International Science Index
International Journal of Information and Communication Engineering
Message Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks under Sparse RSUs Environment
In this paper, we combine the concepts of chameleon hash function (CHF) and identification based cryptography (IBC) to build a message authentication environment for VANET under sparse RSUs. Based on the CHF, TA keeps two common secrets that will be embedded to all identities to be as the evidence of mutual trusting. TA will issue one original identity to every RSU and vehicle. An identity contains one public ID and one private key. The public ID, includes three components: pseudonym, random key, and public key, is used to present one entity and can be verified to be a legal one. The private key is used to claim the ownership of the public ID. Based on the concept of IBC, without any negotiating process, a CHF pairing key multiplied by one private key and other’s public key will be used for mutually trusting and to be utilized as the session key of secure communicating between RSUs and vehicles. To help the vehicles to do message authenticating, the RSUs are assigned to response the vehicle’s temple identity request using two short time secretes that are broadcasted by TA. To light the loading of request information, one day is divided into M time slots. At every time slot, TA will broadcast two short time secretes to all valid RSUs for that time slot. Any RSU can response the temple identity request from legal vehicles. With the collected announcement of public IDs from the neighbor vehicles, a vehicle can set up its neighboring set, which includes the information about the neighbor vehicle’s temple public ID and temple CHF pairing key that can be derived by the private key and neighbor’s public key and will be used to do message authenticating or secure communicating without the help of RSU.
Efficient Filtering of Graph-Based Data Using Graph Partitioning
An algebraic framework for processing graph signals axiomatically designates the graph adjacency matrix as the shift operator. In this setup, we often encounter a problem wherein we know the filtered output and the filter coefficients and need to find out the input graph signal. Solution to this problem using direct approach requires O(N^3) operations, where N is the number of vertices in the graph. In this paper, we adapt the spectral graph partitioning method for partitioning of graphs and use it to reduce the computational cost of the filtering problem. We use the example of denoising of the temperature data to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.
Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing
A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.
Design of Multi-Loop Controller for Minimization of Energy Consumption in the Distillation Column
An attempt has been made to design a decoupling controller for systems with more inputs more outputs with dead time in it. The de-coupler is designed for the chemical process industry 3×3 plant transfer function with dead time. The Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) based controller has also been designed here for the 2×2 distillation column transfer function. The developed control techniques were simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink. Also, the stability of the process was analyzed, together with the presence of various perturbations in it. Time domain specifications like setting time along with overshoot and oscillations were analyzed to prove the efficiency of the de-coupler method. The load disturbance rejection was tested along with its performance. The QFT control technique was synthesized based on the stability and performance specifications in the presence of uncertainty in time constant of the plant transfer function through sequential loop shaping technique. Further, the energy efficiency of the distillation column was improved by proper tuning of the controller. A distillation column consumes 3% of the total energy consumption of the world. A suitable control technique is very important from an economic point of view. The real time implementation of the process is under process in our laboratory.
Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption
In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions which are one of critical network functions, and presents the virtual routing function allocation algorithm that minimizes the total power consumption. In addition, this study presents the useful allocation policy of virtual routing functions, based on an evaluation with a ladder-shaped network model. This policy takes the ratio of the power consumption of a routing function to that of a circuit and traffic distribution between areas into consideration. Furthermore, the present paper shows that there are cases where the use of NFV-based routing functions makes it possible to reduce the total power consumption dramatically, in comparison to a conventional network, in which it is not economically viable to distribute small-capacity routing functions.
Intelligent Irrigation Control System Using Wireless Sensors and Android Application
Agriculture is the major occupation in India and forms the backbone of Indian economy in which irrigation plays a crucial role for increasing the quality and quantity of crop yield. In spite of many revolutionary advancements in agriculture, there has not been a dramatic increase in agricultural performance. Lack of irrigation infrastructure and agricultural knowledge are the critical factors influencing agricultural performance. However, by using advanced agricultural equipment, the effect of these factors can be curtailed. The presented system aims at increasing the yield of crops by using an intelligent irrigation controller that makes use of wireless sensors. Sensors are used to monitor primary parameters such as soil moisture, soil pH, temperature and humidity. Irrigation decisions are taken based on the sensed data and the type of crop being grown. The system provides a mobile application in which farmers can remotely monitor and control the irrigation system. Also, the water pump is protected against damages due to voltage variations and dry running.
Optimal Capacitors Placement and Sizing Improvement Based on Voltage Reduction for Energy Efficiency
Energy efficiency can be realized by minimizing the power loss with a sufficient amount of energy used in an electrical distribution system. In this report, a detailed analysis of the energy efficiency of an electric distribution system was carried out with an implementation of the optimal capacitor placement and sizing (OCPS). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) will be used to determine optimal location and sizing for the capacitors whereas energy consumption and power losses minimization will improve the energy efficiency. In addition, a certain number of busbars or locations are identified in advance before the PSO is performed to solve OCPS. In this case study, three techniques are performed for the pre-selection of busbar or locations which are the power-loss-index (PLI). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is designed to provide a new population with improved sizing and location of capacitors. The total cost of power losses, energy consumption and capacitor installation are the components considered in the objective and fitness functions of the proposed optimization technique. Voltage magnitude limit, total harmonic distortion (THD) limit, power factor limit and capacitor size limit are the parameters considered as the constraints for the proposed of optimization technique. In this research, the proposed methodologies implemented in the MATLAB® software will transfer the information, execute the three-phase unbalanced load flow solution and retrieve then collect the results or data from the three-phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems modeled in the SIMULINK® software. Effectiveness of the proposed methods used to improve the energy efficiency has been verified through several case studies and the results are obtained from the test systems of IEEE 13-bus unbalanced electrical distribution system and also the practical electrical distribution system model of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (SSAAS) government building in Shah Alam, Selangor.
Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): An Assesment
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and WSN (Wireless sensor network) are two significant wireless technologies that have extensive diversity of applications and provide limitless forthcoming potentials. RFID is used to identify existence and location of objects whereas WSN is used to intellect and monitor the environment. Incorporating RFID with WSN not only provides identity and location of an object but also provides information regarding the condition of the object carrying the sensors enabled RFID tag. It can be widely used in stock management, asset tracking, asset counting, security, military, environmental monitoring and forecasting, healthcare, intelligent home, intelligent transport vehicles, warehouse management, and precision agriculture. This assessment presents a brief introduction of RFID, WSN, and integration of WSN and RFID, and then applications related to both RFID and WSN. This assessment also deliberates status of the projects on RFID technology carried out in different computing group projects to be taken on WSN and RFID technology.
Tool for Determining the Similarity between Two Web Applications
In this paper the presentation of a tool which measures the similarity between two websites is made. The websites are compound only from webpages created with HTML. The tool uses three ways of calculating the similarity between two websites based on certain results already published. The first way compares all the webpages within a website, the second way compares a webpage with all the pages within the second website and the third way compares two webpages. Java programming language and technologies such as spring, Jsoup, log4j were used for the implementation of the tool.
Reusing Assessments Tests by Generating Arborescent Test Groups Using a Genetic Algorithm
Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) notions in education and its three basic processes (teaching, learning and assessment) can bring benefits to the education of pupils and the professional development of teachers if they are used properly and with common sense. In this matter, we refer to these notions as concepts taken from the informatics area and applied to the domain of education. These notions refer to genetic algorithms and arborescent structures, used in the specific process of assessment or evaluation. This paper uses these kinds of notions to generate subtrees from a main tree of tests related between them by their degree of difficulty. These subtrees must contain the highest number of connections between the nodes and the lowest number of missing edges (which are subtrees of the main tree) and, in the particular case of the non-existence of a subtree with no missing edges, the subtrees which have the lowest (minimal) number of missing edges between the nodes, where a node is a test and an edge is a direct connection between two tests which differs by one degree of difficulty. The subtrees are represented as sequences. The tests are the same (a number coding a test represents that test in every sequence) and they are reused for each sequence of tests.
Improving Cryptographically Generated Address Algorithm in IPv6 Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol through Trust Management
As transition to widespread use of IPv6 addresses has gained momentum, it has been shown to be vulnerable to certain security attacks such as those targeting Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) which provides the address resolution functionality in IPv6. To protect this protocol, Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) is introduced. This protocol uses Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA) and asymmetric cryptography as a defense against threats on integrity and identity of NDP. Although SEND protects NDP against attacks, it is computationally intensive due to Hash2 condition in CGA. To improve the CGA computation speed, we parallelized CGA generation process and used the available resources in a trusted network. Furthermore, we focused on the influence of the existence of malicious nodes on the overall load of un-malicious ones in the network. According to the evaluation results, malicious nodes have adverse impacts on the average CGA generation time and on the average number of tries. We utilized a Trust Management that is capable of detecting and isolating the malicious node to remove possible incentives for malicious behavior. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Trust Management System in detecting the malicious nodes and hence improving the overall system performance.
Proxisch: An Optimization Approach of Large-Scale Unstable Proxy Servers Scheduling
Nowadays, big companies such as Google, Microsoft,
which have adequate proxy servers, have perfectly implemented
their web crawlers for a certain website in parallel. But due to
lack of expensive proxy servers, it is still a puzzle for researchers
to crawl large amounts of information from a single website in
parallel. In this case, it is a good choice for researchers to use
free public proxy servers which are crawled from the Internet. In
order to improve efficiency of web crawler, the following two issues
should be considered primarily: (1) Tasks may fail owing to the
instability of free proxy servers; (2) A proxy server will be blocked
if it visits a single website frequently. In this paper, we propose
Proxisch, an optimization approach of large-scale unstable proxy
servers scheduling, which allow anyone with extremely low cost to
run a web crawler efficiently. Proxisch is designed to work efficiently
by making maximum use of reliable proxy servers. To solve second
problem, it establishes a frequency control mechanism which can
ensure the visiting frequency of any chosen proxy server below the
website’s limit. The results show that our approach performs better
than the other scheduling algorithms.
An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security
This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields
of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding
information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a
way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded
message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism
of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media
and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In
this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms
available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media
against the corresponding cover media and understand the process
of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that
this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in
steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate
A Distributed Cryptographically Generated Address Computing Algorithm for Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol in IPv6
Due to shortage in IPv4 addresses, transition to IPv6 has gained significant momentum in recent years. Like Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) in IPv4, Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) provides some functions like address resolution in IPv6. Besides functionality of NDP, it is vulnerable to some attacks. To mitigate these attacks, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was introduced, but it was not efficient due to its limitation. Therefore, SEND protocol is proposed to automatic protection of auto-configuration process. It is secure neighbor discovery and address resolution process. To defend against threats on NDP’s integrity and identity, Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA) and asymmetric cryptography are used by SEND. Besides advantages of SEND, its disadvantages like the computation process of CGA algorithm and sequentially of CGA generation algorithm are considerable. In this paper, we parallel this process between network resources in order to improve it. In addition, we compare the CGA generation time in self-computing and distributed-computing process. We focus on the impact of the malicious nodes on the CGA generation time in the network. According to the result, although malicious nodes participate in the generation process, CGA generation time is less than when it is computed in a one-way. By Trust Management System, detecting and insulating malicious nodes is easier.
Preserving Privacy in Workflow Delegation Models
The popularity of workflow delegation models and the increasing number of workflow provenance-aware systems motivate the need for finding more strict delegation models. Such models combine different approaches for enhanced security and respecting workflow privacy. Although modern enterprises seek conformance to workflow constraints to ensure correctness of their work, these constraints pose a threat to security, because these constraints can be good seeds for attacking privacy even in secure models. This paper introduces a comprehensive Workflow Delegation Model (WFDM) that utilizes provenance and workflow constraints to prevent malicious delegate from attacking workflow privacy as well as extending the delegation functionalities. In addition, we argue the need for exploiting workflow constraints to improve workflow security models.
Approximately Similarity Measurement of Web Sites Using Genetic Algorithms and Binary Trees
In this paper, we determine the similarity of two HTML web applications. We are going to use a genetic algorithm in order to determine the most significant web pages of each application (we are not going to use every web page of a site). Using these significant web pages, we will find the similarity value between the two applications. The algorithm is going to be efficient because we are going to use a reduced number of web pages for comparisons but it will return an approximate value of the similarity. The binary trees are used to keep the tags from the significant pages. The algorithm was implemented in Java language.
Using Genetic Algorithms to Outline Crop Rotations and a Cropping-System Model
The idea of cropping-system is a method used by
farmers. It is an environmentally-friendly method, protecting the
natural resources (soil, water, air, nutritive substances) and increase
the production at the same time, taking into account some crop
particularities. The combination of this powerful method with the
concepts of genetic algorithms results into a possibility of generating
sequences of crops in order to form a rotation. The usage of this type
of algorithms has been efficient in solving problems related to
optimization and their polynomial complexity allows them to be used
at solving more difficult and various problems. In our case, the
optimization consists in finding the most profitable rotation of
cultures. One of the expected results is to optimize the usage of the
resources, in order to minimize the costs and maximize the profit. In
order to achieve these goals, a genetic algorithm was designed. This
algorithm ensures the finding of several optimized solutions of
cropping-systems possibilities which have the highest profit and,
thus, which minimize the costs. The algorithm uses genetic-based
methods (mutation, crossover) and structures (genes, chromosomes).
A cropping-system possibility will be considered a chromosome and
a crop within the rotation is a gene within a chromosome. Results
about the efficiency of this method will be presented in a special
section. The implementation of this method would bring benefits into
the activity of the farmers by giving them hints and helping them to
use the resources efficiently.
Comparative Analysis between Wired and Wireless Technologies in Communications: A Review
Many telecommunications industry are looking for new ways to maximize their investment in communication networks while ensuring reliable and secure information transmission. There is a variety of communications medium solutions, the two must popularly in used are wireless technology and wired options, such as copper and fiber-optic cable. Wired network has proven its potential in the olden days but nowadays wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellect and preferred communication technique. Each of these types of communication medium has their advantages and disadvantages according to its technological characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware requirements, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits. The aim of the paper is to compare both the Wired and Wireless medium on the basis of various parameters such as usability, cost, efficiency, flexibility, coverage, reliability, mobility, speed, security etc.
An Efficient FPGA Realization of Fir Filter Using Distributed Arithmetic
Most fundamental part used in many Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter because of its linear phase, stability and regular structure. Designing a high-speed and hardware efficient FIR filter is a very challenging task as the complexity increases with the filter order. In most applications the higher order filters are required but the memory usage of the filter increases exponentially with the order of the filter. Using multipliers occupy a large chip area and need high computation time. Multiplier-less memory-based techniques have gained popularity over past two decades due to their high throughput processing capability and reduced dynamic power consumption. This paper describes the design and implementation of highly efficient Look-Up Table (LUT) based circuit for the implementation of FIR filter using Distributed arithmetic algorithm. It is a multiplier less FIR filter. The LUT can be subdivided into a number of LUT to reduce the memory usage of the LUT for higher order filter. Analysis on the performance of various filter orders with different address length is done using Xilinx 14.5 synthesis tool. The proposed design provides less latency, less memory usage and high throughput.
Study of Superconducting Patch Printed on Electric-Magnetic Substrates Materials
In this paper, the effects of both uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate and high Tc superconducting patch on the resonant frequency, half-power bandwidth, and radiation patterns are investigated using an electric field integral equation and the spectral domain Green’s function. The analysis has been based on a full electromagnetic wave model with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant and radiation characteristics of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on electric-magnetic uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials. The stationary phase technique has been used for computing the radiation electric field. The obtained results demonstrate a considerable improvement in the half-power bandwidth, of the rectangular microstrip patch, by using a superconductor patch instead of a perfect conductor one. Further results show that high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on the uniaxial substrate with properly selected electric and magnetic anisotropy ratios is more advantageous than the one on the isotropic substrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth and radiation characteristic. This behavior agrees with that discovered experimentally for superconducting patches on isotropic substrates. The calculated results have been compared with measured one available in the literature and excellent agreement has been found.
Information and Communication Technology and Business Education in Nigeria
Technological change and globalization have created a new global economy with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) occupying a complex position in relation to globalization. The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications on the nature and purpose of educational institutions. The paper is basically a theoretical discourse. Data for analysis were obtained from secondary sources. The paper found that significant challenges confront the integration of ICTs in education in the areas of educational policy and planning, infrastructure, language and content, capacity building and financing in Nigeria. The paper concluded that business education needs to be well equipped to anticipate and respond to opportunities created by ICTs in order to participate productively and equitably in an increasingly technology-rich and knowledge-driven world. The paper recommended, among others, that the investments in ICTs should be used to promote the development of basic skills, problem-solving and communication skills and the professional development of teachers.
Sustainability as an Effective Tool for a Place Branding an Application on El Gouna City, Egypt
Most developing countries consider sustainability is a luxury, but El Gouna city at hurghada, Egypt, thought differently and uses sustainability as a tool for branding the place. Branding a place is new approach towards sustainable cities development (SCD); sustainability(S) requires multi-dimensional indicators to show the relationship between economic, social, environmental and cultural aspects. Sustainable development (SD) according to Brundland commission defined as" meeting the needs of current generations without negative impact on the needs of future generation’, branding a place (BP) integrate economic, social, environmental and cultural aspects into the city. In order for a city to be a good brand it must possess distinctive characteristics that can be identified, these include city appearance, people’s experience, people’s belief as well as what the city stands for. The study has found that place branding is a way to promote sustainable initiative; place branding has the potential to shape as a leading tool for the concurrence of more sustainable cities in developing countries, sustainability and green development should turn main priorities to developing countries.
Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE
In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.
Improved Performance Using Adaptive Pre-Coding in the Cellular Network
This paper proposes the cooperative transmission scheme with pre-coding because the cellular communication requires high reliability. The cooperative transmission scheme uses pre-coding method with limited feedback information among small cells. Particularly, the proposed scheme has adaptive mode according to the position of mobile station. Thus, demand of recent wireless communication is resolved by this scheme. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme has better performance compared to the conventional scheme in the cellular network.
Cooperative AF Scheme for Multi Source and Terminal in Edge of Cell Coverage
This paper proposes a cooperative communication scheme for improve wireless communication performance. When the receiver is located in the edge of coverage, the signal from the transmitter is distorted for various reasons such as inter-cell interference (ICI), power reduction, incorrect channel estimation. In order to improve communication performance, the proposed scheme adds the relay. By the relay, the receiver has diversity gain. In this paper, two base stations, one relay and one destination are considered. The two base stations transmit same time to relay and destination. The relay forwarding to destination and the destination detects signals.
Design and Optimization Fire Alarm System to Protect Gas Condensate Reservoirs With the Use of Nano-Technology
In this paper, for the protection and safety of tanks gases (flammable materials) and also due to the considerable economic value of the reservoir, the new system for the protection, the conservation and fire fighting has been cloned. The system consists of several parts: the Sensors to detect heat and fire with Nanotechnology (nano sensor), Barrier for isolation and protection from a range of two electronic zones, analyzer for detection and locating point of fire accurately, Main electronic board to announce fire, Fault diagnosis in different locations, such as relevant alarms and activate different devices for fire distinguish and announcement. An important feature of this system, high speed and capability of fire detection system in a way that is able to detect the value of the ambient temperature that can be adjusted. Another advantage of this system is autonomous and does not require human operator in place. Using nanotechnology, in addition to speeding up the work, reduces the cost of construction of the sensor and also the notification system and fire extinguish.
Preservation Model to Process 'La Bomba Del Chota' as a Living Cultural Heritage
This project focuses on heritage concepts and their importance in every evolving and changing Digital Era where system solutions have to be sustainable, efficient and suitable to the basic needs. The prototype has to cover the principal requirements for the case studies. How to preserve the sociological ideas of dances in Ecuador like ‘La Bomba’ is the best example and challenge to preserve the intangible data. The same idea is applicable with books and music. The History and how to keep it, is the principal mission of Heritage Preservation. The dance of La Bomba is rooted on a specific movement system whose main part is the sideward hip movement. La Bomba´s movement system is the surface manifestation of a whole system of knowledge whose principal characteristics are the historical relation of Chote˜nos with their land and their families.
Architectural Framework to Preserve Information of Cardiac Valve Control
According to the relation of Digital Preservation and the Health field as a case of study, the architectural model help us to explain that definitions. .The principal goal of Data Preservation is to keep information for a long term. Regarding of Mediacal information, in order to perform a heart transplant, physicians need to preserve this organ in an adequate way. This approach between the two perspectives, the medical and the technological allow checking the similarities about the concepts of preservation. Digital preservation and medical advances are related in the same level as knowledge improvement.
Subarray Based Multiuser Massive MIMO Design Adopting Large Transmit and Receive Arrays
This paper describes a subarray based low computational design method of multiuser massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system. In our previous works, use of large array is assumed only in transmitter, but this study considers the case both of transmitter and receiver sides are equipped with large array antennas. For this aim, receive arrays are also divided into several subarrays, and the former proposed method is modified for the synthesis of a large array from subarrays in both ends. Through computer simulations, it is verified that the performance of the proposed method is degraded compared with the original approach, but it can achieve the improvement in the aspect of complexity, namely, significant reduction of the computational load to the practical level.
Design and Simulation of All Optical Fiber to the Home Network
Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.