International Science Index

International Journal of Law and Political Sciences

384
55045
Child Labour: Enforcement of Right to Promote Child Development in Nigeria
Abstract:
This study will explore child labour issues in Nigeria because it is capable of affecting the physical and general well-being of children who perform hazardous work. This feat will be achieved through qualitative research methodology. Data collection shall be elicited by oral interviews and documental content analysis to delve on the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), International Labour Organization ILO and Geneva Convention relating to child labour practices in Nigeria. This will include the relevance of present domestic laws relating to child labour as implemented in Nigeria, together with factors that contribute to the practice of child labour in the country. The oral interview data analysis will be performed by breaking the interview data into significant statements and themes. This shall be done by comparing and determining the commonalities that are prevalent in the participants’ views regarding child labour menace in Nigeria. Presumably, findings from this study shall unveil that a poor educational policy, a widespread poverty level which is mostly prevalent amongst families in the rural areas of the country, a lack of employment for adults, have led to the ineffectiveness of the local child labour laws in Nigeria. These has in turn culminated into a somewhat non-implementation of the international laws of the CRC, ILO and Geneva Declaration on child labour to which the Nigerian government is a signatory. Based on the finding, this study will calls on the government of Nigeria to extend its free educational policy from the elementary, secondary to tertiary educations. The government also has to ensure that offenders of children’s rights should face a severe punishment.
383
60449
Killed by the ‘Subhuman’: Jane Longhurst’s Murder and the Construction of the ‘Extreme Pornography’ Problem in the British National Press
Abstract:
This paper looks at the crucial role of the British news media in the construction of extreme pornography as a social problem, suggesting that this paved the way for the subsequent criminalization of such material through the introduction of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008. Focusing on the high-profile case of Graham Coutts, it examines the British national press’ reaction to Jane Longhurst’s murder through a qualitative content analysis of 251 relevant news articles. Specifically, the paper documents the key arguments expressed in the corresponding claims-making process. It considers the different ways in which the consequent ‘trial by media’ presented this exceptional case as the ‘tip of the iceberg’ and eventually translated into policy. The analysis sheds light on the attempts to ‘piggyback’ the issue of extreme pornography on child sexual abuse images as well as the textual and visual mechanisms used to establish an ‘us versus them’ dichotomy in the pertinent media discourse. Finally, the paper assesses the severity of the actual risk posed by extreme pornography, concluding that its criminalization should not merely be dismissed as the outcome of an institutionalized media panic.
382
58016
Child Labour Issue: Practice of Enforecement of Right of the Child in Nigeria
Abstract:
This study will explore child labour issues in Nigeria because it is capable of affecting the physical and general well-being of children who perform hazardous work. This feat will be achieved through qualitative research methodology. Data collection shall be elicited by oral interviews and documental content analysis to delve on the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), International Labour Organization ILO and Geneva Convention relating to child labour practices in Nigeria. This will include the relevance of present domestic laws relating to child labour as implemented in Nigeria, together with factors that contribute to the practice of child labour in the country. The oral interview data analysis will be performed by breaking the interview data into significant statements and themes. This shall be done by comparing and determining the commonalities that are prevalent in the participants’ views regarding child labour menace in Nigeria. Presumably, findings from this study shall unveil that a poor educational policy, a widespread poverty level which is mostly prevalent amongst families in the rural areas of the country, a lack of employment for adults, have led to the ineffectiveness of the local child labour laws in Nigeria. These has in turn culminated into a somewhat non-implementation of the international laws of the CRC, ILO and Geneva Declaration on child labour to which the Nigerian government is a signatory. Based on the finding, this study will calls on the government of Nigeria to extend its free educational policy from the elementary, secondary to tertiary educations. The government also has to ensure that offenders of children’s rights should face a severe punishment.
381
57850
The Role and Function of National Land Authority as Mediator in Land Dispute Settlements in Indonesia
Abstract:
The regulation in Indonesia provides space for the land dispute to be settled outside the court by the government through National Land. In this case, the bureaucrat of Badan Pertanahan Nasional (BPN) acts as mediator to reach a fair agreement between the disputing parties. Land dispute is from a party who denies the ownership of the other party of a land and denies legal-technical facts written on land certificate published by BPN. Appointing the bureaucrat of BPN as mediator in dispute settlements may possibly create conflict of interest since the object. It has become a concern since bureaucrat of BPN acts as mediator, he will be bias and partial in assisting the dispute settlement, thus the spirit and purposes of mediation will be hampered. This issue triggers to be thoroughly examined further in a relation with the role and function of BPN as land dispute mediator. The methodology used in this research is a normative-legal one with qualitative-legal analytical method. The object of this research is in the form of random sampling of land dispute cases being occurred in some areas. Several principles in mediation have to be made as the base of the consideration to appoint bureaucrat of BPN as mediator since the mediator is an impartial third party, working with both disputing parties and assisting them to reach a fair resolution written in agreement as a foundation of land dispute settlement. The existence of BPN as mediator in land dispute settlement encounters conflict of interest which uphold legal uncertainty to act objectively.
380
55106
Comparative International Law and Feminist Legal Studies, Uniting to Make a Difference in Addressing the Disempowerment of Women
Authors:
Abstract:
In thinking about the role of the law and its impact on socially constructed norms and identities, scholars have come to explore a multitude of issues to do with equality, empowerment, and views. The aim of this contribution is threefold. Firstly, offer a descriptive framework of feminist legal studies (FLS) through a review of the evolution of the field in the context of equality, rights, and justice. Secondly, encourage those working on equality, rights, and justice in respect to ‘women’s issues’ to engage in international comparative legal studies. Third, to highlight that those seeking solutions to disempowerment and discrimination must recognize that they need to contend with claims that one is seeking to undermine cultural norms. Therefore, one effective way for feminists to address this situation is by relying more on the international legal mechanism, which reflects basic legal tenets as to the universality of equality, rights, and justice, that can then help shape the domestic setting.
379
56467
Surge in U. S. Citizens Expatriation: Testing StructualEquation Modeling to Explain the Underlying Policy Rational
Authors:
Abstract:
Comparing present to past the numbers of Americans expatriating U. S. citizenship have risen. Even though these numbers are small compared to the immigrants, U. S. citizens expatriations have historically been much lower, making the uptick worrisome. In addition, the published lists and numbers from the U.S. government seems incomplete, with many not counted. Different branches of the U. S. government report different numbers and no one seems to know exactly how big the real number is, even though the IRS and the FBI both track and/or publish numbers of Americans who renounce. Since there is no single explanation, anecdotal evidence suggests this uptick is caused by global tax law and increased compliance burdens imposed by the U.S. lawmakers on U.S. citizens abroad. Within a research project the question arose about the reasons why a constant growing number of U.S. citizens are expatriating – the answers are believed helping to explain the underlying governmental policy rational, leading to such activities. While it is impossible to locate former U.S. citizens to conduct a survey on the reasons and the U.S. government is not commenting on the reasons given within the process of expatriation, the chosen methodology is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), in the first step by re-using current surveys conducted by different researchers within the population of U. S. citizens residing abroad during the last years. Surveys questioning the personal situation in the context of tax, compliance, citizenship and likelihood to repatriate to the U. S. In general SEM allows: (1) Representing, estimating and validating a theoretical model with linear (unidirectional or not) relationships. (2) Modeling causal relationships between multiple predictors (exogenous) and multiple dependent variables (endogenous). (3) Including unobservable latent variables. (4) Modeling measurement error: the degree to which observable variables describe latent variables. Moreover SEM seems very appealing since the results can be represented either by matrix equations or graphically. Results: the observed variables (items) of the construct are caused by various latent variables. The given surveys delivered a high correlation and it is therefore impossible to identify the distinct effect of each indicator on the latent variable – which was one desired result. Since every SEM comprises two parts: (1) measurement model (outer model) and (2) structural model (inner model), it seems necessary to extend the given data by conducting additional research and surveys to validate the outer model to gain the desired results.
378
59786
Combating Domestic Violence in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges
Abstract:
Domestic violence is not an uncommon phenomenon throughout the world. Malaysia is no exception. However, the exact prevalence of domestic violence in Malaysia is difficult to capture due to cultural understanding and sensitivity of the issues existing in the society. This paper aims to examine the issues and problems with the law of domestic violence in Malaysia. As such, it will mainly rely on statutes as its primary sources of information. It will analyse the scope and provisions of the Penal Code as well as the Domestic Violence Act 1994. Any shortcomings and gaps in the laws will be highlighted. It is submitted that domestic violence remains a problem in Malaysia. Although many strategies and plans have been implemented in attempting to combat this social problem, it remains unresolved. This is due to the inefficient implementation of the law. Although much has been done, there is still more to be done by the Malaysian government to combat domestic violence more effectively. For this reason, significant cooperation between the law enforcement authorities, NGOs, and the community must be established.
377
58256
Cybersecurity and Governance for Humanitarian Work: An Approach for Addressing Security Risks
Abstract:
The state of national security is an evolving concern. Companies, organizations, governments, states and individuals are aware of the security of their information and their assets however, they may not always be aware of the risks present. These risks are not only limited to non-existence of security procedures. Existing security can be severely flawed, especially if there is non-conformance towards policies, practices and procedures. When looking at humanitarian actions, we can easily identify these flaws. Unfortunately, humanitarian aid has to compete with factors from within the states, countries and continents they are working in. Furthermore, as technology improves, so does our connectivity to the internet and the way in which we use the internet. However, there are times when security is overlooked and humanitarian agencies are some of the agencies that do not always take security into consideration. The purpose of this paper will be to introduce the importance of cybersecurity and cybersecurity governance with respect to humanitarian work. We will also introduce and briefly discuss a model that can be used by humanitarian agencies to assess, manage and maintain their cybersecurity efforts.
376
60530
Protection of Victims’ Rights in International Criminal Proceedings
Abstract:
In the recent years, the number of crimes against peace and humanity has been constantly increasing. The development of international community is inseparably connected to the compliance with the law which protects the rights and interests of citizens in all of their manifestations. The provisions of the law of criminal procedure are no exception. The rights of the victims of genocide, of the war crimes and the crimes against humanity require particular attention. These crimes fall within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court governed by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. These crimes have the following features. First, any such crime has a mass character and therefore requires specific regulation in the international criminal law and procedure and in the national criminal law and procedure of different countries. Second, the victims of such crimes are usually children, women and old people; the entire national, ethnic, racial or religious groups are destroyed. These features influence the classification of victims by the age criterion. Article 68 of the Rome Statute provides for protection of the safety, physical and psychological well-being, dignity and privacy of victims and witnesses and thus determines the procedural status of these persons. However, not all the persons whose rights have been violated by the commission of these crimes acquire the status of victims. This is due to the fact that such crimes affect a huge number of persons and it is impossible to mention them all by name. It is also difficult to assess the entire damage suffered by the victims. While assessing the amount of damages it is essential to take into account physical and moral harm, as well as property damage. The procedural status of victims thus gains an exclusive character. In odrer to determine the full extent of the damage suffered by the victims it is necessary to collect sufficient evidence. However, it is extremely difficult to collect the evidence that would insure the full and objective protection of the victims’ rights. While making requests for the collection of evidence, the International Criminal Court faces the problem of protection of national security information. Religious beliefs and the family life of victims are of great importance. In some Islamic countries it is impossible to question a woman without her husband’s consent which affects the objectivity of her testimony. Finally, the number of victims is quantified by hundreds and thousands. The assessment of these elements demands time and highly qualified work. These factors justify creation of a mechanism that would help to collect the evidence and establish the truth in the international criminal proceedings. This mechanism will help to impose a just and appropriate punishment for the persons accused of having committed a crime, since, committing the crime, criminals could not misunderstand the outcome of their criminal intent.
375
60594
Criminal Responsibility of Minors in Russia: The Age of Liability and Penalties
Abstract:
Abstract: The level of crime depends on a number of factors, such as political and economic instability, social inequality and ineffective legislation. A special place in the overall level of crime takes juvenile delinquency. United Nations Standard Minimum developed rules for the administration of juvenile justice (The Beijing Rules), in order to ensure the rights of juvenile offenders under the various legal systems. Most countries support these recommendations, and Russia is no exception. Russia's criminal code establishes the minimum age of criminal liability; types of crimes for which the possible involvement of minors to justice; punishment; sentencing and execution of punishment for minors. However, these provisions cause heated debates in the scientific literature. The high level of juvenile crime indicates the ineffectiveness of legal regulation of criminal liability of minors. In order to ensure compliance with international standards require new and modern approaches to improve national legislation and practice of its application. Achieving this goal will be achieved through the following tasks: 1. Create sub-branches of law regulating the legal status of minors; 2. Improving the types of penalties; 3. The possibility of using alternative measures; 4. The introduction of the procedure of extrajudicial settlement of the conflict. The criminal law of each country depends on the historical, national and cultural characteristics. The development of the Russian legislation taking into account international experience is extremely essential and will be a new stage in the formation of a legal state, especially in the sphere of protection of the rights of juvenile offenders.
374
58203
Controversies Connected with the Admission of Illegally Gained Evidences in Polish Civil Proceedings
Abstract:
The need to present evidence in civil proceedings is essential for getting the right result. It is for this reason that it is particularly important for the parties to present the most relevant and convincing evidence to the Court. Therefore, parties often try to gain evidence, even when the acquisition of such evidence is in breach of the law. Firstly, there will be discussed how evidence is applied in the Polish civil process and the Polish regulations of the evidence proceedings; with specific reference to evidence of major importance in the developing world. Further, it will be discussed the controversies connected with the admission of illegally gained evidence in civil proceedings. The credibility of the various measures is circumstantial and can only be determined by factors related to the recognized problem. For that reason, it is not the amount of evidence, but the value and relevance of this evidence that should be considered in determining the right result. This paper will also consider whether the end justifies the means? How far should parties go in order to achieve a favorable sentence or to create stronger evidence? Methods of persuasion of the court, as well as the acquisition of evidence, are not always fair and moral. It is on this area of controversy that this essay will focus. This paper concludes by considering the value of evidence and the possibility of using it to achieve a just sentence. Examples are based on Polish law; nevertheless, they encompass ideas common to most civil jurisdictions.
373
57782
Social Inclusion of Rural Elderly Left Behind by Internal Labor Migration: A Case Study in A Chinese Rural Village in Anhui Province
Authors:
Abstract:
Since the famous opening up and reform strategy of China, lots of migrants have flowed from rural areas to urban areas. In this paper, the author investigates the rural elderly left behind, which are defined aged people left alone at home while their adult children have to migrant outside. This phenomenon is a quite general and serious social problem that cannot be ignored, accompanied by the process of urbanization and regional transferring of rural labor. The Chinese internal migration not only exerts great influence to China’s economy and urbanization but also obviously reduces the labor and care to rural aged people. Contrary to assumptions in some migration and aging studies, which show the inevitable negative effects of migration upon the old age care, the author highlights unique features in their daily strategies of house holding to integrate into society with the analysis of the conception of social inclusion. Through life history interviews with elderly left behind in one rural village, this article sheds light on three different factors of social inclusion, namely, economic inclusion, social identity and political inclusion and shows its necessaries to fully understand the status of the social wellbeing of rural elderly left behind.
372
58356
Administrative Review of Australian Migration Decisions
Abstract:
This presentation highlights the observations and reflections of an Australian migration and refugee decision reviewer. The presenter’s observations are accumulated over a period of 8 years as a member of the Australian government’s administrative review tribunal. The tribunal has the responsibility for reviewing and deciding the merits of migration and refugee protection decisions, including visa application refusals and visa cancellations. After outlining the legal basis and principles governing the Australian migration appeal process, the presenter will share his insights into the key legal and practical challenges of fair and de novo review of migration decisions. The presentation focuses, by use of case studies, on the particular challenges of credibility assessment in sexuality persecution cases, in political opinion persecution cases, and in partner / spouse migration cases where fraud or marriage of convenience is alleged. The presentation will draw conclusions based on experience and which will be of theoretical and practical interest and benefit to researchers, academics, and to migration practitioners.
371
60512
Illegal Immigrants of Bangladesh in Malaysia and Present Situation
Abstract:
Illegal immigrants’ problem is a big problem all over the world including America. Malaysia is also facing this problem. Now days, it is turned into a major problem for Malaysia. Many illegal immigrants are staying in Malaysia from different countries such as Bangladesh, Myanmar, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippine, Nigeria. This article is only focusing to the present situation of illegal immigrants of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to highlight how the Bangladeshi nationals becoming illegal immigrant in Malaysia. In the same time, this article also tries to identify the present situation of Bangladeshi illegal immigrants in Malaysia. The research will adopt qualitative methods of research. Both countries have to find a solution to solve this problem.
370
58727
Capital Punishment: A Paradoxical Wrinkle to the Principles of Ethics and Morality
Authors:
Abstract:
The recent upheaval of a ballot initiative taken place in California & Los Angeles‘s newspapers shows how the concept of giving Death Penalty obliterates the very soul basis of community and society which rests upon the tripod of values, ethics, and morality. This paper goes on with examining how, by giving death penalties we are, on one hand trying to wipe out those heinous offenders committing such unspeakable crimes against the public; while on the other hand it comes with a devastating effect of corroding and eluding the existence of ethics and morality which is in the very nature of “protecting the life of humankind”. As it can be stated that, by giving capital punishment, we are trying to legitimize an irreversible act of violence by the authority of state and target innocent victims because as long as the human justice is fallible, the risk of executing an innocent can never be eliminated. However, scholars in the legalization of Capital Punishment have argued that the courts should impose punishment befitting the crime so that they could reflect public abhorrence of the crime, create deterrent or rehabilitating effects & deliver the truest form of justice.
369
52728
Working Together: The Nature of Collaborative Legal and Social Services and Their Influence on Practice
Abstract:
Practice collaborations between legal assistance and social support services have emerged as a growing framework worldwide for delivering services to clients with high degrees of disadvantage, vulnerability and complexity. In Australia, the past five years has seen a significant growth in these socio-legal collaborations, with programs being delivered through legal, social service and health organizations and addressing a range of issues including mental health, immigration, parental child abduction and domestic violence. This presentation is based on research currently mapping the nature of these collaborations in Australia and exploring the influence that collaborating professions are having on each other’s practice. In a similar way to problem-solving courts being seen as a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in the court setting, socio-legal collaborations have the potential to be a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in an advice setting. This presentation will explore the varied ways in which socio-legal collaboration is being implemented in these programs. It will also explore the development of interdisciplinary therapeutic jurisprudence within them, with preliminary findings suggesting that both legal and social service practice is being influenced by the collaborative setting, with legal practice showing a more therapeutic orientation and social service professions, such as social work, moving toward a legal and rights orientation.
368
60553
Beyond Juridical Approaches: The Role Of Sociological Approach In Promoting Human Rights Of Migrants
Abstract:
Every year in this globalized world, thousands of migrants leave their countries hoping to find a better situation of life in other parts of the world. In this regard, many questions, from a human rights point of view, have been raised about how this phenomenon should be managed in the host countries. Although legal approaches such as legislation and litigation are inevitable in the way to respect the human rights of migrants, there is an increasing consensus about the fact that a strict juridical approach is inadequate to protect as well as to prevent violations of migrants’ rights. Indeed, given the multiplicity of factors that affect and shape the application of these rights and considering the fact that law is a social phenomenon, what is needed is an interdisciplinary approach, which combines both juridical approaches and perspectives from other disciplines. In this respect, a sociological approach is important because it shows the social processes through which human rights of migrants have been constructed or violated in particular social situations. Sociologists who study international migration ask the questions such as how many people migrate, who migrates, why people migrate, what happens to them once they arrive in the host country, how migration affects sending and receiving communities, the extent to which migrants help the economy, the effects of migration on crimes, and how migrants change the local communities. This paper is an attempt to show how sociology can promote human rights of migrants. To this end, the article first explores the usefulness and value of an interdisciplinary approach to realize how and to what extent sociology may improve and promote the human rights of migrants in the destination country. It then examines mechanisms which help to reach to a systematic integration of law and sociological discipline to advance migrants’ rights as well as to encourage legal scholars to consider the implications of societal structures in the their works.
367
57322
A Method to Enhance the Accuracy of Digital Forensic in the Absence of Sufficient Evidence in Saudi
Abstract:
Digital forensics seeks to achieve the successful investigation of digital crimes; through obtaining acceptable evidence from digital devices that can be presented in a court of law. Thus, the digital forensics investigation is normally performed through a number of phases in order to achieve the required level of accuracy in the investigation processes. Since 1984 there have been a number of models and frameworks developed to support the digital investigation processes. In this paper we review a number of the investigation processes that have been produced throughout the years and introduce a proposed digital forensic model which is based on the scope of the Saudi Arabia investigation process. The proposed model has been integrated with existing models for the investigation processes and produced a new phase to deal with a situation where there is initially insufficient evidence.
366
56305
Relevance of the Judgements Given by the International Court of Justice with Regard to South China Sea Vis-A-Vis Marshall Islands
Abstract:
After the Second World War had come to an end, the Founding Fathers of the United Nations recognized a need for a supreme peacekeeping mechanism to act as a mediator between nations and moderate disputes that might blow up, if left unchecked. It has been more than seven decades since the establishment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). When it was created, there were certain aim and objectives that the ICJ was intended to achieve. However, in today’s world, with change in political dynamics and international relations between countries, the ICJ has not succeeded in achieving several of these objectives. The ICJ is the only body in the international scenario that has the authority to regulate disputes between countries. However, in recent times, with countries like China disregarding the importance of the ICJ, there is no hope for the ICJ to command respect from other nations, thereby sending ICJ on a slow, yet steady path towards redundancy. The authority of the judgements given by the International Court of Justice, which is one of the main pillars of the United Nations, is questionable due to the forthcoming reactions from various countries on public platforms. The ICJ’s principal role within the United Nations framework is to settle peacefully international/bilateral disputes between the states that come under its jurisdiction and in accordance with the principles laid down in international law. By shedding light on the public backlash from the Chinese Government to the recent South China Sea judgement, we see the decreasing relevance of the ICJ in the contemporary world scenario. Philippines and China have wrangled over territory in the South China Sea for centuries but after the recent judgement the tension has reached an all-time high with China threatening to prosecute anybody as trespassers while continuing to militarise the disputed area. This paper will deal with the South China Sea judgement and the manner in which it has been received by the Chinese Government. Also, it will look into the consequences of counter-back. The authors will also look into the Marshall Island matter and propose a model judgement, in accordance with the principles of international law that would be the most suited for the given situation. Also, the authors will propose amendments in the working of the Security Council to ensure that the Marshal Island judgement is passed and accepted by the countries without any contempt.
365
56438
Effectiveness of Public Health Laws and Study of Social Aspects: With Special Reference to India
Abstract:
Health is one of the basic requirements of human being. And today India is facing a major degradation of health at every age group. As society evolves and flourishes, there are different types of rules, norms, standards which are required to control the conduct of the human being for its well-being and growth. Right to health is one of those aspects that can be counted, discovered and examined under the purview of constitutional provisions of India. The condition of health is at downfall despite the fact that there are several policies framed by the government. There is an urgent call for rigid public health laws to ensure safe and disease free society. The effectiveness of health law has to be examined by keeping in mind that it is hampering growth and economy and society establishment. Health in any society is a main social aspect as it plays a major role for economic development. The multidimensional approach to determine it is by discussing i) rational selection and use of medicines ii) sustainable adequate financing iii) affordable prices iv)reliable health and supply systems.
364
59394
The High Potential and the Little Use of Brazilian Class Actions for Prevention and Penalization Due to Workplace Accidents in Brazil
Abstract:
Introduction: Work accidents and occupational diseases are a big problem for public health around the world and the main health problem of workers with high social and economic costs. Brazil has shown progress over the last years, with the development of the regulatory system to improve safety and quality of life in the workplace. However, the situation is far from acceptable, because the occurrences remain high and there is a great gap between legislation and reality, generated by the low level of voluntary compliance with the law. Brazilian laws provide procedural legal instruments for both, to compensate the damage caused to the worker's health and to prevent future injuries. In the Judiciary, the prevention idea is in the collective action, effected through Brazilian Class Actions. Inhibitory guardianships may impose both, improvements to the working environment, as well as determine the interruption of activity or a ban on the machine that put workers at risk. Both the Labor Prosecution and trade unions have to stand to promote this type of action, providing payment of compensation for collective moral damage. Objectives: To verify how class actions (known as ‘public civil actions’), regulated in Brazilian legal system to protect diffuse, collective and homogeneous rights, are being used to protect workers' health and safety. Methods: The author identified and evaluated decisions of Brazilian Superior Court of Labor involving collective actions and work accidents. The timeframe chosen was December 2015. The online jurisprudence database was consulted in page available for public consultation on the court website. The categorization of the data was made considering the result (court application was rejected or accepted), the request type, the amount of compensation and the author of the cause, besides knowing the reasoning used by the judges. Results: The High Court issued 21,948 decisions in December 2015, with 1448 judgments (6.6%) about work accidents and only 20 (0.09%) on collective action. After analyzing these 20 decisions, it was found that the judgments granted compensation for collective moral damage (85%) and/or obligation to make, that is, changes to improve prevention and safety (71%). The processes have been filed mainly by the Labor Prosecutor (83%), and also appeared lawsuits filed by unions (17%). The compensation for collective moral damage had average of 250,000 reais (about US$65,000), but it should be noted that there is a great range of values found, also are several situations repaired by this compensation. This is the last instance resource for this kind of lawsuit and all decisions were well founded and received partially the request made for working environment protection. Conclusions: When triggered, the labor court system provides the requested collective protection in class action. The values of convictions arbitrated in collective actions are significant and indicate that it creates social and economic repercussions, stimulating employers to improve the working environment conditions of their companies. It is necessary to intensify the use of collective actions, however, because they are more efficient for prevention than reparatory individual lawsuits, but it has been underutilized, mainly by Unions.
363
50147
Application First and Second Digits Number in the Benford Law
Abstract:
Background: This study aims to explore the fraud that occurred in the financial statements using the Benford distribution law of 1st and 2nd case study of PT AKR Corporindo Tbk. Research Methods: In this study the authors use the first digit of the analysis and the analysis of the second digit of Bedford’s law. Having obtained the results of the analysis of the first and second digits, authors will make the difference between implementations using the scale above and below 5%. The number that has the level of difference in the range of 5% above or below, then a financial report in may, to analyse in the followup to the direction of the audit investigation, and authors assume happens a confusion in the financial statements. Findings: From research done, we found that there was a difference in the results of the appearance of the first digit of the number with the proper use of Benford's law, according to PT AKR Corporindo financial reports Tbk for the fiscal year 2006-2010, above and below the level the difference in set 5%. Conclusions: From the research that has been done, it can be concluded that on PT AKR Corporindo financial report 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, there is a level difference of appearance of numbers according to Benford's law is significant, as presented in the table analysis.
362
60107
Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan
Abstract:
The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.
361
60455
Addressing Conceptual Legal Gaps in The Context Of Environmental Displacement
Authors:
Abstract:
Humans have altered their movements in response to environmental changes for millions of years. There is nothing morally wrong about this. It is simply a normal adaptive response to alterations normally undergone by the environment over long periods of time, at least long from an anthropomorphic perspective. However, issues of morality and law begin to enter the picture when humans modify the environmental in certain ways: (1) on a global basis, (2) over a relatively short period of time, and (3) with the result that tens of millions of humans are displaced. But now we are entering into a new era of displacement. In the coming decades, it is predicted that the number of people who will be displaced by environmental changes will exceed those displaced due to persecution and armed conflict. Since the 1980s, scholars and practitioners have struggled to doctrinally categorise the “drivers” of environmental displacement. There is an apparent gap in international law because proposals to amend the existing legal instruments, to adopt better national laws, or to negotiate and conclude new regional and international conventions—have generally not been popular with scholars, international organisations, and states. As a result, there has recently been a shift in approach from a rights-based approach to an adaptive approach. Building on the work of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (1994) and the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda (2015), the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA)—under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change—resulted in the Cancun Adaptation Framework, in which States Parties were invited to devote more attention to the research and study of environmental displacement. This has been called an attempt to move away from the liability-based method in order to embrace “stable trajectories for societal transformations” over long-term time horizons—or “climate foresight”. The conceptual gaps in the international legal and normative frameworks require new thinking, and the adaptive approach has the potential to address the coming displacement crisis before a global catastrophe occurs, through funding, research, and action in the following areas: (1) developing in situ adaptation strategies that support affected populations to remain where they live; (2) strengthening the resilience of communities that have to move or are already displaced (and this includes the communities into which the displaced persons will journey); and (3) planning for voluntary resettlement in an orderly and dignified manner, as a last resort adaptation option. This paper will explore how durable and fair legal mechanisms can be put into place to best support this new adaptive approach to environmental displacement.
360
60570
The Violations of Human Rights after the February Revolution in Libya
Abstract:
Libya saw the occurrence of violations of human rights on a large scale as well as the deterioration of the rule of law in large parts of the country after the February 17 revolution that removed the Colonel Muammar Gaddafi from power in what is known upheaval of the Arab Spring. Although Libya, a country with a modern democracy, but he has declared unconstitutional temporarily allowed to exercise all the rights of political, civil and judicial, but the presence of weapons in the hands of militias list on the basis of regional, tribal and ideology was the main reason for the deterioration of the humanitarian situation as well as the foreign intervention in Libya. Where reports stressed that violations are serious committed by the conflicting parties from power after the fall of Gaddafi of assassinations and kidnapping of identity and practices related to human trafficking Some of these reports indicate that some ethnic ingredients such as Tawergha and Epiphyseal where was deliberately targeted by some militias were displacement around the city because of their allegiance to the former regime after the war ended in 2012. It is noteworthy that many of these violations and abuses committed by these militias that participated overthrow Gaddafi may rise to war crimes and crimes against humanity. That the intervention in Libya, although it had a human purpose and under the pretext of reducing the political system of human rights violations, but that the main objective, which was behind the international intervention was to overthrow the existing political system and the elimination of Muammar Gaddafi.
359
54894
Mobility and Effective Regulatory Policies in the 21st Century Transport Sector
Authors:
Abstract:
The majority of the world’s population is already living in urban areas and the urban population is expected to keep increasing in the next decades. This exponential increase in urban population carries with it obvious mobility problems. Not only a new paradigm in the transport sector is needed in order to address these problems; effective regulatory policies to ensure the quality of services, passenger rights, competition between operators and consistency of the entire mobile ecosystem are needed as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the problems the world faces in this sector and contribute to their solution. Indeed, our study concludes that only through the active supervision of the markets and the activity of monitoring the various operators will it be possible to develop a sustainable and efficient transport system which meets the needs of a changing world.
358
54894
Mobility and Effective Regulatory Policies in the 21st Century Transport Sector
Authors:
Abstract:
The majority of the world’s population is already living in urban areas and the urban population is expected to keep increasing in the next decades. This exponential increase in urban population carries with it obvious mobility problems. Not only a new paradigm in the transport sector is needed in order to address these problems; effective regulatory policies to ensure the quality of services, passenger rights, competition between operators and consistency of the entire mobile ecosystem are needed as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the problems the world faces in this sector and contribute to their solution. Indeed, our study concludes that only through the active supervision of the markets and the activity of monitoring the various operators will it be possible to develop a sustainable and efficient transport system which meets the needs of a changing world.
357
51650
Systems and Procedures in Indonesian Administrative Law
Abstract:
Governance of the Republic of Indonesia should be based on the principle of sovereignty and the rule of law. Based on these principles, all forms of decisions and/or actions of government administration should be based on the sovereignty of the people and the law. Decisions and/or actions for citizens should be based on the provisions of the legislation and the general principles of good governance. Control of the decisions and/or actions is a part of administrative review and also judicial control. The control is part of the administrative justice system, which is intended for people affected by the decisions or administrative actions. This control is the duty and authority of the government or independent administrative court. Therefore, systems and procedures for the implementation of the task of governance and development must be regulated by law. Systems and procedures of governance is a subject studied in administrative law, therefore, the research also includes a review of the principles of law in administrative law. The administrative law procedure is important for the government to make decisions, the question is whether the procedures are part of the justice system itself.
356
55434
Study of Cyber Crimes in International Legal System
Authors:
Abstract:
Nowadays, talking about cyberspace and using its capacities has affected all the human society layers. in a way that, people of any country regardless of technical, social, economic and political structures, get benefits of its opportunities and capacities directly or indirectly. However, it should be considered that cyberspace is the generator of a significant amount of communication among every person which causes instability in principles of sovereignty in every society, because governance elements like borders, governance and population are changing every moment due to international forms and dimensions of cyber space. Therefore, according to the above-mentioned items and the unique nature of cyberspace, there are some greedy and opportunist people with criminal attitude who are trying to do their criminal behavior in this field. In some situations, this behavior is known as cybercrime. In this paper, the author tries to analyze legitimate structures of cyberspace in international legal system , The author concludes that we should look for a new form of international legal system or this cyber law is applicable by considering the existing international legal system.
355
58654
Electoral Mathematics and Asymmetrical Treatment to Political Parties: The Mexican Case
Abstract:
Mexican Electoral Law has been modified several times in the last three decades (eight electoral reforms from 1986 to 2014). All of them maintain the same structure for the Lower House of Congress: The Chamber of Deputies, composed of 300 representatives elected by simple majority (plurality) and another 200 representatives elected through proportional representation in five electoral clusters comprised of 40 representatives each. It is worth noting that in this mixed-member electoral system the seat distribution of proportional representation is not independent of election by plurality, as it attempts to correct imbalances produced in single-member districts. Furthermore, such election process of 200 seats becomes complex: Formulas in the Law are difficult to be interpreted, and they might be applied in different ways. This paper analyzes the Mexican electoral system and highlights the electoral reform of 2014, which was applied for the first time in 2015. This research focuses on contradictions and issues of applicability in particular situations where seat allocations are affected by ambiguity in the law and where asymmetrical treatment of political parties arises. On the other hand, once contrasted the current electoral system with others, a proposal of electoral reform will be presented. It is intended to be simpler, clearer, and fairer than the current system. Even more, this new model is more suitable for producing electoral outcomes being free of contradictions and paradoxes. This approach allows a fair treatment to political parties and, as a result, an improved opportunity to exercise democracy.