International Science Index

International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

Damage Identification in Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Modal Parameters and Their Formulation
The identification of damage in reinforced concrete structures subjected to incremental cracking performance exploiting vibration data is recognized as a challenging topic in the published and heavily cited literature. Therefore, this paper attempts to shine light on the extent of dynamic methods when applied to reinforced concrete beams simulated with various scenarios of defects. For this purpose, three different reinforced concrete beams are tested through the course of the study. The three beams are loaded statically to failure in incremental successive load cycles and later rehabilitated. After each static load stage, the beams are tested under free-free support condition using experimental modal analysis. The beams were all of the same length and cross-sectional area (2.0x0.14x0.09)m, but they were different in concrete compressive strength and the type of damage presented. The experimental modal parameters as damage identification parameters were showed computationally expensive, time consuming and require substantial inputs and considerable expertise. Nonetheless, they were proved plausible for the condition monitoring of the current case study as well as structural changes in the course of progressive loads. It was accentuated that a satisfactory localization and quantification for structural changes (Level 2 and Level 3 of damage identification problem) can only be achieved reasonably through considering frequencies and mode shapes of a system in a proper analytical model. A convenient post analysis process for various datasets of vibration measurements for the three beams is conducted in order to extract, check and correlate the basic modal parameters; namely, natural frequency, modal damping and mode shapes. The results of the extracted modal parameters and their combination are utilized and discussed in this research as quantification parameters.
Mathematical Model to Simulate Liquid Metal and Slag Accumulation, Drainage and Heat Transfer in Blast Furnace Hearth
It is utmost important for a blast furnace operator to understand the mechanisms governing the liquid flow, accumulation, drainage and heat transfer between various phases in blast furnace hearth for a stable and efficient blast furnace operation. Abnormal drainage behavior may lead to high liquid build up in the hearth. Operational problems such as pressurization, low wind intake, and lower material descent rates, normally be encountered if the liquid levels in the hearth exceed a critical limit when Hearth coke and Deadman start to float. Similarly, hot metal temperature is an important parameter to be controlled in the BF operation; it should be kept at an optimal level to obtain desired product quality and a stable BF performance. It is not possible to carry out any direct measurement of above due to the hostile conditions in the hearth with chemically aggressive hot liquids. The objective here is to develop a mathematical model to simulate the variation in hot metal / slag accumulation and temperature during the tapping of the blast furnace based on the computed drainage rate, production rate, mass balance, heat transfer between metal and slag, metal and solids, slag and solids as well as among the various zones of metal and slag itself. For modeling purpose, the BF hearth is considered as a pressurized vessel, filled with solid coke particles. Liquids trickle down in hearth from top and accumulate in voids between the coke particles which are assumed thermally saturated. A set of generic mass balance equations gives the amount of metal and slag intake in hearth. A small drainage (tap hole) is situated at the bottom of the hearth and flow rate of liquids from tap hole is computed taking in account the amount of both the phases accumulated their level in hearth, pressure from gases in the furnace and erosion behaviors of tap hole itself. Heat transfer equations provide the exchange of heat between various layers of liquid metal and slag, and heat loss to cooling system through refractories. Based on all that information a dynamic simulation is carried out which provides real time information of liquids accumulation in hearth before and during tapping, drainage rate and its variation, predicts critical event timings during tapping and expected tapping temperature of metal and slag on preset time intervals. The model is in use at JSPL, India BF-II and its output is regularly cross-checked with actual tapping data, which are in good agreement.
Al metal matrix composites reinforced with AlN have been fabricated by Tube furnace sintering at various temperatures. A uniform nickel layer on Al(%1AlN)%19Ni, Al(%2AlN)%18Ni, Al(%3AlN)%17Ni, Al(%4AlN)%16Ni, Al(%5AlN)%15Ni powders were deposited prior to sintering using electroless plating technique, allowing closer surface contact than can be achieved using conventional methods such as mechanical alloying. A composite consisting of quaternary additions, a ceramic phase, AlN, within a matrix of Al, AlN,Ni has been prepared at the temperature range 550°C-600°C-650°C under Ar shroud. X-Ray diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) density and hardness measurements were employed to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for 650°C suggest that the best properties as comprehension strength σmax and hardness 681.51(HV) were obtained at 650°C and the tube furnace sintering of electroless Al plated (%5AlN)%15Ni powders is a promising technique to produce ceramic reinforced Al (%5AlN)%15Ni composites.
Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate
In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.
Investigating the Influence of Solidification Rate on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Mg Based Multicomponent Eutectic Alloys Containing High Mg Alloys
The directional solidification process is generally used for homogeneous compound production, single crystal growth, and refining (zone refining), etc. processes. The most important two parameters that control eutectic structures are temperature gradient and grain growth rate which are called as solidification parameters The solidification behavior and microstructure characteristics is an interesting topic due to their effects on the properties and performance of the alloys containing eutectic compositions. The solidification behavior of multicomponent and multiphase systems is an important parameter for determining various properties of these materials. The researches have been conducted mostly on the solidification of pure materials or alloys containing two phases. However, there are very few studies on the literature about multiphase reactions and microstructure formation of multicomponent alloys during solidification. Because of this situation, it is important to study the microstructure formation and the thermodynamical, thermophysical and microstructural properties of these alloys. The production process is difficult due to easy oxidation of magnesium and therefore, there is not a comprehensive study concerning alloys containing high Mg (> 30 wt.% Mg). With the increasing amount of Mg inside Al alloys, the specific weight decreases, and the strength shows a slight increase, while due to formation of β-Al8Mg5 phase, ductility lowers. For this reason, production, examination and development of high Mg containing alloys will initiate the production of new advanced engineering materials. The original value of this research can be described as obtaining high Mg containing (> 30% Mg) Al based multicomponent alloys by melting under vacuum; controlled directional solidification with various growth rates at a constant temperature gradient; and establishing relationship between solidification rate and microstructural, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Therefore, within the scope of this research, some > 30% Mg containing ternary or quaternary Al alloy compositions were determined, and it was planned to investigate the effects of directional solidification rate on the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these alloys. Within the scope of the research, the influence of the growth rate on microstructure parameters, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of directionally solidified high Mg containing Al-32,2Mg-0,37Si; Al-30Mg-12Zn; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni; Al-32,2Mg-0,37Fe; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni-0,4Si; Al-33,3Mg-0,35Si-0,11Fe (wt.%) alloys with wide range of growth rate (50-2500 µm/s) and fixed temperature gradient, will be investigated. The work can be planned as; (a) directional solidification of Al-Mg based Al-Mg-Si, Al-Mg-Zn, Al-Mg-Ni, Al-Mg-Fe, Al-Mg-Ni-Si, Al-Mg-Si-Fe within wide range of growth rates (50-2500 µm/s) at a constant temperature gradient by Bridgman type solidification system, (b) analysis of microstructure parameters of directionally solidified alloys by using an optical light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), (c) measurement of microhardness and tensile strength of directionally solidified alloys, (d) measurement of electrical conductivity by four point probe technique at room temperature (e) measurement of thermal conductivity by linear heat flow method at room temperature.
Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K₀.₄₈₅Na₀.₅Li₀.₀₁₅)(Nb₀.₉₈V₀.₀₂)O₃ Lead-Free Piezoceramic
Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior PZT system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V- modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-temperature remnant polarization (Pr) are found to be higher in Mn4+ doped ceramic. The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.
Towards Lifetime Predictive Dielectric Charging Model for Metal-Insulator-Metal Structures
The reliability of electronic components such as Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) structures, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors or Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is affected by dielectric layer aging. Moreover when component sizes are reduced insulator films are subject to high applied electric fields ( ) and charge carriers can be injected into dielectric layers. These charges modify component properties and can lead to system failure. In this paper dielectric charging process in capacitive structures under bias voltage is investigated. A self-consistent dielectric charging model is presented including free and trapped carrier transport. A better dielectric charging understanding enables charge accumulation control in insulator films by defect or material engineering for component lifetime improvement. Simulation results of the charging process are in good agreement with experimental ones. Adding the discharging process, this model becomes a forecasting tool for component lifetime that can be extended to any device including a dielectric material under electrical stress. We particularly focus on the case of MIM capacitors with silicon nitride dielectric thin layers ( ). Current measurements as a function of time have been carried out at different applied voltages. Charge transport mechanisms in capacitors have then been identified. The main defects involved in carrier transport in silicon nitride are identified as shallow traps. The one dimensional model for charge transport in dielectric films under bias voltage is based on the resolution of both Maxwell-Gauss and charge continuity equations. The dielectric is discretized in slices, equations are solved for each layer. For modeling, the insulator thin film is assumed to be homogeneous. Trap spatial distribution is considered uniform and roughness or interfacial defects are neglected. Several relevant charge transport mechanisms are taken into account. Trap Assisted Tunneling effect and Schottky injection are the interfacial transport mechanisms. The former consists of charge injection into dielectric traps by tunnel effect or charge extraction from dielectric traps into electrode by tunnel effect. The later enables charge injection into the dielectric conduction or valence band by thermal activation. Trapping and detrapping mechanisms (including Frenkel-Poole effect) and space charge limited current are considered for bulk transport mechanisms. Four carrier types are taken into account: free electrons and holes, trapped electrons and holes. Thanks to this model, electric field, current and charge carrier distribution can be calculated in the whole dielectric layer during transient regime. During the application of a voltage, trapped charges build up in the first few of the dielectric film from the electrodes, depending on dielectric characteristics. This charge accumulation leads to electric field screening on dielectric sides and injection current stabilization with time. Simulated currents are compared to measured currents and show the same order of magnitude for the different applied electric fields. The proposed model can be extended to take into account dielectric or electrode properties and other charge transport mechanisms to study their impact on charge accumulation. It can be used as a simulation tool to choose materials according to device performances targeted.
Inertia Friction Pull Plug Welding, a New Weld Repair Technique of Aluminium Friction Stir Welding
Friction stir welding with bobbin tool is a simple technique compared to conventional FSW since the backing fixture is no longer needed and assembling labor is reduced. It gets adopted more and more in the aerospace industry as a result. However, a post-weld problem, the left keyhole, has to be fixed by forced repair welding. To close the keyhole, the conventional fusion repair could be an option if the joint properties are not deteriorated; friction push plug welding, a forced repair, could be another except that a rigid support unit is demanded at the back of the weldment. Therefore, neither of the above ways is satisfaction in welding a large enclosed structure, like rocket propellant tank. Although friction pulls plug welding does not need a backing plate, the wide applications are still held back because of the disadvantages in respects of unappropriated tensile stress, (i.e. excessive stress causing neck shrinkage of plug that will bring about back defects while insufficient stress causing lack of heat input that will bring about face defects), complicated welding parameters (including rotation speed, transverse speed, friction force, welding pressure and upset),short welding time (approx. 0.5 sec.), narrow windows and poor stability of process. In this research, an updated technique called inertia friction pull plug welding, and its equipment was developed. The influencing rules of technological parameters on joint properties of inertia friction pull plug welding were observed. The microstructure characteristics were analyzed. Based on the elementary performance data acquired, the conclusion is made that the uniform energy provided by an inertia flywheel will be a guarantee to a stable welding process. Meanwhile, due to the abandon of backing plate, the inertia friction pull plug welding is considered as a promising technique in repairing keyhole of bobbin tool FSW and point type defects of aluminium base material.
Topographic and Thermal Analysis of Plasma Polymer Coated Hybrid Fibers for Composite Applications
Fiber composites are able to withstand higher stresses than their individual constituents because the fibers and matrix interact, resulting in redistribution of the stresses. The ability of constituents to exchange stresses depends on the effectiveness of the coupling or bonding between them. Bonding can sometimes be achieved by direct contact of the two phases, but usually a specially treated fiber must be used to ensure a receptive adherent surface. This issue has led to the development of fiber finishes such as surface treatments including sizing and oxidation. However, the optimization of interfacial bond strength is required either to avoid flaw sensitivity or delamination. For this reason, surface characterization of reinforcement phase is needed in order to provide necessary data to drive an assessment of fiber-matrix interfacial compatibility prior to fabrication of composite structures. Compared to conventional plasma polymerization processes such as radiofrequency and microwave, dielectric barrier discharge assisted plasma polymerization is a promising process that can be utilized to modify the surface properties of carbon fibers in a continuous manner. Finding the most suitable conditions (e.g., plasma power, plasma duration, precursor proportion) for plasma polymerization of pyrrole in post-discharge region either in the presence or in the absence of p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as well as the characterization of plasma polypyrrole coated fibers are the important aspects of this work. Throughout the current investigation, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to characterize plasma treated hybrid fibers (CNT-grafted Toray T700-12K carbon fibers, referred as T700/CNT). TGA results show that the trend in the change of decomposition process of deposited polymer on fibers as a function of temperature up to 900 °C. Within the same period of time, all plasma pyrrole treated samples began to lose weight with relatively fast rate up to 400 °C which suggests the loss of polymeric structures. The weight loss between 300 and 600 °C is attributed to evolution of CO2 due to decomposition of functional groups (e.g. carboxyl compounds). With keeping in mind the surface chemical structure, the higher the amount of carbonyl, alcohols, and ether compounds the lower the stability of deposited polymer. Thus, the highest weight loss is observed in 1400 W 45 s pyrrole+pTSA.H2O plasma treated sample probably because of the presence of less stable polymer than that of other plasma treated samples. Comparison of the AFM images for untreated and plasma treated samples shows that the surface topography may change on a microscopic scale. The AFM image of 1800 W 45 s treated T700/CNT fiber possesses the most significant increase in roughening compared to untreated T700/CNT fiber. Namely, the fiber surface became rougher with ~3.6 fold that of the T700/CNT fiber. The increase observed in surface roughness compared to untreated T700/CNT fiber may provide more contact points between fiber and matrix due to increased surface area. It is believed to be beneficial for their application as reinforcement in composites.
Fuzzy Inference System for Diagnosis of Malaria
Malaria remains one of the world’s most deadly infectious disease and arguably, the greatest menace to modern society in terms of morbidity and mortality. To choose the right treatment and to ensure a quality of life suitable for a specific patient condition, early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential. It reduces transmission of disease and prevents deaths. Our work focuses on designing an efficient, accurate fuzzy inference system for malaria diagnosis.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations on Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of Li-H2 Interface at Ultra High-Speed Shock Loads
Material mixing process and related dynamic issues at extreme compressing conditions have gained more and more concerns in last ten years because of the engineering appealings in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and hypervelocity aircraft developments. However, there lacks models and methods that can handle fully coupled turbulent material mixing and complex fluid evolution under conditions of high energy density regime up to now. In aspects of macro hydrodynamics, three numerical methods such as direct numerical simulation (DNS), large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) has obtained relative acceptable consensus under the conditions of low energy density regime. However, under the conditions of high energy density regime, they can not be applied directly due to occurrence of dissociation, ionization, dramatic change of equation of state, thermodynamic properties etc., which may make the governing equations invalid in some coupled situations. However, in view of micro/meso scale regime, the methods based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) as well as Monte Carlo (MC) model are proved to be promising and effective ways to investigate such issues. In this study, both classical MD and first-principle based electron force field MD (eFF-MD) methods are applied to investigate Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of metal Lithium and gas Hydrogen (Li-H2) interface mixing at different shock loading speed ranging from 3 km/s to 30 km/s. It is found that: 1) Classical MD method based on predefined potential functions has some limits in application to extreme conditions, since it cannot simulate the ionization process and its potential functions are not suitable to all conditions, while the eFF-MD method can correctly simulate the ionization process due to its ‘ab initio’ feature; 2) Due to computational cost, the eFF-MD results are also influenced by simulation domain dimensions, boundary conditions and relaxation time choices, etc., in computations. Series of tests have been conducted to determine the optimized parameters. 3) Ionization induced by strong shock compression has important effects on Li-H2 interface evolutions of RMI, indicating a new micromechanism of RMI under conditions of high energy density regime.
Micromechanism of Ionization Effects on Metal/Gas Mixing Instabilty at Extreme Shock Compressing Conditions
Understanding of material mixing induced by Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) at extreme shock compressing conditions (high energy density environment: P >> 100GPa, T >> 10000k) is of great significance in engineering and science, such as inertial confinement fusion(ICF), supersonic combustion, etc. Turbulent mixing induced by RMI is a kind of complex fluid dynamics, which is closely related with hydrodynamic conditions, thermodynamic states, material physical properties such as compressibility, strength, surface tension and viscosity, etc. as well as initial perturbation on interface. For phenomena in ordinary thermodynamic conditions (low energy density environment), many investigations have been conducted and many progresses have been reported, while for mixing in extreme thermodynamic conditions, the evolution may be very different due to ionization as well as large difference of material physical properties, which is full of scientific problems and academic interests. In this investigation, the first principle based molecular dynamic method is applied to study metal Lithium and gas Hydrogen (Li-H2) interface mixing in micro/meso scale regime at different shock compressing loading speed ranging from 3 km/s to 30 km/s. It's found that, 1) Different from low-speed shock compressing cases, in high-speed shock compresing (>9km/s) cases, a strong acceleration of metal/gas interface after strong shock compression is observed numerically, leading to a strong phase inverse and spike growing with a relative larger linear rate. And more specially, the spike growing rate is observed to be increased with shock loading speed, presenting large discrepancy with available empirical RMI models; 2) Ionization is happened in shock font zone at high-speed loading cases(>9km/s). An additional local electric field induced by the inhomogeneous diffusion of electrons and nuclei after shock font is observed to occur near the metal/gas interface, leading to a large acceleration of nuclei in this zone; 3) In conclusion, the work of additional electric field contributes to a mechanism of RMI in micro/meso scale regime at extreme shock compressing conditions, i.e., a Rayleigh-Taylor instability(RTI) is induced by additional electric field during RMI mixing process and thus a larger linear growing rate of interface spike.
Shock Compressibility of Iron Alloys Calculated in the Framework of Quantum-Statistical Models
Iron alloys are widespread components in various types of structural materials which are exposed to intensive thermal and mechanical loads. Various quantum-statistical cell models with the approximation of self-consistent field can be used for the prediction of the behavior of these materials under extreme conditions. The application of these models is even more valid, the higher the temperature and the density of matter. Results of Hugoniot calculation for iron alloys in the framework of three quantum-statistical (the Thomas–Fermi, the Thomas–Fermi with quantum and exchange corrections and the Hartree–Fock–Slater) models are presented. Results of quantum-statistical calculations are compared with results from other reliable models and available experimental data. It is revealed a good agreement between results of calculation and experimental data for terra pascal pressures. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are shown.
Shock-Induced Densification in Glass Materials: A Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Study
Lasers are widely used in glass material processing, from waveguide fabrication to channel drilling. The gradual damage of glass optics under UV lasers is also an important issue to be addressed. Glass materials (including metallic glasses) can undergo a permanent densification under laser-induced shock loading. Despite increased interest on interactions between laser and glass materials, little is known about the structural mechanisms involved under shock loading. For example, the densification process in silica glasses occurs between 8 GPa and 30 GPa. Above 30 GPa, the glass material returns to the original density after relaxation. Investigating these unusual mechanisms in silica glass will provide an overall better understanding in glass behaviour. Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics simulations (NEMD) were carried out in order to gain insight on the silica glass microscopic structure under shock loading. The shock was generated by the use of a piston impacting the glass material at high velocity (from 100m/s up to 2km/s). Periodic boundary conditions were used in the directions perpendicular to the shock propagation to model an infinite system. One-dimensional shock propagations were therefore studied. Simulations were performed with the STAMP code developed by the CEA. A very specific structure is observed in a silica glass. Oxygen atoms around Silicon atoms are organized in tetrahedrons. Those tetrahedrons are linked and tend to form rings inside the structure. A significant amount of empty cavities is also observed in glass materials. In order to understand how a shock loading is impacting the overall structure, the tetrahedrons, the rings and the cavities were thoroughly analysed. An elastic behaviour was observed when the shock pressure is below 8 GPa. This is consistent with the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of 8.8 GPa estimated experimentally for silica glasses. Behind the shock front, the ring structure and the cavity distribution are impacted. The ring volume is smaller, and most cavities disappear with increasing shock pressure. However, the tetrahedral structure is not affected. The elasticity of the glass structure is therefore related to a ring shrinking and a cavity closing. Above the HEL, the shock pressure is high enough to impact the tetrahedral structure. An increasing number of hexahedrons and octahedrons are formed with the pressure. The large rings break to form smaller ones. The cavities are however not impacted as most cavities are already closed under an elastic shock. After the material relaxation, a significant amount of hexahedrons and octahedrons is still observed, and most of the cavities remain closed. The overall ring distribution after relaxation is similar to the equilibrium distribution. The densification process is therefore related to two structural mechanisms: a change in the coordination of silicon atoms and a cavity closing. To sum up, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics were carried out to investigate silica behaviour under shock loading. Analysing the structure lead to interesting conclusions upon the elastic and the densification mechanisms in glass materials. This work will be completed with a detailed study of the mechanism occurring above 30 GPa, where no sign of densification is observed after the material relaxation.
Optimization of Equation of State and Burn Model Parameters for Explosives
A reactive burn model implemented in a multi-dimensional hydrocode can be a powerful tool for predicting non-ideal effects as well as initiation phenomena in explosives. Calibration against experiment is, however, critical and non-trivial. Here a procedure is presented for calibrating the Ignition and Growth Model utilizing hydrocode simulation in conjunction with the optimization program LS-OPT. Cylinder expansion and rate stick experiments on PBXN-109 are presented and provide data for determination of product equation of state and burn rate parameters respectively. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability of this optimization routine. Finally, we present a test-simulation with the optimized parameters.
Using Underwater Explosion Tests to Calibrate Afterburn Models for Aluminized Explosives
The study explores the use of underwater performance tests in order to parameterize detonation models for aluminized explosives which exhibit post-detonation combustion. The approach is suggested to be used in conjunction with cylinder expansion tests and thermochemical computation. A formulation containing RDX and aluminum powder is considered, and several charges with masses varying in the range 0.15¬–7 kg are detonated at a depth of 20 m. Pressure gauges are employed at horizontal distances scaling with the charge diameter, and the specific shock wave energy is shown to increase with charge mass. This is attributed to the relatively slow combustion of aluminum particles after the Chapman-Jouguet plane. The tests are modeled using a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach with the Programmed Burn model for the detonation process, combined with a pressure-dependent burn rate law for the post-detonation aluminum combustion. The detonation products are described by a generalized Jones-Wilkins-Lee equation of state where the coefficients evolve with the progress of aluminum combustion. The burn rate law parameters are adjusted such that the model reproduces the specific shock wave energies, obtained from the underwater tests. The approach seems promising, in particular for explosive formulations for which the time frame of cylinder expansion tests is too short to fully characterize the late release of energy.
Effects of the Fractional Order on Nanoparticles in Blood Flow through the Stenosed Artery
In this paper, based on the applications of nanoparticle, the blood flow along with nanoparticles through stenosed artery is studied. The blood is acted by periodic body acceleration, an oscillating pressure gradient and an external magnetic field. The mathematical formulation is based on Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel. The model of ordinary blood, corresponding to time-derivatives of integer order, is obtained as a limiting case. Analytical solutions of the blood velocity and temperature distribution are obtained by means of the Hankel and Laplace transforms. Effects of the order of Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives and three different nanoparticles i.e. Fe3O4, TiO4 and Cu are studied. The results highlights that, models with fractional derivatives bring significant differences compared to the ordinary model. It is observed that the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticle reduced the resistance impedance of the blood flow and temperature distribution through bell shape stenosed arteries as compared to TiO4 and Cu nanoparticles. On entering in the stenosed area, blood temperature increases slightly, but, increases considerably and reaches its maximum value in the stenosis throat. The shears stress has variation from a constant in the area without stenosis and higher in the layers located far to the longitudinal axis of the artery. This fact can be an important for some clinical applications in therapeutic procedures.
Removal of Triphenyltin from Triphenyltin-Contaminated Water by Adsorption onto NanoSio₂/Fly Ash/Activated Carbon Composite
In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of triphenyltin (TPT) from TPT-contaminated water onto nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite was investigated in batch adsorption system. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Pseudo first- and second-order, Elovich and fractional power models were applied to test the kinetic data and in order to understand the mechanism of adsorption, thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔSo and ΔH° were also calculated. The results showed a very good compliance with pseudo second-order equation while the Freundlich and D-R models fit the experiment data. Approximately 99.999 % TPT was removed from the initial concentration of 100 mg/L TPT at 80oC, contact time of 60 min, pH 8 and a stirring speed of 200 rpm. Thus, nanoSiO2/fly ash/activated carbon composite could be used as effective adsorbent for the removal of TPT from contaminated water and wastewater.
Selective Oxidation of 6Mn-2Si Advanced High Strength Steels during Intercritical Annealing Treatment
Advanced High Strength Steels are revolutionizing both the steel and automotive industries due to their high specific strength and ability to absorb energy during crash events. This allows manufacturers to design vehicles with significantly increased fuel efficiency without compromising passenger safety. To maintain the structural integrity of the fabricated parts, they must be protected from corrosion damage through continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, which is challenging due to selective oxidation of Mn and Si on the surface of this AHSSs. The effects of process atmosphere oxygen partial pressure and small additions of Sn on the selective oxidation of a medium-Mn C-6Mn-2Si advanced high strength steel was investigated. Intercritical annealing heat treatments were carried out at 690˚C in an N2-5%H2 process atmosphere under dew points ranging from –50˚C to +5˚C. Surface oxide chemistries, morphologies, and thicknesses were determined at a variety of length scales by several techniques, including SEM, TEM+EELS, and XPS. TEM observations of the sample cross-sections revealed the transition to internal oxidation at the +5˚C dew point. EELS results suggested that the internal oxides network was composed of a multi-layer oxide structure with varying chemistry from oxide core towards the outer part. The combined effect of employing a known surface active element as a function of process atmosphere on the surface structure development and the possible impact on reactive wetting of the steel substrates by the continuous galvanizing zinc bath will be discussed.
The Effect of Annealing on Graphene and Metal Contact: Electrical and Raman Study
In the last few years various electronic applications for graphene monolayers, exploiting their electrical, optical and wide functionalization properties, were proposed. CVD grown graphene remains material of choice for device fabrication due to its adequate electrical properties and scalability for industrial fabrication. However, the bottle-neck for the applications is high electrical resistance of the graphene/metal contacts. Furthermore, the metal layer changes the electrical properties of graphene itself. In this work, we analyze how two dissimilar metals – Ni and Au – lead to a similar change of graphene-metal contacts. We demonstrate that the changes in the Raman spectra produced by an annealing process are similar for the both metals, while the contact resistance is lower for Au contacts. Contact annealing of both Ni and Au at 300°C in Ar reduces contact resistance in both cases. However, the total contact resistance is lower for Au contacts, while Ni contacts show a larger drop. The sheet resistance also decreases in both cases after annealing, but less than contact resistance. The result agrees with reported contact resistance measurements, where higher contact resistance in Ni contact is attributed to NiC formation after annealing. The change of electrical properties indicate a change at the metal-graphene interface, therefore we compared Raman spectra of the samples before and after annealing to distinguish the mechanism of the annealing induced contact resistance improvement. The 2D peak shift is related to the Fermi level in graphene. We observe 2D peak shift on all samples, where graphene is placed on top of SiO2, indicating a p-type doping in graphene layer due to surface charges at SiO2/graphene interface. When comparing to graphene on top of metal structures, we observe 2D peak shifts in different direction for Ni and Au. The Au/graphene interface is even more shifted towards p-type, while Ni layer induces little shift to no shift of the 2D peak. These results indicate that mechanism for contact resistance decrease is different between the two metals. We also measured 2D peak shifts on NiC contact, as the NiC formation is known to cause increase in graphene contacts resistance. The NiC causes a 2D peak shift towards lower wavenumbers, indicating an n-type induced doping. As the shift is in the same direction as for Ni contact, we propose, that the contact formation between Ni and graphene is based on NiC formation. Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy shows an increase of the electron work function after annealing on both Au and Ni contacts. This indicates the increased p-doping of the metal graphene system. In contrast, the annealing does not affect the work function of the winkles, which are formed during graphene transfer. It is shown that tensile bending of the graphene at the steep edges of the metal layer increases the resistance of the whole structure. We propose Raman spectroscopy for determination of metal contacts/graphene annealing process.
Fracture Toughness Properties and FTIR Analysis of Corn Fiber Green Composites
In this work, the fracture toughness of new green composite based on bio-PMMA resin reinforced with randomly short corn natural fiber of constant weight fraction by 10% wt was investigated. The corn fiber surface was modified by mercerization treatment with two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (3, and 5% NaOH) for 1.5 and 3 hours respectively. The effect of mercerization treatment on the fracture behavior of the green composites was analyzed by FTIR spectra. NaOH concentration of 3% for 1.5 hrs. That was used for corn fiber green composite should the highest improvement in terms of plane strain fracture toughness KIC which increased by 62 % compared to untreated fiber composite material. On the other hand, increased both concentrations of alkali solution to 5% NaOH and time of soaking to 3 hrs. reduced the values of KIC lower than the value of the unfilled material.
Production of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by a Thermophilic Strain of Bacillus and Pseudomonas Species
Five hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strains isolated from contaminated environment were investigated with respect to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Screening for bioplastic production was done on assay mineral salts agar medium containing 0.2% poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) as the sole carbon source. Two of the test bacteria were positive for PHB biosynthesis and were identified based on gram staining, biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus licheniformis which grew at 37 and up to 65 °C respectively, thus suggesting the later to be thermotolerant. In this study, the effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on PHB production in these strains were investigated. Maximum PHB production was obtained in 48 hr for the two strains and amounted to yields of 72.86 and 62.22 percentages for Bacillus licheniformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. In these strains, glycine was the most efficient carbon sources for the production of PHB compared with other carbon (glucose, lactose, sucrose, Arabinose) and nitrogen (L- glycine, L-cysteine, DL-Tryptophan, and Potassium Nitrate) sources. The screening of microbial strains for industrial PHB production should be based on several factors including the cell’s capability to mineralize an inexpensive substrate, rate of growth and the extent of polymer accumulation.
Pretreatment of Cattail (Typha domingensis) Fibers to Obtain Cellulose Nanocrystals
Natural fibers are rich raw materials in cellulose and abundant in the world, its use for the cellulose nanocrystals extraction is promising as an example cited is the cattail, macrophyte native weed in South America. This study deals with the pre-treatment cattail of crushed fibers, at six different methods of mercerization, followed by the use of bleaching. As a result, have found The positive effects of treating fibers by means of optical microscopy and spectroscopy, Fourier transform (FTIR). The sample selected for future testing of cellulose nanocrystals extraction was treated in 2.5% NaOH for 2 h, 60 °C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2, NaOH 5% in the proportion 30/70% (v/v) for 1 hour 60 °C, followed by treatment at 50/50% (v/v) 15 minutes, 50°C, with the same constituents of the solution.
Reduction of Residual Stress by Variothermal Processing and Validation via Birefringence Measurement Technique on Injection Molded Polycarbonate Samples
Injection molding is one of the most commonly used techniques in the industrial polymer processing. In the conventional process of injection molding, the liquid polymer is injected into the cavity of the mold, where the polymer directly starts hardening at the cooled walls. To compensate the shrinkage, which is caused predominantly by the immediate cooling, holding pressure is applied. Through that whole process, residual stresses are produced by the temperature difference of the polymer melt and the injection mold and the relocation of the polymer chains, which were oriented by the high process pressures and injection speeds. These residual stresses often weaken or change the structural behavior of the parts or lead to deformation of components. One solution to reduce the residual stresses is the use of variothermal processing. Hereby the mold is heated – i.e. near/over the glass transition temperature of the polymer – the polymer is injected and before opening the mold and ejecting the part the mold is cooled. For the next cycle, the mold gets heated again and the procedure repeats. The rapid heating and cooling of the mold are realized indirectly by convection of heated and cooled liquid (here: water) which is pumped through fluid channels underneath the mold surface. In this paper, the influences of variothermal processing on the residual stresses are analyzed with samples in a larger scale (500 mm x 250 mm x 4 mm). In addition, the influence on functional elements, such as abrupt changes in wall thickness, bosses, and ribs, on the residual stress is examined. Therefore the polycarbonate samples are produced by variothermal and isothermal processing. The melt is injected into a heated mold, which has in our case a temperature varying between 70 °C and 160 °C. After the filling of the cavity, the closed mold is cooled down varying from 70 °C to 100 °C. The pressure and temperature inside the mold are monitored and evaluated with cavity sensors. The residual stresses of the produced samples are illustrated by birefringence where the effect on the refractive index on the polymer under stress is used. The colorful spectrum can be uncovered by placing the sample between a polarized light source and a second polarization filter. To show the achievement and processing effects on the reduction of residual stress the birefringence images of the isothermal and variothermal produced samples are compared and evaluated. In this comparison to the variothermal produced samples have a lower amount of maxima of each color spectrum than the isothermal produced samples, which concludes that the residual stress of the variothermal produced samples is lower.
Phase Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Oxide Dispersed CoCrFeMnNi
The present study deals with phase evolution of oxide dispersed CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy as a function of amount of added Y2O3 during mechanical alloying and analysis of grain growth kinetics of CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy without and with oxide dispersion. Mechanical alloying of CoCrFeMnNi resulted in a single FCC phase. However, evolution of chromium carbide was observed after heat treatment between 1073 and 1473 K. Comparison of grain growth time exponents and activation energy barrier is also reported. Micro structural investigations, using electron microscopy and EBSD techniques, were carried out to confirm the enhanced grain growth resistance which is attributed to the presence oxide dispersoids.
Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Supported on SBA-15 Using a Stable Titania Sol and Evaluation Its Photocatalytic Efficiency
In this work, mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 composite was synthesized successfully. At first, SBA-15 was prepared and then was stirred in a stable, transparent photocatalytic titanium dioxide sol. The soaked SBA-15 particles were filtered, dried and heat treated at 400°C. Its photocatalytic performance was investigated in the liquid phase degradation of Methylene blue (MB) under UV light. Prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption desorption analysis, field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and EDX analysis of silicon and titanium. The XRD pattern indicated the formation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles which are distributed inside the channels of silica host structure according to N2 sorbtion results. The N2 adsorption-desorption analysis revealed that pore size and surface area have been declined compared to SBA-15 due to entering of anatase phase inside the channels. MB concentration was degraded around 13% within 30 minutes under UV light by this sample.
Visco-Hyperelastic Finite Element Analysis for Diagnosis of Knee Joint Injury Caused by Meniscal Tearing
In this study, we aim to reveal the relationship between the meniscal tearing and the articular cartilage injury of knee joint by using the dynamic explicit finite element (FE) method. Meniscal injuries reduce its functional ability and consequently increase the load on the articular cartilage of knee joint. In order to prevent the induction of osteoarthritis (OA) caused by meniscal injuries, many medical treatment techniques, such as artificial meniscus replacement and meniscal regeneration, have been developed. However, it is reported that these treatments are not the comprehensive methods. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism of OA induction, the mechanical characterization of meniscus under the condition of normal and injured states is carried out by using FE analyses. At first, a FE model of the human knee joint in the case of normal state – ‘intact’ - was constructed by using the magnetron resonance (MR) tomography images and the image construction code, Materialize Mimics. Next, two types of meniscal injury models with the radial tears of medial and lateral menisci were constructed. In FE analyses, the linear elastic constitutive law was adopted for the femur and tibia bones, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive law for the articular cartilage, and the visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law for the meniscus, respectively. Material properties of articular cartilage and meniscus were identified using the stress-strain curves obtained by our compressive and the tensile tests. The numerical results under the normal walking condition revealed how and where the maximum compressive stress occurred on the articular cartilage. The maximum compressive stress and its occurrence point were varied in the intact and two meniscal tear models. These compressive stress values can be used to establish the threshold value to cause the pathological change for the diagnosis. In this study, FE analyses of knee joint were carried out to reveal the influence of meniscal injuries on the cartilage injury. The following conclusions are obtained. 1. 3D FE model, which consists femur, tibia, articular cartilage and meniscus was constructed based on MR images of human knee joint. The image processing code, Materialize Mimics was used by using the tetrahedral FE elements. 2. Visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation was formulated by adopting the generalized Kelvin model. The material properties of meniscus and articular cartilage were determined by curve fitting with experimental results. 3. Stresses on the articular cartilage and menisci were obtained in cases of the intact and two radial tears of medial and lateral menisci. Through comparison with the case of intact knee joint, two tear models show almost same stress value and higher value than the intact one. It was shown that both meniscal tears induce the stress localization in both medial and lateral regions. It is confirmed that our newly developed FE analysis code has a potential to be a new diagnostic system to evaluate the meniscal damage on the articular cartilage through the mechanical functional assessment.
Effects of Stirring Time and Reinforcement Preheating on the Porosity of Particulate Periwinkle Shell-Aluminium 6063 Metal Matrix Composite (PPS-ALMMC) Produced by Two-Step Casting
The potential for the development of PPS-AlMMCs as light weight material for industrial applications was investigated. Periwinkle shells were milled and the density of the particles determined. Particulate periwinkle shell of particle size 75µm was used to reinforce aluminium 6063 alloy at 10wt% filler loading using two-step stir casting technique. The composite materials were stirred for five minutes in a semi-solid state and the stirring time varied as 3, 6 and 9 minutes at above the liquidus temperature. A specimen was also produced with pre-heated filler. The effect of variation in stirring time and reinforcement pre-heating on the porosity of the composite materials was investigated. The results of the analysis show that a composition of reinforcement pre-heating and stirring for 3 minutes produced a composite material with the lowest porosity of 1.05%.
Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation
The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A generalized differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.
Spillage Prediction Using Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation with Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique
The current product development process needs simultaneous consideration of different physics. The performance of the product needs to be considered under both structural and fluid loads. Examples include ducts and valves where structural behavior affects fluid motion and vice versa. Simulation of fluid-structure interaction involves modeling interaction between moving components and the fluid flow. In these scenarios, it is difficult to calculate the damping provided by fluid flow because of dynamic motions of components and the transient nature of the flow. Abaqus Explicit offers general capabilities for modeling fluid-structure interaction with the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian technique has been used to simulate fluid spillage through fuel valves during dynamic closure events. The technique to simulate pressure drops across Eulerian domains has been developed using stagnation pressure. Also, the fluid flow is calculated considering material flow through elements at the outlet section of the valves. The methodology has been verified on Eaton products and shows a good correlation with the test results.