International Science Index

International Journal of Materials and Textile Engineering

138
96356
A Chemical-Free Colouration Technique for Regenerated Fibres Using Waste Alpaca Fibres
Abstract:
Generally, the colouration of textile fibres is performed by using synthetic colourants in dope dyeing or conventional dyeing methods. However, the toxic effect of some synthetic colorants due to long-term exposure can cause several health threats including cancer, asthma and skin diseases. Moreover, in colouration process, these colourants not only consume a massive amount of water but also generates huge proportion of wastewater to the environment. Despite having the environmentally friendly characteristics, current natural colourants have downsides in their yield and need chemical extraction processes which are water consuming as well. In view of this, the present work focuses to develop a chemical-free biocompatible and natural pigment based colouration technique to colour regenerated fibres. Waste alpaca fibre was used as a colourant and the colour properties, as well as the mechanical properties, of the regenerated fibres were investigated. The colourant from waste alpaca was fabricated through mechanical milling process and it was directly applied to the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) dope solution in different ratios of alpaca: PAN (10:90, 20:80, 30:70). The results obtained from the chemical structure characterization suggested that all the coloured regenerated fibres exhibited chemical functional groups of both PAN and alpaca. Furthermore, the color strength was increased gradually with the increment of alpaca content and showed excellent washing fastness properties. These results reveal a potential new pathway for chemical-free dyeing technique for fibres with improved properties.
137
86759
Enhancing Vortex Spun Yarn Properties by Additional Twists
Abstract:
Vortex spinning technique is considered the recent development in air-jet spinning. This innovative technique uses an air vortex created in only one nozzle and its machine termed as vortex spinning m/c. The prominent feature of this innovative technique is its higher production rate which reached approximately to thirty times of the ring spinning speed. The vortex spun yarns exhibited more evenness compared to open-end spun yarns and its hairiness index is lower than those made from ring spinning system. Vortex spun yarns got comparable to ring spun yarns due to recent developments in terms of their visual appearance, structures and other characteristics. The lower strength is considered the main weak point associated with vortex spun yarns in comparison with ring ones. Therefore, many more twists were added to vortex spun yarns to overcome this weakness in order to become closer to ring yarn properties. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of additional twist to vortex spun yarn on its physical and mechanical properties in comparison with ring spun yarn properties. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of the nominal ring spun yarn twist were added to vortex spun yarns. The cotton: polyester blended yarns with count 35 Ne were spun using ring and vortex spinning systems from two types of cotton fibres. The twist factor of both types of yarns was αm = 120 (920 turns/m). The 0% additional twist refers to the vortex yarn without additional twist. The additional twist ratios that have been added to vortex spun yarn corresponds to 46 turns/m, 92 turns/m, 184 turns/m, 276 turns/m, 368 turns/m and 460 turns/m respectively. The experimental results were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey test to detect the source of variation between treatments. The findings of this study revealed that 10% additional twist to vortex spun is a sufficient quantity to enhance the vortex spun yarn tensile strength and its elongation. As a result, it was found that 10% additional twist is sufficient to increase the tensile strength of vortex spun yarn by about 15% , and cv of elongation and strength were also improved.
136
95173
The Design of Smart Tactile Textiles for Therapeutic Applications
Authors:
Abstract:
Smart tactile textiles are a series of textile-based products that incorporates smart embedded technology to be utilized as tactile therapeutic applications for 2 main groups of target users. The first group of users will be children with sensory processing disorder who are suffering from tactile sensory dysfunction. Children with tactile sensory issues may have difficulty tolerating the sensations generated from the touch of certain textures on the fabrics. A series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Toys’ are developed as tactile therapy play objects, exposing children to different types of touch sensations within textiles, enabling them to enjoy tactile experiences together with interactive play which will help them to overcome fear of certain touch sensations. The second group of users will be the elderly or geriatric patients who are suffering from deteriorating sense of touch. One of the common consequences of aging is suffering from deteriorating sense of touch and a decline in motoric function. With the focus in stimulating the sense of touch for this particular group of end users, another series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Aids’ are developed also as tactile therapy. This range of products can help to maintain touch sensitivity and at the same time allowing the elderly to enjoy interactive play to practice their hand-eye coordination and enhancing their motor skills. These smart tactile textile products are being designed and tested out by the end users and have proofed their efficacy as tactile therapy enabling the users to lead a better quality of life.
135
95169
Liquid Crystal Elastomers as Light-Driven Star-Shaped Microgripper
Authors:
Abstract:
Scientists are very keen on biomimetic research that mimics biological species to micro-robotic devices with the novel functionalities and accessibility. The source of inspiration is the complexity, sophistication, and intelligence of the biological systems. In this work, we design a light-driven star-shaped microgripper, an autonomous soft device which can change the shape under the external stimulus such as light. The design is based on light-responsive Liquid Crystal Elastomers which fabricated onto the polymer coated aligned substrate. The change in shape, controlled by the anisotropicity and the molecular orientation of the Liquid Crystal Elastomer, based on the external stimulus. This artificial star-shaped microgripper is capable of autonomous closure and capable to grab the objects in response to an external stimulus. This external stimulus-responsive materials design, based on soft active smart materials, provides a new approach to autonomous, self-regulating optical systems.
134
91243
Studies on Organic and Inorganic Micro/Nano Particle Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Abstract:
Fibre based nano particles are presently considered as one of the potential filler materials for the improvement of mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites. Due to high matrix-filler interfacial area there will be uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles. In micro/nano filler reinforced composites, resin material is usually tailored by organic or inorganic nanoparticles to have improved matrix properties. The objective of this study was to compare the potential of reinforcement of different organic and inorganic micro/nano fillers in epoxy composites. Industrial and agricultural waste of fibres like Agave Americana, cornhusk, jute, basalt, carbon, glass and fly ash was utilized to prepare micro/nano particles. Micro/nano particles were obtained using high energy planetary ball milling process in dry condition. Milling time and ball size were kept constant throughout the ball milling process. Composites were fabricated by hand lay method. Particle loading was kept constant to 3% wt. for all composites. In present study, loading of fillers was selected as 3 wt. % for all composites. Dynamic mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films were performed in three-point bending mode with gauge length and sample width of 50 mm and 10 mm respectively. The samples were subjected to an oscillating frequency of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz and 100 % oscillating amplitude in the temperature ranges of 30°C to 150°C at the heating rate of 3°C/min. Damping was found to be higher with the jute composites. Amongst organic fillers lowest damping factor was observed with Agave Americana particles, this means that Agave americana fibre particles have betters interface adhesion with epoxy resin. Basalt, fly ash and glass particles have almost similar damping factors confirming better interface adhesion with epoxy.
133
86609
Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend
Abstract:
In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.
132
93894
The Importance of Fair Trade and Organic Labels in Sustainable Fashion Consumption
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of fair trade and organic labels on sustainable fashion by the example of a basic T-shirt. The aim is to examine which attributes (quality, price, fair trade label, and organic label) can influence consumers fashion consumption. The fast change from a conventional fashion industry with only three to four collections per year to a fast fashion and mass consumption industry with weekly low-cost clothing collections is characterized by negative impact on human and nature. At the same time, an increasing interest among consumers to purchase sustainable and fair trade fashion is observed. Despite that, sustainable fashion consumption remains a niche. To author’s best knowledge within current literature on sustainable fashion and the importance of organic or fair trade labels, significant questions remain unanswered. In this study, the application of a choice-based conjoint analysis will detect the importance of labels on fashion for consumers. Choice-based conjoint analyses are appropriate methodologies to understand and predict consumer choices. Furthermore, they diminish socially desirable responses by evaluating products as a whole. In this study, an online survey with a sample of N=200 will be conducted with the Sawtooth Software. The participants for the survey will be customers of the Online Shop Avocado store, an online shop for sustainable fashion. Expected major findings are: (1) the majority of the consumers value price more than the other attributes and (2) the willingness to pay for sustainable fashion increases when the quality is not too low and the price not too high. In addition insights into the linkage between a fair trade label and an organic label can be analyzed.
131
88199
Fashion Accessory and Its Future: Design for Sustainability Applied to the Design Process as a Potential Approach
Abstract:
The fashion industry has become one of the most polluting industries in the world. In this context, designers can contribute solutions to the problem by applying Design for Sustainability (DfS) criteria, which will enable to promote designing products and services toward Sustainability. Therefore, 'Slow Fashion' movement has been receiving the attention of researchers, designers, and customers who are sensitive to sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of DfS in fashion. In particular, how can apply sustainable design principles to the fashion accessory in order to minimize the negative impact on the environment and society? The research method of this study is qualitative, utilising a multi-method case study approach. Grounded theory analysis was applied to analyse the data of the case studies collected and the results obtained. Also, research findings indicate that DfS applied to Fashion Accessory design processes might have great potential and win-win approaches toward a sustainable future. An important implication is that understanding the concepts and applying DfS to fashion accessory design processes can support designers to face challenges and seize opportunities. Furthermore, identify the key concept of sustainability and social responsibility could raise awareness on sustainable fashion for both producers and customers more effectively.
130
83450
Concept of Using an Indicator to Describe the Quality of Fit of Clothing to the Body Using a 3D Scanner and CAD System
Abstract:
The objective of this research is to develop an algorithm, taking into account material type and body type that will describe the fabric properties and quality of fit of a garment to the body. One of the objectives of this research is to develop a new algorithm to simulate cloth draping within CAD/CAM software. Existing virtual fitting does not accurately simulate fabric draping behaviour. Part of the research into virtual fitting will focus on the mechanical properties of fabrics. Material behaviour depends on many factors including fibre, yarn, manufacturing process, fabric weight, textile finish, etc. For this study, several different fabric types with very different mechanical properties will be selected and evaluated for all of the above fabric characteristics. These fabrics include woven thick cotton fabric which is stiff and non-bending, woven with elastic content, which is elastic and bends on the body. Within the virtual simulation, the following mechanical properties can be specified: shear, bending, weight, thickness, and friction. To help calculate these properties, the KES system (Kawabata) can be used. This system was originally developed to calculate the mechanical properties of fabric. In this research, the author will focus on three properties: bending, shear, and roughness. This study will consider current research using the KES system to understand and simulate fabric folding on the virtual body. Testing will help to determine which material properties have the largest impact on the fit of the garment. By developing an algorithm which factors in body type, material type, and clothing function, it will be possible to determine how a specific type of clothing made from a particular type of material will fit on a specific body shape and size. A fit indicator will display areas of stress on the garment such as shoulders, chest waist, hips. From this data, CAD/CAM software can be used to develop garments that fit with a very high degree of accuracy. This research, therefore, aims to provide an innovative solution for garment fitting which will aid in the manufacture of clothing. This research will help the clothing industry by cutting the cost of the clothing manufacturing process and also reduce the cost spent on fitting. The manufacturing process can be made more efficient by virtual fitting of the garment before the real clothing sample is made. Fitting software could be integrated into clothing retailer websites allowing customers to enter their biometric data and determine how the particular garment and material type would fit their body.
129
89593
Fashion Blogging as a Marketing Tool: A Cross-Cultural Investigation to Help the Emerging Fashion Markets
Abstract:
Over the last decade, the emerging phenomenon of fashion blogging has altered the fashion landscape by providing new avenues of marketing to the fashion brands and designers. Given the growing popularity of this trend, there is a potential research scope within the developing fashion markets in South Asia as the majority of the previous studies have been centralized in the context of an established fashion industry. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide an insight on how these newly established marketplaces can benefit by incorporating fashion blogging as a marketing tool in a cross-cultural context. For this reason, the established fashion industry of UK and emerging fashion market of Pakistan was chosen to address the impact of cross-cultural differences on blogging based on the idea of individualism and collectivism. The study used a qualitative approach, using the semi-structured interviews with the fashion industry professionals including PR experts, fashion designers and fashion bloggers Additionally, a questionnaire was designed to gauge consumer’s perception of the blogging from the chosen fashion industries. It is established through the research findings that blogging has evolved from a trend to a strategic public relations and marketing tool in the established fashion industry, which is progressively growing its roots in the new emerging fashion markets. Furthermore, it is evaluated from the research that the cross-cultural differences have a positive impact on fashion blogging. Thus, this research paper serves as the guideline for the emerging fashion markets to incorporate fashion blogging as a marketing tool which can facilitate effective cross-cultural communication.
128
83592
User-Controlled Color-Changing Textiles: From Prototype to Mass Production
Abstract:
Textiles and clothing have been a staple of human existence for millennia, yet the basic structure and functionality of textile fibers and yarns has remained unchanged. While color and appearance are essential characteristics of a textile, an advancement in the fabrication of yarns that allows for user-controlled dynamic changes to the color or appearance of a garment has been lacking. Touch-activated and photosensitive pigments have been used in textiles, but these technologies are passive and cannot be controlled by the user. The technology described here allows the owner to control both when and in what pattern the fabric color-change takes place. In addition, the manufacturing process is compatible with mass-producing the user-controlled, color-changing yarns. The yarn fabrication utilizes a fiber spinning system that can produce either monofilament or multifilament yarns. For products requiring a more robust fabric (backpacks, purses, upholstery, etc.), larger-diameter monofilament yarns with a coarser weave are suitable. Such yarns are produced using a thread-coater attachment to encapsulate a 38-40 AWG metal wire inside a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. Conversely, products such as shirts and pants requiring yarns that are more flexible and soft against the skin comprise multifilament yarns of much smaller-diameter individual fibers. Embedding a metal wire in a multifilament fiber spinning process has not been realized to date. This research has required collaboration with Hills, Inc., to design a liquid metal-injection system to be combined with fiber spinning. The new system injects molten tin into each of 19 filaments being spun simultaneously into a single yarn. The resulting yarn contains 19 filaments, each with a tin core surrounded by a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. The color change we demonstrate is distinct from garments containing LEDs that emit light in various colors. The pigment itself changes its optical absorption spectrum to appear a different color. The thermochromic color-change is induced by a temperature change in the inner metal wire within each filament when current is applied from a small battery pack. The temperature necessary to induce the color change is near body temperature and not noticeable by touch. The prototypes already developed either use a simple push button to activate the battery pack or are wirelessly activated via a smart-phone app over Wi-Fi. The app allows the user to choose from different activation patterns of stripes that appear in the fabric continuously. The power requirements are mitigated by a large hysteresis in the activation temperature of the pigment and the temperature at which there is full color return. This was made possible by a collaboration with Chameleon International to develop a new, customized pigment. This technology enables a never-before seen capability: user-controlled, dynamic color and pattern change in large-area woven and sewn textiles and fabrics with wide-ranging applications from clothing and accessories to furniture and fixed-installation housing and business décor. The ability to activate through Wi-Fi opens up possibilities for the textiles to be part of the ‘Internet of Things.’ Furthermore, this technology is scalable to mass-production levels for wide-scale market adoption.
127
92445
Impact of Negative News on Ethical Fashion: Case Study to Investigate the Effect of Fashion Corporate Social Responsibility Ad Framing on Purchase Intention
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the fashion corporate social responsibility (CSR) ad framing and consumer purchase behaviour with the focus on consumer’s concern and involvement towards the fashion brand. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 200 respondents. Factor analysis and other statistical analyses were applied to test hypotheses. The initial findings suggested that the quality of the product was the most important factor followed by the price when the consumers purchase the fashion brand products and they also demonstrated a high level of responsibility towards unethical practices but favourability for fast fashion. Unexpectedly, it was shown that consumers were not very responsible as they were likely to evade their responsibility to CSR ad and their purchase intentions remained unchanged. On the other hand, it was shown that Fashion CSR ads can significantly moderate individuals’ emotions despite this had no significant correlation with the purchase intention. Despite the limited sample size and geographical region, this research has important implications for social fashion brands that use ad framing to understand how consumers’ involvement and concernedness toward the CSR actions in the ad, influence their favourability (purchase intention) for the fashion brands.
126
91411
Coating of Cotton with Blend of Natural Rubber and Chloroprene Containing Ammonium Acetate for Producing Moisture Vapour Permeable Waterproof Fabric
Abstract:
For the purpose of producing moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton fabric to be used for protective apparel against rain, cotton fabric was coated with the blend of natural rubber and chloroprene rubber containing ammonium acetate as the water-soluble salt, employing a calendar coating technique. Rubber formulations also contained filler, homogenizer, and a typical sulphur curing system. Natural rubber and chloroprene blend in the blend ratio of 30: 70, containing 25 parts of sodium acetate per hundred parts of rubber was coated on the fabric. The coated fabric was vulcanized thereafter at 140oC for 3 h. Coated and vulcanized fabric was subsequently dipped in water for 45 min, followed by drying in air. Such set of treatments produced optimum results. Coated, vulcanized, washed and dried cotton fabric showed optimum developments in the property profiles in respect of waterproofness, breathability as revealed by moisture vapor transmission rate, coating adhesion, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, flex endurance and fire retardancy. Incorporation of highly water-soluble ammonium acetate salt in the coating formulation and their subsequent removal from vulcanized coated layer affected by post washing in consequent to dipping in the water-bath produced holes of only a few microns in the coating matrix of the fabric. Such microporous membrane formed on the cotton fabric allowed only transportation of moisture vapor through them, giving a moisture vapor transmission rate of 3734 g/m2/24h, while acting as a barrier for large liquid water droplet resisting 120cm of the water column in the hydrostatic water-head tester, rendering the coated cotton fabric waterproof. Examination of surface morphology of vulcanized coating by scanning electron microscopy supported the mechanism proposed for development of breathable waterproof layer on cotton fabric by the process employed above. Such process provides an easy and cost-effective route for achieving moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton.
125
93261
Conductive Textiles for Electrothermal Heating and Actuation
Abstract:
Wearable technologies are regarded as the next frontier in electronics. Rapid developments in advanced technology have led to the appearance of wearable electronics by producing, miniaturizing and embedding flexible conductive materials into textiles. The textiles in combination with conductive materials were able to revolutionise numerous industries including healthcare, military, and wearable electronics. However, the conductive textiles which can find prospective applications in electrothermal energy harvesting and conversion will provide a breakthrough to the area of smart textiles in many ways. Even though there are several methods in the literature to fabricate conductive textiles, few of them were commercially accepted, owing to the sophisticated methods of manufacturing. Besides, incorporating conductive material into textiles via printing or coating technique, to obtain lightweight conducting textiles were popular due to the similarity of the processes already being in the industry. A dip-coated hybrid graphene/polyester nonwoven textile was demonstrated by us for heating elements and as high-performance geotextiles. The research has been extended to fabricate the next generation of high performance actuating textile using conductive synthetic yarns which will accomplish the conversion of electrothermal energy to mechanical form. Consequently, the actuating textile was prepared with emerging polymer actuators named as 'Artificial Muscles'. The polymer actuators, in general, can reversibly contract, expand, or rotate itself due to a presence of external stimulus such as voltage, current, temperature, pressure and many more. The uniqueness of the actuators which we used in the textile is that they can exceed the performance of natural muscles in many aspects. Especially, using actuating materials in textiles is a striking approach as a small change in material anisotropy properties can be converted into significant performance enhancements, due to the densely interconnected structures. The traditional textile structures, such as woven and knitted textiles were fabricated with electrically conductive actuators. The textiles were characterised for force amplification by the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, force, and strain with the presence of comprehensive experimental technique. This research further analyses the effect of fibre architecture in the actuating textile structure and demonstrate the applications possibilities. A silicone based actuating material structure was demonstrated for the biomedical applications including pressure generation in an artificial heart. The above work will further open new research avenues in high performance actuating textiles and smart textile applications in biomedical, apparel and soft robotics.
124
82466
Cotton Treated with Spent Coffee Extract for Realizing Functional Textiles
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of spent coffee extract to enhance the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics. The emergence and spread of infectious diseases has raised a global interest in the antimicrobial substances. The safety of chemical agents, such as antimicrobials and dyes, which may irritate the skin, cause cellular and organ damage, and have adverse environmental impacts during their manufacturing, in relation to the human body has not been established. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in natural antimicrobials that kill microorganisms or stop their growth without dangerous effects on human health. Spent coffee is the by-product of coffee brewing and amounted to 96,000 tons worldwide in 2015. Coffee components such as caffeine, melanoidins, and chlorogenic acid have been reported to possess multifunctional properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the current study examined the possibility of applying spent coffee in functional textile finishing. Spent coffee was extracted with 60% methanol solution, and the major components of the extract were quantified. In addition, cotton fabrics treated with spent coffee extract through a pad-dry-cure process were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract showed an increase in yellowness, which is an unfavorable outcome from the fabric finishing process. However, the cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant ability significantly increased with increasing concentrations of the spent coffee extract. The finished cotton fabrics showed antimicrobial ability against S. aureus but relatively low antimicrobial ability against K. pneumoniae. Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate concentration of spent coffee extract to inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria.
123
82556
Random Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Superfine Animal Fibres
Authors:
Abstract:
The physical and mechanical property parameters, inter-relation of key dimensional and distribution profile of raw Australia Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres have been studied. The relationship between the properties of these fibres is assessed using fit transformation functions obtained through correlation coefficient analysis. ASFW and IMC fibre properties are found to be both positively skewed and asymmetric in nature. Whilst fibre diameter varies along its length and both ends have a tapering shape. The basic physical features, namely linear density, true local diameter, true length and breaking load are positively correlated while their tenacity is negatively correlated. The tenacity and true length follow a second order polynomial while the true local diameter is linearly correlated. Assessment of the diameter and length is sufficient to estimate the evaluation of quality for commercial grade ASFW and IMC fibres.
122
82558
The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre
Authors:
Abstract:
This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.
121
82693
Developing a Modular Architecture of Apparel Product
Abstract:
Apparel products (or apparel) with the sense of aesthetics, usability (ergonomics) and function are fundamental and varied in people’s daily life. The numerous apparel thus produced by apparel industry, have been triggered many issues, such as the waste of sources and the environmental pollutions. In this study, a hybrid architecture called modular architecture of apparel (MAA) has been proposed to deal with the variety of apparel, and thus to overcome the aforementioned issues. Generally, the establishment of MAA takes advantage of the modular design of a general product that a product is assembled with many modules through their modular interface connector. The development of MAA is to first analyze the structure of apparel in terms of the necessity to form an apparel and the aesthetics, ergonomics, and function of apparel; then to divide apparel into many segments (or module in product design) based on the structure of apparel; to develop modular interfaces and modular interface connectors in terms of the features of apparel’s modules. It is noted that in the general product design, modules of a product are only about the function and ergonomics, but in MAA, the module of aesthetics is developed. Further, an apparel design with employing the MAA is carried out to validate its usefulness and efficiency. There are three contributions out of this study, the first is to overcome the aforementioned issues (i.e. waste of source and environmental pollutions); the second is the improvement of the modular design for product by considering aesthetics; the third is to add the value in realizing the personalized mass production of apparel in the near future.
120
84800
Fabric Drapemeter Development towards the Analysis of Its Behavior in 3-D Design
Abstract:
Globalization has raised the customer preferences not only towards the high-quality garments but also the right fitting, comfort and aesthetic apparels. This only can be accomplished by the good interaction between fabric mechanical and physical properties as well as the required style. Consequently, this paper provides an integrated review of the fabric drape terminology because it is considered as an essential feature in which the fabric can form folds with the help of the gravity. Moreover, an instrument has been fabricated in order to analyze the static and dynamic drape behaviors using different fabric types. In addition, the obtained results find out the parameters affecting the drape coefficient using digital image processing for various kind of commercial fabrics. This was found to be an essential first step in order to analyze the behavior of this fabric when it is fabricated in a certain 3-D garment design.
119
84859
Application of 3D Apparel CAD for Costume Reproduction
Abstract:
3D apparel CAD is one of the remarkable products in advanced technology which enables intuitive design, visualisation and evaluation of garments through stereoscopic drape simulation. The progressive improvements of 3D apparel CAD have led to the creation of more realistic clothing simulation which is used not only in design development but also in presentation, promotion and communication for fashion as well as other industries such as film, game and social network services. As a result, 3D clothing technology is becoming more ubiquitous in human culture and lives today. This study considers that such phenomenon implies that the technology has reached maturity and it is time to inspect the status of current technology and to explore its potential uses in ways to create cultural values to further move forward. For this reason, this study aims to generate virtual costumes as culturally significant objects using 3D apparel CAD and to assess its capability, applicability and attitudes of the audience towards clothing simulation through comparison with physical counterparts. Since the access to costume collection is often limited due to the conservative issues, the technology may make valuable contribution by democratization of culture and knowledge for museums and its audience. This study is expected to provide foundation knowledge for development of clothing technology and for expanding its boundary of practical uses. To prevent any potential damage, two replicas of the costumes in the 1860s and 1920s at the Museum of London were chosen as samples. Their structural, visual and physical characteristics were measured and collected using patterns, scanned images of fabrics and objective fabric measurements with scale, KES-F and Titan. Commercial software, DC Suite 5.0 was utilised to create virtual costumes applying collected data and the following outcomes were produced for the evaluation: Images of virtual costumes and video clips showing static and dynamic simulation. Focus groups were arranged with fashion design students and the public for evaluation which exposed the outcomes together with physical samples, fabrics swatches and photographs. The similarities, application and acceptance of virtual costumes were estimated through discussion and questionnaire. The findings show that the technology has the capability to produce realistic or plausible simulation but expression of some factors such as details and capability of light material requires improvements. While the use of virtual costumes was viewed as more interesting and futuristic replacements to physical objects by the public group, fashion student group noted more differences in detail and preferred physical garments highlighting the absence of tangibility. However, the advantages and potentials of virtual costumes as effective and useful visual references for educational and exhibitory purposes were underlined by both groups. Although 3D apparel CAD has sufficient capacity to assist garment design process, it has limits in identical replication, and more study on accurate reproduction of details and drape is needed for its technical improvements. Nevertheless, the virtual costumes in this study demonstrated that possibility of the technology to contribute to cultural and knowledgeable value creation through its applicability and interesting way to offer 3D visual information.
118
88328
The Effect of Pulsator on Washing Performance in a Front-Loading Washer
Abstract:
The object of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsator on washing performance quantitatively for a front-loading washer. The front-loading washer with pulsator shows a washing performance improvement of 18% and the particle-based body simulation technique has been applied to figure out the relation between washing performance and mechanical forces exerted on textile during the washing process. As a result, the mechanical forces, such as collision force and strain force, acting on the textile have turned out to be about twice numerically. The washing performance improvement due to new additional pulsate system has been utilized for customers to save 50% of washing time.
117
91506
Effect of Different Types of Washes on the Fabric Strength of Denim
Abstract:
Experimental Design (DOE) economically maximizes information; we deliberately change one or more process variables (looms) in order to observe the effect the changes have on one or more response fabric properties. In DOE obtained data can be analyzed to yield valid and objective conclusions. An Experimental Design is lying out of a detailed experimental plan in advance and maximizes the amount of "information" that can be obtained for a given amount of experimental. Fabric of 36 inches having following weaves was used. 3/1 twill, warp cotton (10.5 den), weft Lycra (16 spandex * 70 den) Ends per inch86, Picks per inch 52 and washes process includes Stone wash, Rinse wash, Bleaching and Enzyme wash. Once the samples were ready, they were subjected to tensile and tear strength tests, for these two kinds of samples were considered. One washed fabric samples of warp direction type and other type of the samples was weft direction. Then five samples from each were considered for tensile and teat strength tests separately then takes the mean value. The results found that the lowest strength damaged in the weft direction observed by tensile strength test & Enzyme wash. Maximum breaking load of the enzyme washed fabric sample was 42 kg.
116
92039
Flexural Properties of Carbon/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Matrix Forming Polypropylene in Fiber, Powder, and Film States
Abstract:
Thermoplastic composites render new opportunities as effective processing technology while crafting newer complications into processing. One of the notable challenges is in achieving thorough wettability that is significantly deterred by the high viscosity of the long molecular chains of the thermoplastics. As a result of high viscosity, it is very difficult to impregnate the resin into a tightly interlaced textile structure to fill the voids present in the structure. One potential solution to the above problem, is to pre-deposit resin on the fiber, prior to consolidation. The current study compares DREF spinning, powder coating and film stacking methods of predeposition of resin onto fibers. An investigation into the flexural properties of unidirectional composites (UDC) produced from blending of carbon fiber and polypropylene (PP) matrix in varying forms of fiber, powder and film are reported. Dr. Ernst Fehrer (DREF) yarns or friction spun hybrid yarns were manufactured from PP fibers and carbon tows. The DREF yarns were consolidated to yield unidirectional composites (UDCs) referred to as UDC-D. PP in the form of powder was coated on carbon tows by electrostatic spray coating. The powder-coated towpregs were consolidated to form UDC-P. For the sake of comparison, a third UDC referred as UDC-F was manufactured by the consolidation of PP films stacked between carbon tows. The experiments were designed to yield a matching fiber volume fraction of about 50 % in all the three UDCs. A comparison of mechanical properties of the three composites was studied to understand the efficiency of matrix wetting and impregnation. Approximately 19% and 68% higher flexural strength were obtained for UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Similarly, 25% and 81% higher modulus were observed in UDC-P than UDC-D and UDC-F respectively. Results from micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and short beam tests indicate better impregnation of PP matrix in UDC-P obtained through electrostatic spray coating process and thereby higher flexural strength and modulus.
115
92928
Sequential Padding: A Method to Improve the Impact Resistance in Body Armor Materials
Abstract:
Application of shear thickening fluid (STF) has been proved to increase the impact resistance performance of the textile structures to further use it as a body armor material. In the present research, STF was applied on Kevlar woven fabric to make the structure lightweight and flexible while improving its impact resistance performance. It was observed that getting a fair amount of add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric is difficult as Kevlar fabric comes with a pre-coating of PTFE which hinders its absorbency. Hence, a method termed as sequential padding is developed in the present study to improve the add-on of STF on Kevlar fabric. Contrary to the conventional process, where Kevlar fabric is treated with STF once using any one pressure, in sequential padding method, the Kevlar fabrics were treated twice in a sequential manner using combination of two pressures together in a sample. 200 GSM Kevlar fabrics were used in the present study. STF was prepared by adding PEG with 70% (w/w) nano-silica concentration. Ethanol was added with the STF at a fixed ratio to reduce viscosity. A high-speed homogenizer was used to make the dispersion. Total nine STF treated Kevlar fabric samples were prepared by using varying combinations and sequences of three levels of padding pressure {0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 bar). The fabrics were dried at 80°C for 40 minutes in a hot air oven to evaporate ethanol. Untreated and STF treated fabrics were tested for add-on%. Impact resistance performance of samples was also tested on dynamic impact tester at a fixed velocity of 6 m/s. Further, to observe the impact resistance performance in actual condition, low velocity ballistic test with 165 m/s velocity was also performed to confirm the results of impact resistance test. It was observed that both add-on% and impact energy absorption of Kevlar fabrics increases significantly with sequential padding process as compared to untreated as well as single stage padding process. It was also determined that impact energy absorption is significantly better in STF treated Kevlar fabrics when 1st padding pressure is higher, and 2nd padding pressure is lower. It is also observed that impact energy absorption of sequentially padded Kevlar fabric shows almost 125% increase in ballistic impact energy absorption (40.62 J) as compared to untreated fabric (18.07 J).The results are owing to the fact that the treatment of fabrics at high pressure during the first padding is responsible for uniform distribution of STF within the fabric structures. While padding with second lower pressure ensures the high add-on of STF for over-all improvement in the impact resistance performance of the fabric. Therefore, it is concluded that sequential padding process may help to improve the impact performance of body armor materials based on STF treated Kevlar fabrics.
114
93611
Weaving Social Development: An Exploratory Study of Adapting Traditional Textiles Using Indigenous Organic Wool for the Modern Interior Textiles Market
Abstract:
The Interior Design profession aims at creating aesthetically pleasing design solutions for human habitats but of late, growing awareness about depleting environmental resources, both tangible and intangible, and damages to the eco-system has led to the quest for creating healthy and sustainable interior environments. The paper proposes adapting traditionally produced organic wool textiles for the mainstream Interior Design industry. This can create sustainable livelihoods whereby eco-friendly bridges can be built between Interior designers and consumers and pastoral communities. This study focuses on traditional textiles produced by two pastoral communities from India that use organic wool from indigenous sheep varieties. The Gaddi communities of Himachal Pradesh use wool from the Gaddi sheep breed to create Pattu (a multi-purpose textile). The Kurumas of Telengana weave a blanket called the Gongadi, using wool from the Black Deccani variety of sheep. These communities have traditionally reared indigenous sheep breeds for their wool, and produce hand-spun and hand-woven textiles for their own consumption, using traditional processes that are chemical free. Based on data collected personally from field visits and documentation of traditional crafts of these pastoral communities, and using traditionally produced indigenous organic wool, the authors have developed innovative textile samples by including design interventions and exploring dyeing and weaving techniques. As part of the secondary research, the role of pastoralism in sustaining the eco-systems of Himachal Pradesh and Telengana was studied, and also the role of organic wool in creating healthy interior environments. The authors found that natural wool from indigenous sheep breeds can be used to create interior textiles that have the potential to be marketed to an urban audience, and this will help create earnings for pastoral communities. Their studies have led the authors to the understanding that organic and sustainable wool can contribute in creating healthier interior environments with reductions in indoor pollution and toxicity levels. Revival of indigenous breeds of sheep can further help in rejuvenating dying crafts, and promotion of these indigenous textiles can help in sustaining traditional eco-systems and the pastoral communities whose way of life is endangered today. Based on their research and findings, the authors propose that adapting traditional textiles can have the potential for application in Interiors, creating eco-friendly spaces. Interior textiles produced through such sustainable processes can help reduce indoor pollution, give livelihood opportunities to traditional economies, and leave almost zero carbon foot-print while being in sync with available natural resources, hence ultimately benefiting the society. The win-win situation for all the stakeholders in this eco-friendly model makes it pertinent to re-think how we design lifestyle textiles for interiors. This study has been a case in point and the specific example from the two Indian pastoral communities can be used as a model that can work equally well in any community, regardless of geography.
113
94376
Crypto Copycat: A Fashion Centric Blockchain Framework for Eliminating Fashion Infringement
Abstract:
The fashion industry represents a significant portion of the global gross domestic product. However, it is plagued by cheap imitators that infringe on the trademarks which destroys the fashion industry's hard work and investment. While eventually the copycats would be found and stopped, the damage has already been done, sales are missed, and direct and indirect jobs are lost. The infringer thrives on two main facts: the time it takes to discover them and the lack of tracking technologies that can help the consumer distinguish them. Blockchain technology is a new emerging technology that provides a distributed encrypted immutable and fault resistant ledger. Blockchain presents a ripe technology to resolve the infringement epidemic facing the fashion industry. The significance of the study is that a new approach leveraging the state of the art blockchain technology coupled with artificial intelligence is used to create a framework addressing the fashion infringement problem. It transforms the current focus on legal enforcement, which is difficult at best, to consumer awareness that is far more effective. The framework, Crypto CopyCat, creates an immutable digital asset representing the actual product to empower the customer with a near real-time query system. This combination emphasizes the consumer's awareness and appreciation of the product's authenticity, while provides real-time feedback to the producer regarding the fake replicas. The main findings of this study are that implementing this approach can delay the fake product penetration of the original product market, thus allowing the original product the time to take advantage of the market. The shift in the fake adoption results in reduced returns, which impedes the copycat market and moves the emphasis to the original product innovation.
112
94775
Development and Characterisation of Nonwoven Fabrics for Apparel Applications
Abstract:
The cost of making apparel fabrics for garment manufacturing is very high because of their conventional manufacturing processes and new methods/processes are being constantly developed for making fabrics by unconventional methods. With the advancements in technology and the availability of the innovative fibres, durable nonwoven fabrics by using the hydroentanglement process that can compete with the woven fabrics in terms of their aesthetic and tensile properties are being developed. In the work reported here, the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics were developed through a hybrid nonwoven manufacturing processes by using fibrillated Tencel® and bi-component (sheath/core) polyethylene/polyester (PE/PET) fibres, in which the initial nonwoven fabrics were prepared by the needle-punching method followed by hydroentanglement process carried out at optimal pressures of 50 to 250bars. The prepared fabrics were characterized according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the attained results were compared with those for a standard plain-weave cotton, polyester woven fabric and commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled fabrics showed better drape properties owing to their flexural rigidity of 252 mg.cm in the machine direction, while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 mg.cm in the machine direction. The tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed an approximately 200% increase than the commercial hydroentangled fabrics. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed higher properties in term of air permeability, such as the developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining the existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.
111
95562
The Background of Ornamental Design Practice: Theory and Practice Based Research on Ornamental Traditions
Authors:
Abstract:
This research looks at the principles and purposes ornamental design has served in the field of textile design. Ornamental designs are characterized by richness of details, abundance of elements, vegetative motifs and organic forms that flow harmoniously in complex compositions. Research on ornamental design is significant, because ornaments have been overlooked and considered as less meaningful and aesthetically pleasing than minimalistic, modern designs. This is despite the fact that in many parts of the world ornaments have been an important part of the cultural identification and expression for centuries. Ornament has been claimed to be superficial and merely used as a decorative way to hide the faults of designs. Such generalization is an incorrect interpretation of the real purposes of ornament. Many ornamental patterns tell stories, present mythological scenes or convey symbolistic meanings. Historically, ornamental decorations have been representing ideas and characteristics such as abundance, wealth, power and personal magnificence. The production of fine ornaments required refined skill, eye for intricate detail and perseverance while compiling complex elements into harmonious compositions. For this reason, ornaments have played an important role in the advancement of craftsmanship. Even though it has been claimed that people in the western design world have lost the relationship to ornament, the relation to it has merely changed from the practice of a craftsman to conceptualisation of a designer. With the help of new technological tools the production of ornaments has become faster and more efficient, demanding less manual labour. Designers who commit to this style of organic forms and vegetative motifs embrace and respect nature by representing its organically growing forms and by following its principles. The complexity of the designs is used as a way to evoke a sense of extraordinary beauty and stimulate intellect by freeing the mind from the predetermined interpretations. Through the study of these purposes it can be demonstrated that complex and richer design styles are as valuable a part of the world of design as more modern design approaches. The study highlights the meaning of ornaments by presenting visual examples and literature research findings. The practice based part of the project is the visual analysis of historical and cultural ornamental traditions such as Indian Chikan embroidery, Persian carpets, Art Nouveau and Rococo according to the rubric created for the purpose. The next step is the creation of ornamental designs based on the key elements in different styles. Theoretical and practical parts are woven together in this study that respects respect the long traditions of ornaments and highlight the importance of these design approaches to the field, in contrast to the more commonly preferred styles.
110
95630
Study of Drape and Seam Strength of Fabric and Garment in Relation to Weave Design and Comparison of 2D and 3D Drape Properties
Abstract:
Aesthetic and performance are two most important considerations along with quality, durability, comfort and cost that affect the garment credibility. Fabric drape is perhaps the most important clothing characteristics that distinguishes fabric from the sheet, paper, steel or other film materials. It enables the fabric to mold itself under its own weight into desired and required shape when only part of it is directly sustained. The fabric has the ability to be crumpled charmingly in bent folds of single or double curvature due to its drapeability to produce a smooth flowing i.e. ‘the sinusoidal-type folds of a curtain or skirt’. Drape and seam strength are two parameters that are considered for aesthetic and performance of fabric for both apparel and home textiles. Until recently, no such study have been conducted in which effect of weave designs on drape and seam strength of fabric and garment is inspected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure seam strength and drape of fabric and garment objectively by changing weave designs and quality of the fabric. Also, the comparison of 2-D drape and 3-D drape was done to find whether a fabric behaves in same manner or differently when sewn and worn on the body. Four different cotton weave designs were developed and pr-treatment was done. 2-D Drape of the fabric was measured by drapemeter attached with digital camera and a supporting disc to hang the specimen on it. Drape coefficient value (DC %) has negative relation with drape. It is the ratio of draped sample’s projected shadow area to the area of undraped (flat) sample expressed as percentage. Similarly, 3-D drape was measured by hanging the A-line skirts for developed weave designs. BS 3356 standard test method was followed for bending length examination. It is related to the angle that the fabric makes with its horizontal axis. Seam strength was determined by following ASTM test standard. For sewn fabric, stitch density of seam was found by magnifying glass according to standard ASTM test method. In this research study, from the experimentation and evaluation it was investigated that drape and seam strength were significantly affected by change of weave design and quality of fabric (PPI & yarn count). Drapeability increased as the number of interlacement or contact point deceased between warp and weft yarns. As the weight of fabric, bending length, and density of fabric had indirect relationship with drapeability. We had concluded that 2-D drape was higher than 3-D drape even though the garment was made of the same fabric construction. Seam breakage strength decreased with decrease in picks density and yarn count.
109
94231
Effect of Weave on Cotton Fabric to Improve the Durable Press Finish Rating
Abstract:
Cellulose fibres, mainly cotton, are the most important kind of fibre used for manufacturing shirting fabric. However, to overcome its main disadvantage, that is it gets wrinkled after washing, is to use special kind of finish which is resin finish. This finish provides a resistance against shrinkage along with improved wet and dry wrinkle recovery to cellulosic textiles. The Durable Press (DP) finish uses a mechanism of cross-linking with polymers or resin to inhibit the easy movement of the cellulose chains. The purpose of these experimentations on the weave is to observe and compare the variations in properties after DP finish without adverse effect on strength of the fabric. In this work, we have prepared three types of fabric weaves viz. Plain, Twill and Sateen with their construction parameters intact. To get the projected results, this work uses three types of variables viz. concentration of Resin, Temperature and Time. Resultant of these variables is only change in weave or construction on DP finish which further opens the possibilities of improvement of DP either of mentioned weaves. The combined effect of such various parametric resin finish methodology will give the best method to improve the DP. However, the DP finish can cause a side effect of reduction in elasticity and flexibility of cellulosic fibres. The natural cellulose could loss abrasion resistance along with tear and tensile strength by applying DP finish. In this work, it is taken care that the tear strength of fabric will not drop below certain limit otherwise the fabric will tear down easily. In this work, it is found that there is a significant drop in tearing and tensile strength with the improvement of DP finish. Later on, it is also found that the twill weave has more percentage drop in tearing strength as compared to plain and sateen weave. There is major kind of observations obtained after this work. First, the mixing of cotton should be done properly to achieve the higher DP rating in plain weave. Second, the careful combination of warp, weft and fabric construction must be decided to avoid the high drop in tear and tensile strength in a twill weave. Third, the sateen weave has a good sheen and DP rating hence it can be used in shirting of gents and ladies dress materials. This concludes that to achieve higher DP ratings, use plain weave construction than twill and sateen because it has the lowest tear and tensile strength drop.