International Science Index

International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1659
95469
Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes
Abstract:
The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempt to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR (Dubinin–Kaganer–Radushkevich) isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III) > La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.
1658
92877
Apatite Flotation Using Fruits' Oil as Collector and Sorghum as Depressant
Abstract:
The crescent demand for raw material has increased mining activities. Mineral industry faces the challenge of process more complexes ores, with very small particles and low grade, together with constant pressure to reduce production costs and environment impacts. Froth flotation deserves special attention among the concentration methods for mineral processing. Besides its great selectivity for different minerals, flotation is a high efficient method to process fine particles. The process is based on the minerals surficial physicochemical properties and the separation is only possible with the aid of chemicals such as collectors, frothers, modifiers, and depressants. In order to use sustainable and eco-friendly reagents, oils extracted from three different vegetable species (pequi’s pulp, macauba’s nut and pulp, and Jatropha curcas) were studied and tested as apatite collectors. Since the oils are not soluble in water, an alkaline hydrolysis (or saponification), was necessary before their contact with the minerals. The saponification was performed at room temperature. The tests with the new collectors were carried out at pH 9 and Flotigam 5806, a synthetic mix of fatty acids industrially adopted as apatite collector manufactured by Clariant, was used as benchmark. In order to find a feasible replacement for cornstarch the flour and starch of a graniferous variety of sorghum was tested as depressant. Apatite samples were used in the flotation tests. XRF (X-ray fluorescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) were used to characterize the apatite samples. Zeta potential measurements were performed in the pH range from 3.5 to 12.5. A commercial cornstarch was used as depressant benchmark. Four depressants dosages and pH values were tested. A statistical test was used to verify the pH, dosage, and starch type influence on the minerals recoveries. For dosages equal or higher than 7.5 mg/L, pequi oil recovered almost all apatite particles. In one hand, macauba’s pulp oil showed excellent results for all dosages, with more than 90% of apatite recovery, but in the other hand, with the nut oil, the higher recovery found was around 84%. Jatropha curcas oil was the second best oil tested and more than 90% of the apatite particles were recovered for the dosage of 7.5 mg/L. Regarding the depressant, the lower apatite recovery with sorghum starch were found for a dosage of 1,200 g/t and pH 11, resulting in a recovery of 1.99%. The apatite recovery for the same conditions as 1.40% for sorghum flour (approximately 30% lower). When comparing with cornstarch at the same conditions sorghum flour produced an apatite recovery 91% lower.
1657
93789
Influence of Bra Band Tension and Underwire Angles on Breast Motion
Abstract:
Daily activities and exercise may result in a large displacement of the breast, leading to breast pain and discomfort. A proper design and fit of bra helps to control the excessive breast motion for preventing over-stretching of the connective tissue. Nevertheless, inappropriate bra features such as the excessive high tension of shoulder strap and under band may associate with substantial negative effects on wear comfort and health aspects. The purpose of this study is analyzing the tension effect of bra band on breast displacement. To prevent human wear trial inconsistency, a soft torso manikin is designed to stimulate the walking speed of 2.30 km/h and 4.08 km/h. Breast displacement is assessed by VICON motion capture system. The 3D geometrical changes of underwire bra band tension and the corresponding control of breast movement were also analyzed by the 3D handheld scanner with Rapidform software. Results indicated that appropriate tension of bra band reduced breast displacement and provided moderate underwire angle. The findings give an indication for the designers and bra engineers in advancing bra design and development.
1656
93870
Two-Dimensional Material-Based Negative Differential Resistance Device with High Peak-To-Valley Current Ratio for Multi-Valued Logic Circuits
Abstract:
The multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits, which can handle more than two logic states, are one of the promising solutions to overcome the bit density limitations of conventional binary logic systems. Recently, tunneling devices such as Esaki diode and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) have been extensively explored to construct the MVL circuits. These tunneling devices present a negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon in which a current decreases as a voltage increases in a specific applied voltage region. Due to this non-monotonic current behavior, the tunneling devices have more than two threshold voltages, consequently enabling construction of MVL circuits. Recently, the emergence of two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) crystals has opened up the possibility to fabricate such tunneling devices easily. Owing to the defect-free surface of the 2D crystals, a very abrupt junction interface could be formed through a simple stacking process, which subsequently allowed the implementation of a high-performance tunneling device. Here, we report a vdW heterostructure based tunneling device with multiple threshold voltages, which was fabricated with black phosphorus (BP) and hafnium diselenide (HfSe₂). First, we exfoliated BP on the SiO₂ substrate and then transferred HfSe₂ on BP using dry transfer method. The BP and HfSe₂ form type-Ⅲ heterojunction so that the highly doped n+/p+ interface can be easily implemented without additional electrical or chemical doping process. Owing to high natural doping at the junction, record high peak to valley ratio (PVCR) of 16 was observed to the best our knowledge in 2D materials based NDR device. Furthermore, based on this, we first demonstrate the feasibility of the ternary latch by connecting two multi-threshold voltage devices in series.
1655
93884
Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide Photosynaptic Device with Alkylated Graphene Oxide for Optoelectronic Spike Processing
Abstract:
Recently, neuromorphic computing based on brain-inspired artificial neural networks (ANNs) has attracted huge amount of research interests due to the technological abilities to facilitate massively parallel, low-energy consuming, and event-driven computing. In particular, research on artificial synapse that imitate biological synapses responsible for human information processing and memory is in the spotlight. Here, we demonstrate a photosynaptic device, wherein a synaptic weight is governed by a mixed spike consisting of voltage and light spikes. Compared to the device operated only by the voltage spike, ∆G in the proposed photosynaptic device significantly increased from -2.32nS to 5.95nS with no degradation of nonlinearity (NL) (potentiation/depression values were changed from 4.24/8 to 5/8). Furthermore, the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) digit pattern recognition rates improved from 36% and 49% to 50% and 62% in ANNs consisting of the synaptic devices with 20 and 100 weight states, respectively. We expect that the photosynaptic device technology processed by optoelectronic spike will play an important role in implementing the neuromorphic computing systems in the future.
1654
91818
Gas-Phase Noncovalent Functionalization of Pristine Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 3D Metal(II) Phthalocyanines
Abstract:
Noncovalent nanohybrid materials combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with phthalocyanines (Pcs) is a subject of increasing research effort, with a particular emphasis on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts, efficient organic photovoltaic cells, lithium batteries, gas sensors, field effect transistors, among other possible applications. The possibility of using unsubstituted Pcs for CNT functionalization is very attractive due to their very moderate cost and easy commercial availability. However, unfortunately, the deposition of unsubstituted Pcs onto nanotube sidewalls through the traditional liquid-phase protocols turns to be very problematic due to extremely poor solubility of Pcs. On the other hand, unsubstituted free-base H₂Pc phthalocyanine ligand, as well as many of its transition metal complexes, exhibit very high thermal stability and considerable volatility under reduced pressure, which opens the possibility for their physical vapor deposition onto solid surfaces, including nanotube sidewalls. In the present work, we show the possibility of simple, fast and efficient noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a series of 3d metal(II) phthalocyanines Me(II)Pc, where Me= Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The functionalization can be performed in a temperature range of 400-500 °C under moderate vacuum and requires about 2-3 h only. The functionalized materials obtained were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, UV-visible and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggested that Me(II)Pc weight content is 30%, 17% and 35% for NiPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively (CoPc exhibited anomalous thermal decomposition behavior). The above values are consistent with those estimated from EDS spectra, namely, of 24-39%, 27-36% and 27-44% for CoPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively. A strong increase in intensity of D band in the Raman spectra of SWNT‒Me(II)Pc hybrids, as compared to that of pristine nanotubes, implies very strong interactions between Pc molecules and SWNT sidewalls. Very high absolute values of binding energies of 32.46-37.12 kcal/mol and the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO, respectively) distribution patterns, calculated with density functional theory by using Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation correlation functional in combination with the Grimme’s empirical dispersion correction (PBE-D) and the double numerical basis set (DNP), also suggested that the interactions between Me(II) phthalocyanines and nanotube sidewalls are very strong. The authors thank the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grant DGAPA-IN200516) and the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Natalia Alzate-Carvajal (CCADET of UNAM), Eréndira Martínez (IF of UNAM) and Iván Puente-Lee (Faculty of Chemistry of UNAM) for technical assistance with FTIR, TGA measurements, and TEM imaging, respectively.
1653
91820
Gas-Phase Nondestructive and Environmentally Friendly Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide Paper with Amines
Abstract:
Direct covalent functionalization of prefabricated free-standing graphene oxide paper (GOP) is considered as the only approach suitable for systematic tuning of thermal, mechanical and electronic characteristics of this important class of carbon nanomaterials. At the same time, the traditional liquid-phase functionalization protocols can compromise physical integrity of the paper-like material up to its total disintegration. To avoid such undesirable effects, we explored the possibility of employing an alternative, solvent-free strategy for facile and nondestructive functionalization of GOP with two representative aliphatic amines, 1-octadecylamine (ODA) and 1,12-diaminododecane (DAD), as well as with two aromatic amines, 1-aminopyrene (AP) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization was performed under moderate heating at 150-180 °C in vacuum. Under such conditions, it proceeds through both amidation and epoxy ring opening reactions. Comparative characterization of pristine and amine-functionalized GOP mats was carried out by using Fourier-transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM, respectively). Besides that, we compared the stability in water, wettability, electrical conductivity and elastic (Young's) modulus of GOP mats before and after amine functionalization. The highest content of organic species was obtained in the case of GOP-ODA, followed by GOP-DAD, GOP-AP and GOP-DAN samples. The covalent functionalization increased mechanical and thermal stability of GOP, as well as its electrical conductivity. The magnitude of each effect depends on the particular chemical structure of amine employed, which allows for tuning a given GOP property. Morphological characterization by using SEM showed that, compared to pristine graphene oxide paper, amine-modified GOP mats become relatively ordered layered assemblies, in which individual GO sheets are organized in a near-parallel pattern. Financial support from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grants DGAPA-IN101118 and IN200516) and from the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) is greatly appreciated. The authors also thank David A. Domínguez (CNyN of UNAM) for XPS measurements and Dr. Edgar Alvarez-Zauco (Faculty of Science of UNAM) for the opportunity to use TGA equipment.
1652
93489
Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering
Abstract:
The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.
1651
93687
Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nano-Platelets Coated Carbon-Fiber Composites
Abstract:
Carbon-fiber epoxy composites show extremely high modulus and strength in the uniaxial direction. However, they are prone to fail under low load in transverse direction due to the weak nature of the interface between the carbon-fiber and epoxy. In the current study, we have coated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) on the carbon-fibers in an attempt to strengthen the interface/interphase between the fiber and the matrix. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) has been used to make the laminates of eight cross-woven fabrics. Tensile, flexural and fracture toughness tests have been performed on pristine carbon-fiber composite (P-CF), GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (GNP-CF) and functionalized-GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (F-GNP-CF). The tensile strength and flexural strength values are pretty similar for P-CF and GNP-CF. The micro-structural examination of the GNP coated carbon-fibers, as well as the fracture surfaces, have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs reveal the deposition of GNPs onto the carbon fibers in transverse and longitudinal direction. Fracture surfaces show the debonding and pull outs of the carbon fibers in P-CF and GNP-CF samples.
1650
95968
Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels
Abstract:
The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5wt% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150°C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm³ was obtained after sintering, and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950°C temperature and then over-tempered at 705°C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735°C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300°C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.
1649
95083
Mechanical and Optical Properties of Doped Aluminum Nitride Thin Films
Abstract:
Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a potential candidate for semiconductor industry due to its wide band gap (6.2 eV), high thermal conductivity and low thermal coefficient of expansion. A-plane oriented AlN film finds an important role in deep UV-LED with higher isotropic light extraction efficiency. Also, Cr-doped AlN films exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor property with high Curie temperature (300 K), and thus compatible with modern day microelectronics. In this work, highly a-axis oriented wurtzite AlN and Al1-xMxN (M = Cr, Ti) films have synthesized by reactive co-sputtering technique at different concentration. Crystal structure of these films is studied by Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Identification of binding energy and concentration (x) in these films is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Local crystal structure around the Cr and Ti atom of these films are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is found that Cr and Ti replace the Al atom in AlN lattice and the bond lengths in first and second coordination sphere with N and Al, respectively, decrease concerning doping concentration due to strong p-d hybridization. The nano-indentation hardness of Cr and Ti-doped AlN films seems to increase from 17.5 GPa (AlN) to around 23 and 27.5 GPa, respectively. An-isotropic optical properties of these films are studied by the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry technique. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of these films are enhanced in normal dispersion region as compared to the parent AlN film. The optical band gap energies also seem to vary between deep UV to UV regions with the addition of Cr, thus by bringing out the usefulness of these films in the area of optoelectronic device applications.
1648
96144
Ti-Mo-N Nano-Grains Embedded into Thin MoSₓ-Based Amorphous Matrix: A Novel Structure for Superhardness and Ultra-Low Wear
Abstract:
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) represents a highly sought lubricant for reducing friction based on intrinsic layered structure, but for this reason, practical applications have been greatly restricted due to the fact that its low hardness would cause severe wear. Here, a novel TiMoN/MoSₓ composite coatings with TiMoN solid solution grains embedded into MoSₓ-based amorphous matrix has been successfully designed and synthesized, through magnetron co-sputtering technology. Desirably, in virtue of such special microstructure, superhardness and excellent toughness can be well achieved, along with an ultra-low wear rate at ~2×10⁻¹¹ mm³/Nm in the air environment, simultaneously, low friction at ~0.1 is maintained. It should be noted that this wear level is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of pure TiN coating, and is, as we know, the lowest wear rate in dry sliding. Investigations of tribofilm reveal that it is amorphous MoS₂ in nature, and its formation arises directly from the MoSₓ amorphous matrix. Which contributes to effective lubrication behavior, coupled with excellent mechanical performances of such composite coating, exceptionally low wear can be guaranteed. The findings in this work suggest that the special composite structure makes it possible for the synthesis of super-hard and super-durable lubricative coating, offering guidance to synthesize ultrahigh performance protective coating for industrial application.
1647
93376
Comparison of Cu Nanoparticle Formation and Properties with and without Surrounding Dielectric
Abstract:
When grown only to nanometric sizes, metallic particles (e.g. Ag, Au and Cu) exhibit specific optical properties caused by the presence of plasmon band. The plasmon band represents collective oscillation of the conduction electrons, and causes a narrow band absorption of light in the visible range. When the nanoparticles are embedded in a dielectric, they also cause modifications of dielectrics optical properties. This can be fine-tuned by tuning the particle size. We investigated Cu nanoparticle growth with and without surrounding dielectric (SiO2 capping layer). The morphology and crystallinity were investigated by GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively. Samples were produced by high vacuum thermal evaporation of Cu onto monocrystalline silicon substrate held at room temperature, 100°C or 180°C. One series was in situ capped by 10nm SiO2 layer. Additionally, samples were annealed at different temperatures up to 550°C, also in high vacuum. The room temperature deposited samples annealed at lower temperatures exhibit continuous film structure: strong oscillations in the GISAXS intensity are present especially in the capped samples. At higher temperatures enhanced surface dewetting and Cu nanoparticles (nanoislands) formation partially destroy the flatness of the interface. Therefore the particle type of scattering is enhanced, while the film fringes are depleted. However, capping layer hinders particle formation, and continuous film structure is preserved up to higher annealing temperatures (visible as strong and persistent fringes in GISAXS), compared to the non- capped samples. According to GISAXS, lateral particle sizes are reduced at higher temperatures, while particle height is increasing. This is ascribed to close packing of the formed particles at lower temperatures, and GISAXS deduced sizes are partially the result of the particle agglomerate dimensions. Lateral maxima in GISAXS are an indication of good positional correlation, and the particle to particle distance is increased as the particles grow with temperature elevation. This coordination is much stronger in the capped and lower temperature deposited samples. The dewetting is much more vigorous in the non-capped sample, and since nanoparticles are formed in a range of sizes, correlation is receding both with deposition and annealing temperature. Surface topology was checked by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Capped sample's surfaces were smoother and lateral size of the surface features were larger compared to the non-capped samples. Altogether, AFM results suggest somewhat larger particles and wider size distribution, and this can be attributed to the difference in probe size. Finally, the plasmonic effect was monitored by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and relative weak plasmonic effect could be explained by uncomplete dewetting or partial interconnection of the formed particles.
1646
93233
Biocompatibility and Electrochemical Assessment of Biomedical Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering
Abstract:
In this study, biocompatibility evaluation of nanostructured near beta Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with non-toxic elements produced utilizing Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of very fine microsized powders attained through mechanical alloying was performed. The results were compared with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy. Cell proliferation test was performed using murine osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 at two cell densities; 400 and 4000 cells/mL for 7 days incubation. Pure titanium took a lead under both conditions suggesting that the presence of other oxide layers influence cell proliferation. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between Ti64 and Ti2448. Potentiodynamic measurement in Hanks, 0.9% NaCl and cell culture medium showed no distinct difference on the anodic polarization curves of the three alloys, indicating that the same anodic reaction occurred on their surface but with different rates. However, Ti2448 showed better corrosion resistance in cell culture medium with a slightly lower corrosion rate of 2.96 nA/cm2 compared to 4.86 nA/cm2 and 5.62 nA/cm2 of Ti and Ti64 respectively. Ti2448 adsorbed less protein as compared to Ti and Ti64 though no notable difference in surface wettability was observed.
1645
90848
Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor
Abstract:
The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.
1644
95922
Standardization for Crystalline Quality of Silicon Carbide Single Crystal Using High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction
Abstract:
High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), the most typical method for measuring the crystalline quality of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal thin films, can easily create a great error margin as the result value is analyzed to be very different depending on the measuring process and conditions of the user or the pre-treatment of sample, etc. Therefore, a standard on universal measurement methods and conditions is necessary. The purpose of this work is to provide information to minimize the measuring error on the crystalline quality evaluation of a single crystal and to propose a standard for the procedure and detail conditions from the alignment stage to the omega scan stage. In case of cutting as specific angle (off-cut angle) while cutting the single crystal, the cutting angle must be added to or subtracted from the 2 theta and omega values. In case the crystal plane of a grown SiC single crystal is symmetric (or asymmetric) reflection, the optimum chi value shall be calculated from the initial omega position using the two methods. We demonstrated whether the same full width at half maximum (FWHM) values are obtained using both methods in symmetric and asymmetric reflection. This work provides the effective way to measure the rocking curve for SiC single crystal under various conditions.
1643
83402
Post Coronary Artery Stenting Reflighting: Need for Change in Policy with Changing Antiplatelet Therapy
Abstract:
Background: Coronary artery Disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity, mortality and reason for unfitness amongst aircrew. Coronary angioplasty and stenting are the standard of care for CAD. Antiplatelet drugs like Aspirin and Clopidogrel(Dual Antiplatelet therapy) are routinely prescribed post-stenting which are permitted for flying. However, in the recent past, Ticagrelor is being used in place of Clopidogrel as per ACC AHA and ESC guidelines. However Ticagrelor is not permitted for flying. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old pilot suffered Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction. Angiography showed blockages in Left Anterior Descending Artery(LAD) and Right coronary artery (RCA). He underwent primary angioplasty and stenting LAD and subsequent stenting to RCA. Recovery was uneventful. One year later he was asymptomatic with normal Left ventricular function and no reversible perfusion defect on stress MPI. He had patent stents and coronaries on check angiogram. However, he was not allowed to fly since he was on Ticagrelor. He had to be switched over to Clopidogrel from Ticagrelor one year after stenting to permit him for flying. Similarly, switching had to be done in a 45-year-old pilot. Ticagrelor has been proven to be more effective than clopidogrel and as safe as Clopidogrel in preventing stent thrombosis. If Clopidogrel is being permitted, there is no need to restrict Ticagrelor. Hence "Policy" needs to be changed. Conclusions: Dual Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care post coronary stenting which has been proved safe and effective. Policy needs to be changed to permit flying with Ticagrelor which is more effective than Clopidogrel and equally safe.
1642
94604
Organic Circularly Polarized Luminescence Materials Based on Planar Chirality
Abstract:
[2.2]Paracyclophane compounds, in which two benzene rings are closely stacked, have been extensively studied. We have been interested in their unique planar chirality, a feature that is derived from the suppressed rotary motion of the two fixed benzene rings. This planar chirality can be observed in [2.2]paracyclophanes with one or more substituents depending on the substituted position. Recently, we developed optical resolution methods of 4,12-disubstituted and 4,7,12,15-tetrasubstituted [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives. In addition, we prepared chiral conjugated compounds, oligomers, polymers, and dendrimers with optically active second-ordered structures, such as V-, N-, M-, X-, propeller-shaped, and double helical structure. It was also reported that the obtained conjugated compounds exhibited excellent chiroptical properties including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with large CPL dissymmetry factors (glum). To the best of the author’s knowledge, they are first examples that planar chiral molecules emit CPL. In this paper, optical resolutions of planar chiral di- and tetrasubstituted [2.2]paracyclophanes will be briefly reported. Synthesis of the optically active macromolecules with chiral second-ordered structures based on the obtained enantiopure [2.2]paracyclophanes and their chiroptical properties such as CPL profiles will be discussed.
1641
94464
Improvement of Microstructure, Wear and Mechanical Properties of Modified G38NiCrMo8-4-4 Steel Used in Mining Industry
Abstract:
G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel is widely used in mining industries, machine parts, gears due to its high strength and toughness properties. In this study, microstructure, wear and mechanical properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel modified with boron used in the mining industry were investigated. For this purpose, cast materials were alloyed by melting in an induction furnace to include boron with the rates of 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and 50 ppm (wt.) and were formed in the dimensions of 150x200x150 mm by casting into the sand mould. Homogenization heat treatment was applied to the specimens at 1150˚C for 7 hours. Then all specimens were austenitized at 930˚C for 1 hour, quenched in the polymer solution and tempered at 650˚C for 1 hour. Microstructures of the specimens were investigated by using light microscope and SEM to determine the effect of boron and heat treatment conditions. Changes in microstructure properties and material hardness were obtained due to increasing boron content and heat treatment conditions after microstructure investigations and hardness tests. Wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Charpy V notch impact test was performed to determine the toughness properties of the specimens. Fracture and worn surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that boron element has a positive effect on the hardness and wear properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel.
1640
85749
Optimization of Sintering Process with Deteriorating Quality of Iron Ore Fines
Abstract:
Blast Furnace performance mainly depends on the quality of sinter as a major portion of iron-bearing material occupies by it hence its quality w.r.t. Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) are the key performance indicators of sinter plant. Now it became very tough to maintain the desired quality with the increasing alumina (Al₂O₃) content in iron fines and study is focused on it. Alumina is a refractory material and required more heat input to fuse thereby affecting the desired sintering temperature, i.e. 1300°C. It goes in between the grain boundaries of the bond and makes it weaker. Sinter strength decreases with increasing alumina content, and weak sinter generates more fines thereby reduces the net sinter production as well as plant productivity. Presence of impurities beyond the acceptable norm: such as LOI, Al₂O₃, MnO, TiO₂, K₂O, Na₂O, Hydrates (Goethite & Limonite), SiO₂, phosphorous and zinc, has led to greater challenges in the thrust areas such as productivity, quality and cost. The ultimate aim of this study is maintaining the sinter strength even with high Al₂O without hampering the plant productivity. This study includes mineralogy test of iron fines to find out the fraction of different phases present in the ore and phase analysis of product sinter to know the distribution of different phases. Corrections were done focusing majorly on varying Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio, basicity: B2 (CaO/SiO₂), B3 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂) and B4 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂+Al₂O₃). The concept of Alumina / Silica ratio, B3 & B4 found to be useful. We used to vary MgO, Al₂O₃/SiO₂, B2, B3 and B4 to get the desired sinter strength even at high alumina (4.2 - 4.5%) in sinter. The study concludes with the establishment of B4, and Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio in between 1.53-1.60 and 0.63- 0.70 respectively and have achieved tumbler index (Drum Index) 76 plus with the plant productivity of 1.58-1.6 t/m2/hr. at JSPL, Raigarh. Study shows that despite of high alumina in sinter, its physical quality can be controlled by maintaining the above-mentioned parameters.
1639
94885
Multi-Particle Finite Element Modelling Simulation Based on Cohesive Zone Method of Cold Compaction Behavior of Laminar Al and NaCl Composite Powders
Abstract:
With the advantage of low volume density, high specific surface area, light weight and good permeability, porous aluminum material has the potential to be used in automotive, railway, chemistry and construction industries, etc. A layered powder sintering and dissolution method were developed to fabricate the porous surface Al structure with high efficiency. However, the densification mechanism during the cold compaction of laminar composite powders is still unclear. In this study, multi particle finite element modelling (MPFEM) based on the cohesive zone method (CZM) is used to simulate the cold compaction behavior of laminar Al and NaCl composite powders. To obtain its densification mechanism, the macro and micro properties of final compacts are characterized and analyzed. The robustness and accuracy of the numerical model is firstly verified by experimental results and data fitting. The results indicate that the CZM-based multi particle FEM is an effective way to simulate the compaction of the laminar powders and the fracture process of the NaCl powders. In the compaction of the laminar powders, the void is mainly filled by the particle rearrangement, plastic deformation of Al powders and brittle fracture of NaCl powders. Large stress is mainly concentrated within the NaCl powers and the contact force network is formed. The Al powder near the NaCl powder or the mold has larger stress distribution on its contact surface. Therefore, the densification process of cold compaction of laminar Al and NaCl composite powders is successfully analyzed by the CZM-based multi particle FEM.
1638
89602
Effect of Different Thermomechanical Cycles on Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel
Abstract:
Microstructure resulting from the forging process is studied as a function of variables such as temperature, deformation, austenite grain size and cooling rate. The purpose of this work is to study the thermomechanical behavior of DIN 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140) steel maintained at the temperatures of 900°, 1000°, 1100° and 1200°C for the austenization times of 22, 66 and 200 minutes each and subsequently forged. These samples were quenched in water in order to study the austenite grain and to investigate the microstructure instead of quenching the annealed samples after forging they were cooled down naturally in the air. The morphologies and properties of the materials such as hardness; prepared by these two different routes have been compared. In addition to the forging experiments, the numerical simulation using the finite element model (FEM), microhardness profiles and metallography images have been presented. Forging force vs position curves has been compared with metallographic results for each annealing condition. The microstructural phenomena resulting from the hot conformation proved that longer austenization time and higher temperature decrease the forging force in the curves. The complete recrystallization phenomenon (static, dynamic and meta dynamic) was observed at the highest temperature and longest time i.e., the samples austenized for 200 minutes at 1200ºC. However, higher hardness of the quenched samples was obtained when the temperature was 900ºC for 66 minutes. The phases observed in naturally cooled samples were exclusively ferrite and perlite, but the continuous cooling diagram indicates the presence of austenite and bainite. The morphology of the phases of naturally cooled samples has shown that the phase arrangement and the previous austenitic grain size are the reasons to high hardness in obtained samples when temperature were 900ºC and 1100ºC austenization times of 22 and 66 minutes, respectively.
1637
88085
Spectroscopic Studies of Dy³⁺ Ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite Glasses for Optoelectronic Devices
Authors:
Abstract:
A Series of Alkali-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy³⁺ ions have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and photoluminescence decay to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices such as lasers and white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Raman spectrum recorded for an undoped glass is used to measure the phonon energy of the host glass and various functional groups present in the host glass (AEBT). The intensities of the electronic transitions and the ligand environment around the Dy³⁺ ions were studied by applying Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory to the recorded absorption spectra of the glasses. The evaluated J-O parameters are subsequently used to measure various radiative parameters such as transition probability (AR), radiative branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) for the prominent fluorescent levels of Dy³⁺ ions in the as-prepared glasses. The luminescence spectra recorded at 387 nm excitation show three emission transitions (⁴F9/2→⁶H15/2 (blue), ⁴F9/2→⁶H13/2 (yellow) and ⁴F9/2 → ⁶H11/2 (red)) of which the yellow transition observed at 575 nm is found to be highly intense. The experimental branching ratio (βexp) and stimulated emission crosssection (σse) were measured from luminescence spectra. The experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral profiles are combined with radiative lifetimes to measure quantum efficiencies of the as-prepared glasses. The yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates are found to vary with Dy³⁺ ion concentrations. The aforementioned results reveal that these glasses are aptly suitable for w-LEDs and laser devices.
1636
95401
Bead Shape Based Methodology to Build Thick Wall Parts Using Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing
Abstract:
Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) makes use of welding devices and a robot or a computer numerical control system to manufacture metallic parts layer by layer. It enables large near net shape parts to be obtained with a high deposition rate (100 to 1250 cm³/h). There are endless manufacturing strategies with this technique, which lead to a large range of mechanical properties that are usually determined using specimens extracted from single bead 'walls'. Building parts with a single bead per layer is fairly straightforward since only the increment in the building direction (z) has to be managed. For thick wall parts, the distance between two adjacent beads (distance between beads center call 'd') should be determined according to the deposit parameters. A good ajustement of 'd' leads to flat deposits, but also defects, mostly lack of fusion and inclusions. Therefore, it is important to take into account the weld geometry in order to build wire-arc additive manufacturing workpieces without internal defects. This work focuses on a methodology to define optimal parameters to build thick walls with a desirable geometry, few defects, and the best mechanical properties. The materials used are an ER100 high strength steel and a 316L stainless steel. Deposits are made with a CMT (Cold Metal Transfer) gas metal arc welding process and a Kuka robot. Different sets of experimental parameters (wire feed rate and deposit speed) are evaluated, first on a single bead and then on a 100 mm long wall (4 beads width, 20 layers). Once no defect was found on three cross section macrographs and the bead geometry at the top of the wall was suitable, a 380 mm long, 4 beads width and 180 mm height wall was built. Specimens for tensile tests were taken from different positions and directions in the biggest wall. For each deposit parameters, the bead stack was analyzed and comparison criteria were given regarding deposit shape and penetration. A correlation was made between this analysis and the occurrence of defects to define the optimal bead geometry. Thanks to that, only a single bead is required to determine if deposit parameters are suitable. For optimized parameters, the geometric tolerances and the mechanical properties were compared to define guidelines to help for conception and manufacturing parts. The work showed that increasing wire feed rate from 5 m/min to 10 m/min reduced the proportion of inclusions with ER100 steel. The occurrence of these defects seems to be linked to the extent of penetration. Mechanisms are not yet fully understood and further investigations are underway. Regarding 316L steel, when a layer is manufactured in one step using a back and forth trajectory, the bead shape becomes unacceptable. To avoid this, it is recommended to use a series of individual beads to manufacture a layer.
1635
94166
Symmetry-Protected Dirac Semi-Metallic Phases in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
Abstract:
Transition metal dichalcogenides have experienced a resurgence of interest in the past few years owing to their rich properties, ranging from metals and superconductors to strongly spin-orbit-coupled semiconductors and charge-density-wave systems. In all these cases, the transition metal d-electrons mainly determine the ground state properties. This presentation focuses on the chalcogen-derived states. Combining density-functional theory calculations with spin- and angle-resolved photoemission, it is shown that these states generically host a coexistence of type I and type II three-dimensional bulk Dirac fermions as well as ladders of topological surface states and surface resonances. It will be discussed how these naturally arise within a single p-orbital manifold as a general consequence of a trigonal crystal field, and as such can be expected across many compounds. Our finding opens a new route to design topological materials with advanced functionalities.
1634
93896
The Effectschemical Treatment on Alkyl Phenol Modified Sisal Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite
Abstract:
The aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment of sisal fibre on the mechanical and viscoelastic properties of bio based epoxy/fibre composites. The composite samples were manufactured through a vacuum infusion process by adding alkyl phenols from cashew nutshell liquid (CSNL). Changes in the chemical structure of the sisal fibres resulting from the treatments were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Both alkali and silane treatments produced enhancements in the mechanical properties of sisal fibre bundles. The alkali treatment, when combined with the silane treatment, the mechanical properties of epoxy composites notably improved (13%) in comparison to untreated sisal fibre reinforced composites.This was attributed to an enhanced fibre/matrix interface. The incorporation of CSNL into the sisal/epoxy composite enhanced the fibre-matrix interfacial properties because of the addition of -OH groups to the epoxy matrix. The incorporation of sisal fibre imparts stiffness to the epoxy matrix.
1633
92372
Evaluation of Microstructure, Mechanical and Abrasive Wear Response of in situ TiC Particles Reinforced Zinc Aluminum Matrix Alloy Composites
Abstract:
The present investigation deals with the microstructures, mechanical and detailed wear characteristics of in situ TiC particles reinforced zinc aluminum-based metal matrix composites. The composites have been synthesized by liquid metallurgy route using vortex technique. The composite was found to be harder than the matrix alloy due to high hardness of the dispersoid particles therein. The former was also lower in ultimate tensile strength and ductility as compared to the matrix alloy. This could be explained to be due to the use of coarser size dispersoid and larger interparticle spacing. Reasonably uniform distribution of the dispersoid phase in the alloy matrix and good interfacial bonding between the dispersoid and matrix was observed. The composite exhibited predominantly brittle mode of fracture with microcracking in the dispersoid phase indicating effective easy transfer of load from matrix to the dispersoid particles. To study the wear behavior of the samples three different types of tests were performed namely: (i) sliding wear tests using a pin on disc machine under dry condition, (ii) high stress (two-body) abrasive wear tests using different combinations of abrasive media and specimen surfaces under the conditions of varying abrasive size, traversal distance and load, and (iii) low-stress (three-body) abrasion tests using a rubber wheel abrasion tester at various loads and traversal distances using different abrasive media. In sliding wear test, significantly lower wear rates were observed in the case of base alloy over that of the composites. This has been attributed to the poor room temperature strength as a result of increased microcracking tendency of the composite over the matrix alloy. Wear surfaces of the composite revealed the presence of fragmented dispersoid particles and microcracking whereas the wear surface of matrix alloy was observed to be smooth with shallow grooves. During high-stress abrasion, the presence of the reinforcement offered increased resistance to the destructive action of the abrasive particles. Microcracking tendency was also enhanced because of the reinforcement in the matrix. The negative effect of the microcracking tendency was predominant by the abrasion resistance of the dispersoid. As a result, the composite attained improved wear resistance than the matrix alloy. The wear rate increased with load and abrasive size due to a larger depth of cut made by the abrasive medium. The wear surfaces revealed fine grooves, and damaged reinforcement particles while subsurface regions revealed limited plastic deformation and microcracking and fracturing of the dispersoid phase. During low-stress abrasion, the composite experienced significantly less wear rate than the matrix alloy irrespective of the test conditions. This could be explained to be due to wear resistance offered by the hard dispersoid phase thereby protecting the softer matrix against the destructive action of the abrasive medium. Abraded surfaces of the composite showed protrusion of dispersoid phase. The subsurface regions of the composites exhibited decohesion of the dispersoid phase along with its microcracking and limited plastic deformation in the vicinity of the abraded surfaces.
1632
85472
Influence of Bacterial Biofilm on the Corrosive Processes in Electronic Equipment
Abstract:
Humidity is known to degrade Navy ship electronic equipment, especially in hot moist environments. If left untreated, it can cause significant and permanent damage. Even rigorous inspection and frequent clean-up would not prevent further equipment contamination and degradation because of the constant presence of favorable growth conditions for many microorganisms. Generally, relative humidity levels of less than 60% will inhibit corrosion in electronic equipment, but because NAVY electronics often operate in hot and humid environments, prevention via dehumidification is not always possible. Currently, there is no defined research that fully describes key mechanisms which cause electronics and its coating degradation. The corrosive action of most bacteria is mainly developed through (i) mycelium adherence to the metal plates, (ii) facilitation the formation of pitting areas, (iii) production of organic acids such as citric, iso-citric, cis-aconitic, alpha-ketoglutaric, which are corrosive to electronic equipment and its components. Our approach studies corrosive action in electronic equipment: circuit-board, wires and connections that are exposed in the humid environment that gets worse during condensation. In our new approach the technical task is built on work with the bacterial communities in public areas, bacterial genetics, bioinformatics, biostatistics and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of corroded circuit boards. Based on these methods, we collect and examine environmental samples from biofilms of the corroded and non-corroded sites, where bacterial contamination of electronic equipment, such as machine racks and shore boats, is an ongoing concern. Sample collection and sample analysis is focused on addressing the key questions identified above through the following tasks: laboratory sample processing and evaluation under scanning electron microscopy, initial sequencing and data evaluation; bioinformatics and data analysis. Preliminary results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have revealed that metal particulates and alloys in corroded samples consists mostly of Tin ( < 40%), Silicon ( < 4%), Sulfur ( < 1%), Aluminum ( < 2%), Magnesium ( < 2%), Copper ( < 1%), Bromine ( < 2%), Barium (
1631
87027
Designing Self-Healing Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces for Corrosion Protection
Abstract:
Corrosion is a widespread problem in several industries and developing surfaces that resist corrosion has been an area of interest since the last several decades. Superhydrophobic surfaces that combine hydrophobic coatings along with surface texture have been shown to improve corrosion resistance by creating voids filled with air that minimize the contact area between the corrosive liquid and the solid surface. However, these air voids can incorporate corrosive liquids over time, and any mechanical faults such as cracks can compromise the coating and provide pathways for corrosion. As such, there is a need for self-healing corrosion-resistance surfaces. In this work, the anti-corrosion properties of textured surfaces impregnated with a lubricant have been systematically studied. Since corrosion resistance depends on the area and physico-chemical properties of the material exposed to the corrosive medium, lubricant-impregnated surfaces (LIS) have been designed based on the surface tension, viscosity and chemistry of the lubricant and its spreading coefficient on the solid. All corrosion experiments were performed in a standard three-electrode cell using iron, which readily corrodes in a 3.5% sodium chloride solution. In order to obtain textured iron surfaces, thin films (~500 nm) of iron were sputter-coated on silicon wafers textured using photolithography, and subsequently impregnated with lubricants. Results show that the corrosion rate on LIS is greatly reduced, and offers an over hundred-fold improvement in corrosion protection. Furthermore, it is found that the spreading characteristics of the lubricant are significant in ensuring corrosion protection: a spreading lubricant (e.g., Krytox 1506) that covers both inside the texture, as well as the top of the texture, provides a two-fold improvement in corrosion protection as compared to a non-spreading lubricant (e.g., Silicone oil) that does not cover texture tops. To enhance corrosion protection of surfaces coated with a non-spreading lubricant, pyramid-shaped textures have been developed that minimize exposure to the corrosive solution, and a consequent twenty-fold increased in corrosion protection is observed. An increase in viscosity of the lubricant scales with greater corrosion protection. Finally, an equivalent cell-circuit model is developed for the lubricant-impregnated systems using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces find attractive applications in harsh corrosive environments, especially where the ability to self-heal is advantageous.
1630
93851
Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Manufactured by Severe Plastic Deformation
Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered as an ideal reinforcement to improve the mechanical performance of monolithic materials. However, the CNT/metal nanocomposites have shown lower strength than expected. In this study, the CNT reinforced AL matrix nanocomposites were fabricated by ECAP. ECAP (equal channel angular pressing), the most promising method in SPD (severe plastic deformation), was used for the CNT-Al powder consolidation. The powder ECAP processing with one, two, four and eight route C passes was conducted at room temperature. The effect of ECAP on consolidation behavior of powder, microstructure and mechanical properties of subsequent compacts in comparison to conventional direct extrusion (DE) is presented. It was found by mechanical testing of the consolidated 2 vol.% CNT-Al that high mechanical strength could be achieved effectively as a result of the Al matrix strengthening and improved particle bonding during ECAP. The ECAP process was performed on the both monolithic and composite with distributed CNT samples for 8 passes, at the end the composite containing only vol. % exhibits 20% increase in hardness relative to the Al samples.