing process parameters (atmosphere, temperature, dwelling time) were optimized to obtain samples that have a distinct porous structure (in terms of size, shape, and density) as observed by metallographic and microscopic analyses. The porosity thus obtained is suitable for the impregnation of a dry lubricant. A commercially available dry lubricant with a thermoplastic matrix was employed for the impregnation process, which was optimized to obtain a void-free interface with the surface of the nitrocarburized layer (henceforth called hybrid surface). In parallel, metallic samples without nitrocarburisation were also impregnated with the same dry lubricant as a reference (henceforth called reference surface). The reference and the nitrocarburized surfaces, with and without the dry lubricant were tested for their tribological behavior by sliding against a quenched steel ball using a nanotribometer. Without any lubricant, the nitrocarburized surface showed a wear rate 5x lower than the reference metal. In the presence of a thin film of dry lubricant ( < 2 micrometers) and under the application of high loads (500 mN or ~800 MPa), while the COF for the reference surface increased from ~0.1 to > 0.3 within 120 m, the hybrid surface retained a COF < 0.2 for over 400m of sliding. In addition, while the steel ball sliding against the reference surface showed heavy wear, the corresponding ball sliding against the hybrid surface showed very limited wear. Observations of the sliding tracks in the hybrid surface using Electron Microscopy show the presence of the nitrocarburized nodules as well as the lubricant, whereas no traces of the lubricant were found in the sliding track on the reference surface. In this manner, the clear advantage of combining nitrocarburisation with the impregnation of a dry lubricant towards forming a hybrid surface has been demonstrated.
1901
94299
A Comparative Study on the Thermophysical and Lubricity Characteristics of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Oil and Nanoclay/Oil Nanofluids
Abstract:
Now-a-days, particle based lubricants have been widely used to enhance the lubrication performance. Use of tailor made micro/nanofluids can reduce the friction losses and dissipate heat in a better way. Use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has gained interests because of its structure that can endure much better in a system mechanically or thermally in comparison to any other additive in oil. On the other hand, nanoclays have been characterized mechanically and tribologically for the use of clay/polymer composite, and they have been gaining huge interest. Hence it is interesting to be investigated the effect of nanoclays as additive in oil. Thermophysical characteristics of lubricant play a predominant role in defining the friction and wear characteristics of lubricated contacts. However, very limited studies have been carried out to correlate the thermophysical properties of nanolubricants with their lubricity characteristics. Besides, most of the lubricant formulations till dates are found to be optimized for steel/steel contacts. In the present study, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoclay are used as particle additives in mineral oil to develop nanofluids of various concentrations. The prepared lubricants are tested for their rheological, thermal and lubricity characteristics under aluminium-steel contacts. From the thermophysical investigation, it is observed that nanoclay particles significantly improve the viscosity of lubricant with an insignificant improvement in thermal conductivity. On the other hand, MWCNT particles moderately increase the viscosity but significantly increase the thermal conductivity of the base oil. Frictional responses of the nanofluids are characterized using a Pin-on-Disc tribometer which reveal some interesting facts. The findings from this study will greatly aid in formulating the particle based lubricants for cutting fluid in metal forming industries as well as fully developed nanolubricants for aluminium and Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AMMC) tribocontact for the use in the automotive and their allied industries.
1900
95452
Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied to it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.
1899
95046
Improvement of the Reliability and the Availability of a Production System
Authors:
Abstract:
Aims of the work: The aim of this paper is to improve the reliability and the availability of a Packer production line of cigarettes based on two methods: The SADT method (Structured Analysis Design Technique) and the FMECA approach (Failure Mode Effects and Critically Analysis). The first method enables us to describe the functionality of the Packer production line of cigarettes and the second method enables us to establish an FMECA analysis. Methods: The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the improvement of the reliability and the availability of a Packer production line of cigarettes has been proposed in this paper, and it is based on the use of Structured Analysis Design Technique (SADT) and Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) methods. This methodology consists of using a diagnosis of the existing of all of the equipment of a production line of a factory in order to determine the most critical machine. In fact, we use, on the one hand, a functional analysis based on the SADT method of the production line and on the other hand, a diagnosis and classification of mechanical and electrical failures of the line production by their criticality analysis based on the FMECA approach. Results: Based on the methodology adopted in this paper, the results are the creation and the launch of a preventive maintenance plan. They contain the different elements of a Packer production line of cigarettes; the list of the intervention preventive activities and their period of realization. Conclusion: The diagnosis of the existing state helped us to found that the machine of cigarettes used in the Packer production line of cigarettes is the most critical machine in the factory. Then this enables us in the one hand, to describe the functionality of the production line of cigarettes by SADT method and on the other hand, to study the FMECA machine in order to improve the availability and the performance of this machine.
1898
95047
The Methodology of System Modeling of Mechatronic Systems
Authors:
Abstract:
Aims of the work: After a presentation of the functionality of an example of a mechatronic system which is a paint mixer system, we present the concepts of modeling and safe operation. This paper briefly discusses how to model and protect the functioning of a mechatronic system relying mainly on functional analysis and safe operation techniques. Methods: For the study of an example of a mechatronic system, we use methods for external functional analysis that illustrate the relationships between a mechatronic system and its external environment. Thus, we present the Safe-Structured Analysis Design Technique method (Safe-SADT) which allows the representation of a mechatronic system. A model of operating safety and automation is proposed. This model enables us to use a functional analysis technique of the mechatronic system based on the GRAFCET (Graphe Fonctionnel de Commande des Etapes et Transitions: Step Transition Function Chart) method; study of the safe operation of the mechatronic system based on the Safe-SADT method; automation of the mechatronic system based on a software tool. Results: The expected results are to propose a model and safe operation of a mechatronic system. This methodology enables us to analyze the relevance of the different models based on Safe-SADT and GRAFCET in relation to the control and monitoring functions and to study the means allowing exploiting their synergy. Conclusion: In order to propose a general model of a mechatronic system, a model of analysis, safety operation and automation of a mechatronic system has been developed. This is how we propose to validate this methodology through a case study of a paint mixer system.
1897
88840
Methodology for the Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Pneumatics Systems
Abstract:
The present article presents a methodology for the improvement of the energy efficiency in pneumatic systems through the restoring of air. In this way, three techniques of expansion of a cylinder are identified: Expansion using the air of the compressor (conventional), restoring the air (efficient), and combining the air of the compressor and the restored air (hybrid). The methodology starts with the development of the GRAFCET of the system so that it can be decided whether to expand the cylinder in a conventional, efficient, or hybrid way. The methodology can be applied to any case. Finally, graphs of comparison between the three methods of expansion with certain cylinder strokes and workloads are presented, to facilitate the subsequent selection of one system or another.
1896
89090
Kinesthetic and Haptic Influence Parameters in Simulated Vehicular Environments
Abstract:
To ensure safety and usability of innovative input and interaction developments in car cockpits while driving (e.g. contact-free gesture control), it is important to prospectively evaluate these human-machine systems during early stages of development. In order to achieve this goal, valid evaluation methods need to be developed. So far, these so-called dual-task scenarios are predominantly evaluated by using driving simulator environments. Unfortunately, realism and presence experience is often reduced in driving simulators for both, the primary task (driving) and the secondary task (interaction with prototypes). Therefore, the validity of the results within driving simulator environments is often reduced. Data are valid if a transfer to a real (driving) situation is possible. Real car driving studies offer, on the other hand, maximal closeness to reality, but they are harder to control, manipulate, replicate, and standardize as well as more time consuming and costly. This work follows an economizing approach, with the aim to collect valid data within a driving simulator environment in order to minimize the gap between studies in real driving environments and driving simulators. For this purpose, the tactile-kinesthetic parameters, as an immersive component, were varied and analyzed with regard to the validity of driver-behavior in order to create more realistic driving simulator environments. Therefore, the model IG-FaSi (immersive design parameters in driving simulators) were used to analyze objective (e.g. eye tracking) and subjective (e.g. presence experience) variables regarding driver behavioral validity in a driving simulator user study. Objective and subjective data show advantages regarding behavioral and perceptional user experience within simulated vehicular driving environments which map with kinesthetic and haptic parameters from the real car driving studies.
1895
93258
The Effects of Water Fraction and Salinity on Crude Oil-Water Dispersions
Abstract:
Oil-water emulsions can be found in almost every part of the petroleum industry, namely in reservoir rocks, drilling cuttings circulation, production in wells, transportation pipelines, surface facilities and refining process. However, it is necessary for oil production and refinery engineers to resolve the petroleum emulsion problems as well as to eliminate the contaminants in order to meet environmental standards, achieve the desired product quality and to improve equipment reliability and efficiency. A state-of-art Dispersion Characterization Rig (DCR) has been utilized to investigate crude oil-distilled water dispersion separation. Over 80 experimental tests were ran to investigate the flow behavior and stability of the dispersions. The experimental conditions include the effects of water cuts (25%, 50% and 75%), NaCl concentrations (0, 3.5% and 18%), mixture flow velocities (0.89 and 1.71 ft/s), and also orifice place types on the separation rate. The experimental data demonstrate that the water cut can significantly affects the separation time and efficiency. The dispersion with lower water cut takes longer time to separate and have low separation efficiency. The medium and lower water cuts will result in the formation of Mousse emulsion and the phase inversion happens around the medium water cut. The data also confirm that increasing the NaCl concentration in aqueous phase can increase the crude oil water dispersion separation efficiency especially at higher salinities. The separation profile for dispersions with lower salt concentrations has a lower sedimentation rate slope before the inflection point. Dispersions in all tests with higher salt concentrations have a larger sedimenting rate. The presence of NaCl can influence the interfacial tension gradients along the interface and it plays a role in avoiding the Mousse emulsion formation.
1894
93259
Scale-Up Study of Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in Downcomer
Abstract:
Downcomers are important conduits for multiphase flow transfer from offshore platforms to the seabed. Uncertainty in the predictions of the pressure drop of multiphase flow between platforms is often dominated by the uncertainty associated with the prediction of holdup and pressure drop in the downcomer. The objectives of this study are to conduct experimental and theoretical scale-up study of the downcomer. A 4-in. diameter vertical test section was designed and constructed to study two-phase flow in downcomer. The facility is equipped with baffles for flow area restriction, enabling interchangeable annular slot openings between 30% and 61.7%. Also, state-of-the-art instrumentation, the capacitance Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) was utilized to acquire the experimental data. A total of 76 experimental data points were acquired, including falling film under 30% and 61.7% annular slot opening for air-water and air-Conosol C200 oil cases as well as gas carry-under for 30% and 61.7% opening utilizing air-Conosol C200 oil. For all experiments, the parameters such as falling film thickness and velocity, entrained liquid holdup in the core, gas void fraction profiles at the cross-sectional area of the liquid column, the void fraction and the gas carry under were measured. The experimental results indicated that the film thickness and film velocity increase as the flow area reduces. Also, the increase in film velocity increases the gas entrainment process. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the increase of gas entrainment for the same liquid flow rate leads to an increase in the gas carry-under. A power comparison method was developed to enable evaluation of the Lopez (2011) model, which was created for full bore downcomer, with the novel scale-up experiment data acquired from the downcomer with the restricted area for flow. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions shows a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.9% and 21.8% for the falling film thickness and velocity, respectively; and a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.2% for fraction of gas carried with the liquid (oil).
1893
87780
Investigation of External Pressure Coefficients on Large Antenna Parabolic Reflector Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Abstract:
Estimation of wind forces plays a significant role in the in the design of large antenna parabolic reflectors. Reflector surface accuracies are very sensitive to the gain of the antenna system at higher frequencies. Hence accurate estimation of wind forces becomes important, which is primary input for design and analysis of the reflector system. In the present work, numerical simulation of wind flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to investigate the external pressure coefficients. An extensive comparative study has been made between the CFD results and the published wind tunnel data for different wind angle of attacks (α) acting over concave to convex surfaces respectively. Flow simulations using CFD are carried out to estimate the coefficients of Drag, Lift and Moment for the parabolic reflector. Coefficients of pressures (Cp) over the front and the rear face of the reflector are extracted over surface of the reflector to study the net pressure variations. These resultant pressure variations are compared with the published wind tunnel data for different angle of attacks. It was observed from the CFD simulations, both convex and concave face of reflector system experience a band of pressure variations for the positive and negative angle of attacks respectively. In the published wind tunnel data, Pressure variations over convex surfaces are assumed to be uniform and vice versa. Chordwise and spanwise pressure variations were calculated and compared with the published experimental data. In the present work, it was observed that the maximum pressure coefficients for α ranging from +30° to -90° and α=+90° was lower. For α ranging from +45° to +75°, maximum pressure coefficients were higher as compared to wind tunnel data. This variation is due to non-uniform pressure distribution observed over front and back faces of reflector. Variations in Cd, Cl and Cm over α=+90° to α=-90° was in close resemblance with the experimental data.
1892
93999
Fluid Structure Interaction of Offshore Concrete Columns under Explosion Loads
Abstract:
The paper describes the influences of the fluid and structure interaction in concrete structures that support large oil platforms in the North Sea. The dynamic interaction of the fluid both in 2D and 3D are demonstrated through a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis in the event of explosion following a gas leak inside of the concrete column. The structural response characteristics of the column in water under dynamic conditions are quite complex involving axial, radial and circumferential modes. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) modelling showed that there are some frequencies of the column in water which are not found for a column in air. For example, it was demonstrated that one of the axial breathing modes can never be simulated without the use of FSI models. The occurrence of a shift in magnitude and time of pressure from explosion following gas leak along the height of the shaft not only excited the modes of vibration involving breathing (axial), bending and squashing (radial) modes but also magnified the forces in the column. FSI models revealed that dynamic effects resulted in dynamic amplification of loads. The results are summarized from a detailed study that was carried out by the first author for the Offshore Safety Division of Health & Safety Executive United Kingdom.
1891
96078
Modelling of Heat Transfer during Controlled Cooling of Thermo-Mechanically Treated Rebars Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach
Abstract:
Thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) of rebars is a critical process to impart sufficient strength and ductility to rebar. TMT rebars are produced by the Tempcore process, involves an 'in-line' heat treatment in which hot rolled bar (temperature is around 1080°C) is passed through water boxes where it is quenched under high pressure water jets (temperature is around 25°C). The quenching rate dictates composite structure consisting (four non-homogenously distributed phases of rebar microstructure) pearlite-ferrite, bainite, and tempered martensite (from core to rim). The ferrite and pearlite phases present at core induce ductility to rebar while martensitic rim induces appropriate strength. The TMT process is difficult to model as it brings multitude of complex physics such as heat transfer, highly turbulent fluid flow, multicomponent and multiphase flow present in the control volume. Additionally the presence of film boiling regime (above Leidenfrost point) due to steam formation adds complexity to domain. A coupled heat transfer and fluid flow model based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been developed at product technology division of Tata Steel, India which efficiently predicts temperature profile and percentage martensite rim thickness of rebar during quenching process. The model has been validated with 16 mm rolling of New Bar mill (NBM) plant of Tata Steel Limited, India. Furthermore, based on the scenario analyses, optimal configuration of nozzles was found which helped in subsequent increase in rolling speed.
1890
96220
Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM
Abstract:
In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.
1889
90328
Multi-Objective Exergy Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle with Cyclohexane as Working Fluid
Abstract:
In this study, an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with Cyclohexane working fluid is proposed for cogeneration in the cement industry. In this regard: first, a parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effects of some key parameters on the system performances. Next, single and multi-objective optimizations are performed to achieve the system optimal design. The optimization considers the exergy efficiency, the cost per exergy unit and the environmental impact of the net produced power as objective functions. Finally, exergy, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental analysis of the cycle is carried out at the optimum operating conditions. The results show that the turbine inlet pressure, the pinch point temperature difference and the heat transfer fluid temperature have significant effects on the performances of the ORC system.
1888
86230
Autonomous Vehicle Detection and Classification in High Resolution Satellite Imagery
Abstract:
High-resolution satellite images and remote sensing can provide global information in a fast way compared to traditional methods of data collection. Under such high resolution, a road is not a thin line anymore. Objects such as cars and trees are easily identifiable. Automatic vehicles enumeration can be considered one of the most important applications in traffic management. In this paper, autonomous vehicle detection and classification approach in highway environment is proposed. This approach consists mainly of three stages: (i) first, a set of preprocessing operations are applied including soil, vegetation, water suppression. (ii) Then, road networks detection and delineation is implemented using built-up area index, followed by several morphological operations. This step plays an important role in increasing the overall detection accuracy since vehicles candidates are objects contained within the road networks only. (iii) Multi-level Otsu segmentation is implemented in the last stage, resulting in vehicle detection and classification, where detected vehicles are classified into cars and trucks. Accuracy assessment analysis is conducted over different study areas to show the great efficiency of the proposed method, especially in highway environment.
1887
95399
Artificial Neural Network and Satellite Derived Chlorophyll Indices for Estimation of Wheat Chlorophyll Content under Rainfed Condition
Abstract:
Numerous models used in prediction and decision-making process but most of them are linear in natural environment, and linear models reach their limitations with non-linearity in data. Therefore accurate estimation is difficult. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) found extensive acceptance to address the modeling of the complex real world for the non-linear environment. ANN’s have more general and flexible functional forms than traditional statistical methods can effectively deal with. The link between information technology and agriculture will become more firm in the near future. Monitoring crop biophysical properties non-destructively can provide a rapid and accurate understanding of its response to various environmental influences. Crop chlorophyll content is an important indicator of crop health and therefore the estimation of crop yield. In recent years, remote sensing has been accepted as a robust tool for site-specific management by detecting crop parameters at both local and large scales. The present research combined the ANN model with satellite-derived chlorophyll indices from LANDSAT 8 imagery for predicting real-time wheat chlorophyll estimation. The cloud-free scenes of LANDSAT 8 were acquired (Feb-March 2016-17) at the same time when ground-truthing campaign was performed for chlorophyll estimation by using SPAD-502. Different vegetation indices were derived from LANDSAT 8 imagery using ERADAS Imagine (v.2014) software for chlorophyll determination. The vegetation indices were including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (CARI), Modified Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio Index (MCARI) and Transformed Chlorophyll Absorbed Ratio index (TCARI). For ANN modeling, MATLAB and SPSS (ANN) tools were used. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) in MATLAB provided very satisfactory results. For training purpose of MLP 61.7% of the data, for validation purpose 28.3% of data and rest 10% of data were used to evaluate and validate the ANN model results. For error evaluation, sum of squares error and relative error were used. ANN model summery showed that sum of squares error of 10.786, the average overall relative error was .099. The MCARI and NDVI were revealed to be more sensitive indices for assessing wheat chlorophyll content with the highest coefficient of determination R²=0.93 and 0.90 respectively. The results suggested that use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for the retrieval of crop chlorophyll content by using ANN model provides accurate, reliable assessment of crop health status at a larger scale which can help in managing crop nutrition requirement in real time.
1886
83809
Combustion Improvements by C₄/C₅ Bio-alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine
Abstract:
To achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and prevent petroleum fuel shortages, numerous diesel combustion studies with biofuels as diesel fuel substitutes have been carried out, as biofuels such as biodiesels and bio-alcohols are promising renewable energy sources. Recently, the Research and Development of next generation bio-alcohol production with high efficiency fermentation methods using engineered micro-organisms have been promoted with non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass. Such next generation bio-alcohol fuels contain larger volumes of butanol (C₄) and pentanol (C₅) than ethanol and higher alcohol fuels. Compared with bio-ethanol, the next generation bio-alcohol fuels have advantages such as high cetane numbers, good solubility characteristics in conventional diesel fuels and biodiesels, and low hygroscopic characteristics. Therefore, the C₄/C₅ bio-alcohols are superior to bio-ethanol as diesel fuel substitutes. It is known that the next generation bio-alcohol fuels also contain isomers, depending on the production processes. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of bio-alcohol and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C₄ alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C₅ alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOₓ and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR in the tested engine equipped with a jerk type injection system. The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation, without supercharging) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a Roots blower type supercharger driven by a motor, independent of the engine operation variables. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOₓ and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance when compared with standard diesel fuel operation. Regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the smoke emissions with n-butanol and iso-butanol blends were lower than with n-pentanol and iso-pentanol blends. The reasons are considered to be that the butanol isomers have a higher oxygen content than pentanol isomers, as well as longer ignition delays arising from the low cetane numbers. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small. A literature survey by the authors has identified only a few reports of diesel combustion combining supercharging and EGR with next generation bio-alcohol blended fuels, specifically no reports of investigations of pentanol isomer blended fuels were located.
1885
85102
Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion
Abstract:
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.
1884
92484
Investigating the Effects of Cylinder Disablement on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Exhaust Temperature Management
Abstract:
Diesel engines are widely used in transportation sector due to their high thermal efficiency. However, they also release high rates of NOₓ and PM (particulate matter) emissions into the environment which have hazardous effects on human health. Therefore, environmental protection agencies have issued strict emission regulations on automotive diesel engines. Recently, these regulations are even increasingly strengthened. Engine producers search novel on-engine methods such as advanced combustion techniques, utilization of renewable fuels, exhaust gas recirculation, advanced fuel injection methods or use exhaust after-treatment (EAT) systems in order to reduce emission rates on diesel engines. Although those aforementioned on-engine methods are effective to curb emission rates, they result in inefficiency or cannot decrease emission rates satisfactorily at all operating conditions. Therefore, engine manufacturers apply both on-engine techniques and EAT systems to meet the stringent emission norms. EAT systems are highly effective to diminish emission rates, however, they perform inefficiently at low loads due to low exhaust gas temperatures (below 250°C). Therefore, the objective of this study is to demonstrate that engine-out temperatures can be elevated above 250°C at low-loaded cases via cylinder disablement. The engine studied and modeled via Lotus Engine Simulation (LES) software is a six-cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. Exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates are predicted at 1200 rpm engine speed and several low loaded conditions using LES program. It is seen that cylinder deactivation results in a considerable exhaust temperature rise (up to 100°C) at low loads which ensures effective EAT management. The method also improves fuel efficiency through reduced total pumping loss. Decreased total air induction due to inactive cylinders is thought to be responsible for improved engine pumping loss. The technique reduces exhaust gas flow rate as air flow is cut off on disabled cylinders. Still, heat transfer rates to the after-treatment catalyst bed do not decrease that much since exhaust temperatures are increased sufficiently. Simulation results are promising; however, further experimental studies are needed to identify the true potential of the method on fuel consumption and EAT improvement.
1883
63720
Modified Design of Flyer with Reduced Weight for Use in Textile Machinery
Authors:
Abstract:
Textile machinery is one of the fastest evolving areas which has an application of mechanical engineering. The modular approach towards the processing right from the stage of cotton to the fabric, allows us to observe the result of each process on its input. Cost and space being the major constraints. The flyer is a component of roving machine, which is used as a part of spinning process. In the present work using the application of Hyper Works, the flyer arm has been modified which saves the material used for manufacturing the flyer. The size optimization of the flyer is carried out with the objective of reduction in weight under the constraints of standard operating conditions. The new design of the flyer is proposed and validated using the module of HyperWorks which is equally strong, but light weighted compared to the existing design. Dynamic balancing of the optimized model is carried out to align a principal inertia axis with the geometric axis of rotation. For the balanced geometry of flyer, air resistance is obtained theoretically and with Gambit and Fluent. Static analysis of the balanced geometry has been done to verify the constraint of operating condition. Comparison of weight, deflection, and factor of safety has been made for different aluminum alloys.