International Science Index

International Journal of Management and Industrial Engineering

35
78077
The Determinants of Co-Production for Value Co-Creation: Quadratic Effects
Abstract:
Recently, interest has been generated in the search for a new reference framework for value creation that is centered on the co-creation process. Co-creation implies cooperative value creation between service firms and customers and requires the building of experiences as well as the resolution of problems through the combined effort of the parties in the relationship. For customers, values are always co-created through their participation in services. Customers can ultimately determine the value of the service in use. This new approach emphasizes that a customer’s participation in the service process is considered indispensable to value co-creation. An important feature of service in the context of exchange is co-production, which implies that a certain amount of participation is needed from customers to co-produce a service and hence co-create value. Co-production no doubt helps customers better understand and take charge of their own roles in the service process. Thus, this proposal is to encourage co-production, thus facilitating value co-creation of that is reflected in both customers and service firms. Four determinants of co-production are identified in this study, namely, commitment, trust, asset specificity, and decision-making uncertainty. Commitment is an essential dimension that directly results in successful cooperative behaviors. Trust helps establish a relational environment that is fundamental to cross-border cooperation. Asset specificity motivates co-production because this determinant may enhance return on asset investment. Decision-making uncertainty prompts customers to collaborate with service firms in making decisions. In other words, customers adjust their roles and are increasingly engaged in co-production when commitment, trust, asset specificity, and decision-making uncertainty are enhanced. Although studies have examined the preceding effects, to our best knowledge, none has empirically examined the simultaneous effects of all the curvilinear relationships in a single study. When these determinants are excessive, however, customers will not engage in co-production process. In brief, we suggest that the relationships of commitment, trust, asset specificity, and decision-making uncertainty with co-production are curvilinear or are inverse U-shaped. These new forms of curvilinear relationships have not been identified in existing literature on co-production; therefore, they complement extant linear approaches. Most importantly, we aim to consider both the bright and the dark sides of the determinants of co-production.
34
77164
Monte Carlo Pathwise Sensitivities for Barrier Options with Application to Coco-Bond Calibration
Abstract:
The Monte Carlo pathwise sensitivities approach is well established for smooth payoff functions. In this work, we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm that is able to calculate the pathwise sensitivities for discontinuous payoff functions. Our main tool is the one-step survival idea of Glasserman and Staum. Although this technique yields to new terms per observation, while differentiating, the algorithm is still efficient. As an application, we use the results for a two-dimensional calibration of a Coco-Bond, which we model with different types of discretely monitored barrier options.
33
78527
Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea for Entrepreneurial Intention of University Undergraduates in Ogun State, Nigeria
Abstract:
The rising level of graduate unemployment in Nigeria has brought about the introduction of entrepreneurship education as a career option for self–reliance and self-employment. Sequel to this, it is important to have an understanding of the determining factors of entrepreneurial intention. Therefore this research empirically investigated the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students of selected universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study is significant to researchers, university policy makers, and the government. Survey research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 17,659 final year undergraduate students universities in Ogun State. The study adopted stratified and random sampling technique. The table of sample size determination was used to determine the sample size for this study at 95% confidence level and 5% margin error to arrive at a sample size of 1877 respondents. The elements of population were 400 level students of the selected universities. A structured questionnaire titled 'Entrepreneurship Education and students’ Entrepreneurial intention' was administered. The result of the reliability test had the following values 0.716, 0.907 and 0.949 for infrastructure, perceived university support, and entrepreneurial intention respectively. In the same vein, from the construct validity test, the following values were obtained 0.711, 0.663 and 0.759 for infrastructure, perceived university support and entrepreneurial intention respectively. Findings of this study revealed that each of the entrepreneurship education variables significantly affected intention University infrastructure B= -1.200, R²=0.679, F (₁,₁₈₇₅) = 3958.345, P < 0.05) Perceived University Support B= -1.027, R²=0.502, F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 1924.612, P < 0.05). The perception of respondents in public university and private university on entrepreneurship education have a statistically significant difference [F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 134.614, p < 0.05) α F(₁,₁₈₇₅) = 363.439]. The study concluded that entrepreneurship education positively influenced entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Also, university infrastructure and perceived university support have negative and significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The study recommended that to promote entrepreneurial intention of university undergraduate students, infrastructures and the university support that can arouse entrepreneurial intention of students should be put in place.
32
76952
Development of Digitalization Elements for Designing Collaborative Planning Processes in Supply Chains
Abstract:
Due to the increasing digitalization and networking along value chains, the topic of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) is particularly important for collaborative planning in supply chains (SCs). The higher availability and transparency of data results in new potentials for the collaboration of partners in value-added networks. However, taking into consideration new paradigms and a higher use of technology the planning processes will fundamentally change. At present, in literature is no scientific approach that accompanies this transformation of the planning processes in SCs. The paper intends to develop digitalization elements (DEs) for designing collaborative planning processes and to point out the changes in hierarchical planning in the context of I4.0. In order to develop the DEs, a qualitative literature analysis is used to determine the future requirements for planning processes in SCs. From these requirements, DEs are derived by an open-coding method for the design of planning processes. By comparing the elements with the planning tasks in SCs, the changes in the context of I4.0 were presented with the help of experts from the field. 15 DEs such as the automated recognition of deviations from the plan or the permanent integration of real-time data in planning activities were identified. The elements influence the planning tasks significantly and thus lead to changes in future planning processes in SCs. The DEs can be matched with current planning processes and identify potential for improvement according to I4.0. Depending on the composition of the supply chain network, the DEs can be used to create a solution for the digitalization of planning processes in SCs.
31
77142
Investor’s Psychology in Investment Decision Making: A Behavioral Finance Approach
Abstract:
Worldwide, the financial markets are influenced by several factors such as the changes in economic and political processes that occur in the country and the globe, information diffusion and approachability and so on. Yet, the foremost important factor is the investor’s reaction and perception. For an individual investor, decision-making process can be perceived as a continuous process that has significant impact of their psychology while making investment decisions. Behavioral finance relies on research of human and social recognition and emotional tolerance studies to identify and understand the investment decisions. This article aims to report the research of individual investor’s financial behavior in a historical perspective. This article uncovers the investor’s psychology in investment decision making focusing on the investor’s rationality with an explanation of psychological and emotional factors that affect investing. The results of the study are revealed by means of Graphical visualization.
30
75086
Barriers in Total Productive Maintenance Implementation in the Abu Dhabi Power Industry: A Case Study
Abstract:
Maintenance has evolved into an imperative function and contributes significantly to efficient and effective equipment performance. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an ideal approach to support the development and implementation of operation performance improvement. It systematically aims to understand the function of equipment, the service quality relationship with equipment and the probable critical equipment failure conditions. Implementation of TPM programmes needs strategic planning, and there has been little research applied in this area within Middle-East power plants. In the power sector of Abu Dhabi, technologically and strategically, the power industry is extremely important, and it thus needs effective and efficient equipment management support. The aim of this paper is to investigate barriers to successful TPM implementation in the Abu Dhabi power industry. The study has been conducted in the context of a leading power company in the UAE. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 employees, including maintenance and operation staff, and senior managers. The findings of this research identified seven key barriers, thus: managerial; organisational; cultural; financial; educational; communications; and auditing. With respect to the understanding of these barriers and obstacles in TPM implementation, the findings can contribute towards improved equipment operations and maintenance in power organisations.
29
72718
A Comparation Analysis of Islamic Bank Efficiency in the United Kingdom and Indonesia during Eurozone Crisis Using Data Envelopment Analysis
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine and comparing the level of efficiency of Islamic Banks in Indonesia and United Kingdom during eurozone sovereign debt crisis. This study using a quantitative non-parametric approach with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) VRS assumption, and a statistical tool Mann-Whitney U-Test. The samples are 11 Islamic Banks in Indonesia and 4 Islamic Banks in England. This research used mediating approach. Input variable consists of total deposit, asset, and the cost of labour. Output variable consists of financing and profit/loss. This study shows that the efficiency of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and United Kingdom are varied and fluctuated during the observation period. There is no significant different the efficiency performance of Islamic Banks in Indonesia and United Kingdom.
28
72923
Comparison of Risk and Return on Trading and Profit Sharing Based Financing Contract in Indonesian Islamic Bank
Abstract:
Murabaha is the most popular contract by the Islamic banks in Indonesia, since there is opinion stating that the risk level of mudharaba and musyaraka are higher and the return is uncertain. This research aims to analyze the difference of return, risk, and variation coefficient between profit sharing-based and trading-based financing in Islamic bank. This research uses quantitative approach using Wilcoxon signed rank test with data sampled from 13 Indonesian Islamic banks, collected from their quarterly financial reports from 2011 to 2015. The result shows the significant difference in return, while risk and variation coefficient are almost same. From the analysis, it can be concluded that profit sharing-based financing is less desirable not because of its risk. Trading-based financing is more desirable than the profit sharing because of its return.
27
72942
Comparative Analysis of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and Malaysia with Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, and Capital Method: Performance of Business Function and Social Function Perspective
Abstract:
This study aims to compare and see the differences between Islamic bank in Indonesia and Islamic bank in Malaysia using RGEC method (Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, and Capital). This study examines the comparison in business and social performance of eleven Islamic banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic banks in Malaysia. This research used quantitative approach and the collections of data was done by collecting all the annual reports of banks that has been created as a sample over the period 2011-2015. The test result of the Independent Samples T-test and Mann-Whitney Test showed there were differences in the business performance of Islamic Bank in Indonesia and Malaysia as seen from the aspect of Risk profile (FDR), GCG, and Earnings (ROA). Also, there were differences of business and social performance as seen from Earnings (ROE), Capital (CAR), and Sharia Conformity Indicator (PSR and ZR) aspects.
26
72945
The Determinants of Financing to Deposit Ratio of Islamic Bank in Malaysia
Abstract:
The research aimed to know the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Return on Assets (ROA) and Size of the Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR) Islamic Banks in Malaysia by using eleven Islamic Banks in Indonesia and fifteen Islamic Banks in Malaysia in the period 2012 to 2016 as samples. The research used a quantitative approach method, and the analysis technique used multiple linear regression. Based on the result of t-test (partial), CAR, ROA and size significantly affect of FDR. While the results of f-test (simultaneous) showed that CAR, ROA and Size significant effect on FDR.
25
72953
Comparison of Formation Sensitivity Gap between Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia
Abstract:
Theoretically, Islamic banks in Indonesia and Malaysia not necessarily aware to the interest rate fluctuation, since they don’t use interest-based instruments. Both countries use dual banking system in which Islamic and conventional banking system are exist. This situation makes the profit-sharing level of the Islamic banks will be indirectly affected by the interest rate fluctuation from the conventional banks system. One of the risk management tools for anticipating the risk of interest rate fluctuation is gap management, which has purpose to narrow the difference between Rate Sensitive Asset (RSA) and Rate Sensitive Liability (RSL). This formed gap will give the information about the risk potential in Islamic banks which respect to the fluctuation on the interest rate. This study aims to determine the position of the gap formed at Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia, and analyze the difference in the formation of gap based on the period of sensitivity. This study is a quantitative research with comparative study using sensitivity gap analysis, independent sample t-test, and Mann-Whitney method. The data being used was secondary data from Maturity Profile contained in the Annual Financial Report of Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia from 2011 to 2015 period. The result shows that, cumulatively the formation of the gap was negative gap. From the results of independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney, the formation of the gap in Islamic Maybank Indonesia and Islamic Maybank Malaysia for a period of sensitivity of ≤ 1 month and >1-3 months show a significant difference, while the period of sensitivity >3-12 months does not. The result shows, even though Indonesia and Malaysia using same dual banking systems, the gap values are different. The difference in debt policy between Indonesia and Malaysia also affecting the gap sensitivity in debt. In can be concluded that each country needs an appropriate gap management to support its Islamic banking performance specifically.
24
72979
The Impact of Reshuffle in Indonesian Working Cabinet Volume II to Abnormal Return and Abnormal Trading Activity of Companies Listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index
Abstract:
A big political event such as Cabinet reshuffle mostly can affect the stock price positively or negatively, depend on the perception of each investor and potential investor. This study aims to analyze the movement of the market and trading activities which respect to an event using event study method. This method is used to measure the movement of the stock exchange in which abnormal return can be obtained by investor related to the event. This study examines the differences of reaction on abnormal return and trading volume activity from the companies listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII), before and after the announcement of the Cabinet Work Volume II on 27 July 2016. The study was conducted in observation of 21 days in total which consists of 10 days before the event and 10 days after the event. The method used in this study is event study with market adjusted model method that observes market reaction to the information of an announcement or publicity events. The Results from the study showed that there is no significant negative nor positive reaction at the abnormal return and abnormal trading before and after the announcement of the cabinet reshuffle. It is indicated by the results of statistical tests whose value not exceeds the level of significance. Stock exchange of the JII just reflects from the previous stock prices without reflecting the information regarding to the Cabinet reshuffle event. It can be concluded that the capital market is efficient with a weak form.
23
73314
Entrepreneurship Education as a 21st Century Strategy for Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
Abstract:
Within the last 30 years, entrepreneurship education (EE) has continued to gain massive interest both in the field of research and among policy makers. This surge in interest can be attributed to the perceived importance EE plays in the equipping of potential entrepreneurs and as a 21st century strategy to foster economic growth and development. This paper sets out to ascertain the correlation between EE and economic growth and development. A desk research approach was adopted where a multiplicity of literatures in the field were studied intensely. The findings reveal that indeed EE has a positive effect on entrepreneurship engagement thereby fostering economic growth and development. However, some research studies reported the contrary. That although EE may be able to equip potential entrepreneurs with requisite entrepreneurial skills and competencies, it will only be successful in producing entrepreneurs if they are internally driven to become entrepreneurs, because we cannot make people what they are not. The findings also reveal that countries that adopted EE early have more innovations inspired by entrepreneurs and are more developed than those that only recently adopted EE as a viable tool for entrepreneurship and economic development.
22
72815
A Model of Empowerment Evaluation of Knowledge Management in Private Banks Using Fuzzy Inference System
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to provide a model based on fuzzy inference system for evaluating empowerment of Knowledge management. The first prototype of the research was developed based on the study of literature. In the next step, experts were provided with these models and after implementing consensus-based reform, the views of Fuzzy Delphi experts and techniques, components and Index research model were finalized. Culture, structure, IT and leadership were considered as dimensions of empowerment. Then, In order to collect and extract data for fuzzy inference system based on knowledge and Experience, the experts were interviewed. The values obtained from designed fuzzy inference system, made review and assessment of the organization's empowerment of Knowledge management possible. After the design and validation of systems to measure indexes ,empowerment of Knowledge management and inputs into fuzzy inference) in the AYANDEH Bank, a questionnaire was used. In the case of this bank, the system output indicates that the status of empowerment of Knowledge management, culture, organizational structure and leadership are at the moderate level and information technology empowerment are relatively high. Based on these results, the status of knowledge management empowerment in AYANDE Bank, was moderate. Eventually, some suggestions for improving the current situation of banks were provided. According to studies of research history, the use of powerful tools in Fuzzy Inference System for assessment of Knowledge management and knowledge management empowerment such an assessment in the field of banking, are the innovation of this Research.
21
74786
Validation and Interpretation about Precedence Diagram for Start to Finish Relationship by Graph Theory
Abstract:
Four types of dependencies, which are 'Finish-to-start', 'Finish-to-finish', 'Start-to-start' and 'Start-to-finish (S-F)' as logical relationship are modeled based on the definition by 'the predecessor activity is defined as an activity to come before a dependent activity in a schedule' in PMBOK. However, it is found a self-contradiction in the precedence diagram for S-F relationship by PMBOK. In this paper, author would like to validate logical relationship of S-F by Graph Theory and propose a new interpretation of the precedence diagram for S-F relationship.
20
75630
Analysis of Performance Improvement Factors in Supply Chain Manufacturing Using Analytic Network Process and Kaizen
Abstract:
A company producing drinking water through many incompatibility issues that affect supply chain performance. The study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the performance of the supply chain and improve it. To obtain the dominant factors affecting the performance of the supply chain used Analytic Network Process, while to improve performance is done by using Kaizen. Factors affecting the performance of the supply chain to be a reference to identify the cause of the non-conformance. Results weighting using ANP indicates that the dominant factor affecting the level of performance is the precision of the number of shipments (15%), the ability of the fulfillment of the booking amount (12%), and the number of rejected products when signing (12%). Incompatibility of the factors that affect the performance of the supply chain are identified, so that found the root cause of the problem is most dominant. Based on the weight of Risk Priority Number (RPN) gained the most dominant root cause of the problem, namely the poorly maintained engine, the engine worked for three shifts, machine parts that are not contained in the plant. Improvements then performed using the Kaizen method of systematic and sustainable.
19
75285
The Impact of Leadership Styles and Coordination on Employees Performance in the Nigerian Banking Sector
Abstract:
Leadership is a subject of direction. Direction entails ensuring that employees carryout the jobs assigned to them. In order to direct subordinates, a manager must lead, motivate, communicate and ensure effective co-ordination of activities so that enterprise objectives are achieved. The purpose of the study was to find out the impact of Leadership Styles on Employees Performance, Study of Wema Bank Plc. Leadership has been described as a tool used in influencing people in order to willingly get a particular or task done. The importance of leadership is followership. That is the willingness of people to follow what makes a person a leader. A sample size of 150 was systematically selected from the study population using the statistical packages for Social Science (SPSS) formula. Based on this, questionnaire was designed and administered. Out of the 105 copies of the questionnaire administered. 150 were recovered, 45 were discarded for improper filling and mutilation while the remaining 105 were used for statistical analysis. Chi-square was employed in testing the hypothesis. The following findings were discovered in the course of the study: how leadership enhances employee’s performance, 85.7% of the respondents were in agreement. Also how implementation of workers social welfare packages enhance the employees performance. 88.6 percent of the respondents in agreement. Over the years, some leadership styles adopted by managers and administrators have an impact on the level of employee’s performance in workplace and this has led to the inefficient and ineffective attainment of organizational goals and objectives. Due to the inability of employees to perform to set standard, this research work will also indicate some ways through which high employee performance will be attained most especially with regards to the leadership style adopted by the management that is managers and administrators. It was also discovered that collective intelligence of employees leads to high employee’s performance 82.9 percent of the respondent in agreement.
18
70972
Extent of Derivative Usage, Firm Value and Risk: An Empirical Study on Pakistan Non-Financial Firms
Authors:
Abstract:
Growing liberalisation and intense market competition increase firm’s risk exposure and induce corporations to use derivatives extensively as a risk management instrument, which results in decrease in firm’s risk, and increase in value. Present study contributes towards existing literature by providing an in-depth analysis regarding the effect of extent of derivative usage on firm’s risk and value by using panel data models and seemingly unrelated regression technique. New evidence is established in current literature by dividing the sample data based on firm’s Exchange Rate (ER) and Interest Rate (IR) exposure. Analysis is performed for the effect of extent of derivative usage on firm’s risk and value and its variation with respect to the ER and IR exposure. Sample data consists of 166 Pakistani firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2004-2010. Results show that extensive usage of derivative instruments significantly increases firm value and reduces firm’s risk. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis depicts that Pakistani corporations having higher exchange rate exposure, with respect to foreign sales, and higher interest rate exposure, on the basis of industry adjusted leverage, have higher firm value and lower risk. Findings from seemingly unrelated regression also provide robustness to results obtained through panel data analysis. Study also highlights the role of derivative usage as a risk management instrument in high and low ER and IR risk and helps practitioners in understanding how value increasing effect of extent of derivative usage varies with the intensity of firm’s risk exposure.
17
71919
A Constrained Neural Network Based Variable Neighborhood Search for the Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Abstract:
In this paper, a new neural network based variable neighborhood search is proposed for the multi-objective dynamic, flexible job shop scheduling problems. The neural network controls the problems' constraints to prevent infeasible solutions, while the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) applies moves, based on the critical block concept to improve the solutions. Two approaches are used for managing the constraints, in the first approach, infeasible solutions are modified according to the constraints, after the moves application, while in the second one, infeasible moves are prevented. Several neighborhood structures from the literature with some modifications, also new structures are used in the VNS. The suggested neighborhoods are more systematically defined and easy to implement. Comparison is done based on a multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is dynamic because of the jobs different release time and machines breakdowns. The results show that the presented method has better performance than the compared VNSs selected from the literature.
16
72144
A Hybrid Pareto-Based Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems
Abstract:
In this paper, a new hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is very important and hard combinatorial problem. The Pareto approach is used for solving the multi-objective problem. Several new local search heuristics are integrated into an algorithm based on the critical block concept to enhance the performance of the algorithm. The algorithm is compared with the recently published multi-objective algorithms based on benchmarks selected from the literature. Several metrics are used for quantifying performance and comparison of the achieved solutions. The algorithms are also compared based on the Weighting summation of objectives approach. The proposed algorithm can find the Pareto solutions more efficiently than the compared algorithms in less computational time.
15
73043
Application of Cube IQ Software to Optimize Heterogeneous Packing Products in Logistics Cargo and Minimize Transportation Cost
Abstract:
XYZ company is one of the upstream chemical companies that produce chemical products such as NaOH, HCl, NaClO, VCM, EDC, and PVC for downstream companies. The products are shipped by land using trucks and sea lanes using ship mode. Especially for solid products such as flake caustic soda (F-NaOH) and PVC resin, the products are sold in loose bag packing and palletize packing (packed in pallet). The focus of this study is to increase the number of items that can be loaded in pallet packaging on the company's logistics vehicle. This is very difficult because on this packaging, the dimensions or size of the material to be loaded become larger and certainly much heavier than the loose bag packing. This factor causes the arrangement and handling of materials in the mode of transportation more difficult. In this case, it is difficult to load a different type of volume packing pallet dimension in one truck or container. By using the Cube-IQ software, it is hoped that the planning of stuffing activity material by pallet can become easier in optimizing the existing space with various possible combinations of possibilities. In addition, the output of this software can also be used as a reference for operators in the material handling include the order and orientation of materials contained in the truck or container. The more optimal contents of logistics cargo, then transportation costs can also be minimized.
14
68274
Synthesis of Ethoxylated Amide as Bactericide to Enhance the Storage Period of Diesel Fuel Nanoemulsions
Abstract:
This paper aims to the synthesis of new ethoxylated amide as bactericides to prevent the growth of Gram +ve and –ve bacteria of water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions over a long period of time as three months. To realize it, eight kinetically stable water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions differing in surfactant concentrations and water contents ranging from 4 to 8 and 5 to 8 wt.,wt.,% of total weight of the nanoemulsions, respectively were formed at a temperature of 20 °C. The performance of this ethoxylated amide as bactericides agents against two strains of Gram-negative bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and two strains of Gram-positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, were evaluated as antimicrobial agents. The maximum and minimum antimicrobial activities were 85 and 71 % against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively, at a concentration of 5 mg/l, pH 7, and 37 °C.
13
71968
Identifying and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Communication Channels between Employees and Management Based on the EFQM Excellence Model
Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the relationship between the bilateral communication channels, communication technologies with effective communications and communication technologies, employee participation in motivated decision-making of employees using the EFQM excellence model in Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj. This research is an applied research in terms of the purpose and is a descriptive survey research in terms of nature and method and assesses the current situation using field studies. The statistical population consists of all employees and managers of Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj including 5442 persons and random sampling was used and sample size is 359 using Cochran formula. Measurement tool is a researcher-made questionnaire with 20 questions including two categories of expertise and general questions. The first category includes general questions about respondents' personal characteristics such as gender and level of education, work experience and courses of study. The second category includes expertise questions of the questionnaire that have been designed to test research hypotheses that its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.916 and its validity was approved according to the vies of teachers and some senior managers of Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj. The results of the analysis of the findings show that there is a significant relationship between mutual communication channels, communication technologies with effective communication between employees and management. There is also a significant relationship between communication technologies and employee motivation and employee participation in their motivated decision-making in Education Organization of Area 4 in Karaj.
12
69627
Enterprise Harmonic Fusion as National Sustainability
Abstract:
Cosmology is a discipline commonly linked to philosophy. In this work, we show cosmology, from a perspective that can provide some proposals to help develop SMB in Mexico. We start from the belief that, in a complex world, the solutions to problems must nurture from different approaches. In order to be able to do this, we need to change our point of reference and use theoretical proposals and methodologies that came from other disciplines; in this case, we will try to show that between philosophy and administration exist dialogs that need to be incentivized. The work is structured in three parts. In the first one, we create a description of cosmology and how it could be applied to business. In the second, we show some of the most common problems that the SMB suffer from and in the third, we present a proposal of how cosmology can help improve the development. Finally, we concluded that better understanding of real needs, integration of knowledge at large scale and using information technologies within the cosmology framework presentment could make a difference.
11
69835
Effective Use of X-Box Kinect in Rehabilitation Centers of Riyadh
Abstract:
Physical rehabilitation is the process of helping people to recover and be able to go back to their former activities that have been delayed due to external factors such as car accidents, old age and victims of strokes (chronic diseases and accidents, and those related to sport activities).The cost of hiring a personal nurse or driving the patient to and from the hospital could be costly and time-consuming. Also, there are other factors to take into account such as forgetfulness, boredom and lack of motivation. In order to solve this dilemma, some experts came up with rehabilitation software to be used with Microsoft Kinect to help the patients and their families for in-home rehabilitation. In home rehabilitation software is becoming more and more popular, since it is more convenient for all parties affiliated with the patient. In contrast to the other costly market-based systems that have no portability, Microsoft’s Kinect is a portable motion sensor that reads body movements and interprets it. New software development has made rehabilitation games available to be used at home for the convenience of the patient. The game will benefit its users (rehabilitation patients) in saving time and money. There are many software's that are used with the Kinect for rehabilitation, but the software that is chosen in this research is Kinectotherapy. Kinectotherapy software is used for rehabilitation patients in Riyadh clinics to test its acceptance by patients and their physicians. In this study, we used Kinect because it was affordable, portable and easy to access in contrast to expensive market-based motion sensors. This paper explores the importance of in-home rehabilitation by using Kinect with Kinectotherapy software. The software targets both upper and lower limbs, but in this research, the main focus is on upper-limb functionality. However, the in-home rehabilitation is applicable to be used by all patients with motor disability, since the patient must have some self-reliance. The targeted subjects are patients with minor motor impairment that are somewhat independent in their mobility. The presented work is the first to consider the implementation of in-home rehabilitation with real-time feedback to the patient and physician. This research proposes the implementation of in-home rehabilitation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The findings show that most of the patients are interested and motivated in using the in-home rehabilitation system in the future. The main value of the software application is due to these factors: improve patient engagement through stimulating rehabilitation, be a low cost rehabilitation tool and reduce the need for expensive one-to-one clinical contact. Rehabilitation is a crucial treatment that can improve the quality of life and confidence of the patient as well as their self-esteem.
10
67128
Dynamic Comovements between Exchange Rates, Stock Prices and Oil Prices: Evidence from Developed and Emerging Latin American Markets
Abstract:
This paper applies DCC, EWMA and OGARCH models to compare the dynamic correlations between exchange rates, oil prices, exchange rates and stock markets to examine the time-varying conditional correlations to the daily oil prices and index returns in relation to the US dollar/local currency for developed (Canada and Mexico) and emerging Latin American markets (Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru). Changes in correlation interactions are indicative of structural changes in market linkages with implications to contagion and interdependence. For each pair of stock price-exchange rate and oil price-US dollar/local currency, empirical evidence confirms of a strengthening negative correlation in the last decade. Methodologies suggest only two events have significatively impact in the countries analyzed: global financial crisis and Europe crisis, both events are associated with shifts of correlations to stronger negative level for most of the pairs analyzed. While, the first event has a shifting effect on mainly emerging members, the latter affects developed members. The identification of these relationships provides benefits in risk diversification and inflation targeting.
9
69079
Tiebout and Crime: How Crime Affect the Income Tax Capacity
Abstract:
Despite the extensive literature on the relation between crime and migration, not much is known about how crime affects the tax capacity of local communities. This paper empirically investigates whether the Flemish local income tax base yield is sensitive to changes in the local crime level. The underlying assumptions are threefold. In a Tiebout world, rational voters holding the local government accountable for the safety of its citizens, move out when the local level of security gets too much alienated from what they want it to be (first assumption). If migration is due to crime, then the more wealthy citizens are expected to move first (second assumption). Looking for a place elsewhere implies transaction costs, which the more wealthy citizens are more likely to be able to pay. As a consequence, the average income per capita and so the income distribution will be affected, which in turn, will influence the local income tax base yield (third assumption). The decreasing average income per capita, if not compensated by increasing earnings by the citizens that are staying or by the new citizens entering the locality, must result in a decreasing local income tax base yield. In the absence of a higher level governments’ compensation, decreasing local tax revenues could prove to be disastrous for a crime-ridden municipality. When communities do not succeed in forcing back the number of offences, this can be the onset of a cumulative process of urban deterioration. A spatial panel data model containing several proxies for the local level of crime in 306 Flemish municipalities covering the period 2000-2014 is used to test the relation between crime and the local income tax base yield. In addition to this direct relation, the underlying assumptions are investigated as well. Preliminary results show a modest, but positive relation between local violent crime rates and the efflux of citizens, persistent up until a 2 year lag. This positive effect is dampened by possible increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities. The change in violent crimes -and to a lesser extent- thefts and extortions reduce the influx of citizens with a one year lag. Again this effect is diminished by external effects from neighboring municipalities, meaning that increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities (especially violent crimes) have a positive effect on the local influx of citizens. Crime also has a depressing effect on the average income per capita within a municipality, whereas increasing crime rates in neighboring municipalities increase it. Notwithstanding the previous results, crime does not seem to significantly affect the local tax base yield. The results suggest that the depressing effect of crime on the income basis has to be compensated by a limited, but a wealthier influx of new citizens.
8
69181
The Effect of Political Characteristics on the Budget Balance of Local Governments: A Dynamic System Generalized Method of Moments Data Approach
Abstract:
This paper studies the effect of political characteristics of 308 Flemish municipalities on their budget balance in the period 1995-2011. All local governments experience the same economic and financial setting, however some governments have high budget balances, while others have low budget balances. The aim of this paper is to explain the differences in municipal budget balances by a number of economic, socio-demographic and political variables. The economic and socio-demographic variables will be used as control variables, while the focus of this paper will be on the political variables. We test four hypotheses resulting from the literature, namely (i) the partisan hypothesis tests if left wing governments have lower budget balances, (ii) the fragmentation hypothesis stating that more fragmented governments have lower budget balances, (iii) the hypothesis regarding the power of the government, higher powered governments would resolve in higher budget balances, and (iv) the opportunistic budget cycle to test whether politicians manipulate the economic situation before elections in order to maximize their reelection possibilities and therefore have lower budget balances before elections. The contributions of our paper to the existing literature are multiple. First, we use the whole array of political variables and not just a selection of them. Second, we are dealing with a homogeneous database with the same budget and election rules, making it easier to focus on the political factors without having to control for the impact of differences in the political systems. Third, our research extends the existing literature on Flemish municipalities as this is the first dynamic research on local budget balances. We use a dynamic panel data model. Because of the two lagged dependent variables as explanatory variables, we employ the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. This is the best possible estimator as we are dealing with political panel data that is rather persistent. Our empirical results show that the effect of the ideological position and the power of the coalition are of less importance to explain the budget balance. The political fragmentation of the government on the other hand has a negative and significant effect on the budget balance. The more parties in a coalition the worse the budget balance is ceteris paribus. Our results also provide evidence of an opportunistic budget cycle, the budget balances are lower in pre-election years relative to the other years to try and increase the incumbents reelection possibilities. An additional finding is that the incremental effect of the budget balance is very important and should not be ignored like is being done in a lot of empirical research. The coefficients of the lagged dependent variables are always positive and very significant. This proves that the budget balance is subject to incrementalism. It is not possible to change the entire policy from one year to another so the actions taken in recent past years still have an impact on the current budget balance. Only a relatively small amount of research concerning the budget balance takes this considerable incremental effect into account. Our findings survive several robustness checks.
7
65436
Clustering of Extremes in Financial Returns: A Comparison between Developed and Emerging Markets
Abstract:
This paper investigates the dependency or clustering of extremes in the financial returns data by estimating the extremal index value θ∈[0,1]. The smaller the value of θ the more clustering we have. Here we apply the method of Ferro and Segers (2003) to estimate the extremal index for a range of threshold values. We compare the dependency structure of extremes in the developed and emerging markets. We use the financial returns of the stock market index in the developed markets of US, UK, France, Germany and Japan and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, China and Saudi Arabia. We expect that more clustering occurs in the emerging markets. This study will help to understand the dependency structure of the financial returns data.
6
38429
A Game of Information in Defense/Attack Strategies: Case of Poisson Attacks
Abstract:
In this paper, we briefly introduce the concept of Poisson attacks in the case of defense/attack strategies where attacks are assumed to be continuous. We suggest a game model in which the attacker will combine both criteria of a sufficient confidence level of a successful attack and a reasonably small size of the estimation error in order to launch an attack. Here, estimation error arises from assessing the system failure upon attack using aggregate data at the system level. The corresponding error is referred to as aggregation error. On the other hand, the defender will attempt to deter attack by making one or both criteria inapplicable. The defender will build his/her strategy by both strengthening the targeted system and increasing the size of error. We will formulate the defender problem based on appropriate optimization models. The attacker will opt for a Bayesian updating in assessing the impact on the improvement made by the defender. Then, the attacker will evaluate the feasibility of the attack before making the decision of whether or not to launch it. We will provide illustrations to better explain the process.