International Science Index

International Journal of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Analysis of Cultural Influences on Quality Management by Comparison of Japanese and German Enterprises
Quality is known to be the accordance of product characteristics and customer requirements. Both the customer requirements and the assessment of the characteristics of the product with regard to the fulfillment of customer requirements are subject to cultural influences. Of course, the processes itself which lead to product manufacturing is also subject to cultural influences. In the first point, the cultural background of the customer influences the quality, in the second point, it is the cultural background of the employees and the company that influences the process itself. In times of globalization products are manufactured at different locations around the world, but typically the quality management system of the country in which the mother company is based is used. This leads to significantly different results in terms of productivity, product quality and process efficiency at the different locations, although the same quality management system is in use. The aim of an efficient and effective quality management system is therefore not doing the same at all locations, but to have the same result at all locations. In the past, standardization was used to achieve the same results. Recent investigations show that this is not the best way to achieve the same characteristics of product quality and production performance. In the present work, it is shown that the consideration of cultural aspects in the design of processes, production systems, and quality management systems results in a significantly higher efficiency and a quality improvement. Both Japanese and German companies were investigated with comparative interviews. The background of this selection is that in most cases the cultural difference regarding industrial processes between Germany and Japan is high. At the same time, however, the customer expectations regarding the product quality are very similar. Interviews were conducted with experts from German and Japanese companies; in particular, companies were selected that operate production facilities both in Germany and in Japan. The comparison shows that the cultural influence on the respective production performance is significant. Companies that adapt the design of their quality management and production systems to the country where the production site is located have a significantly higher productivity and a significantly higher quality of the product than companies that work with a centralized system.
From Avatars to Humans: A Hybrid World Theory and Human Computer Interaction Experimentations with Virtual Reality Technologies
Employing a communication studies perspective and a socio-technological approach, this paper introduces a theoretical framework for understanding the concept of hybrid world; the avatarization phenomena; and the communicational archetype of co-hybridization. This analysis intends to make a contribution to future design of virtual reality experimental applications. Ultimately, this paper presents an ongoing research project that proposes the study of human-avatar interactions in digital educational environments, as well as an innovative reflection on inner digital communication. The aforementioned project presents the analysis of human-avatar interactions, through the development of an interactive experience in virtual reality. The goal is to generate an innovative communicational dimension that could reinforce the hypotheses presented throughout this paper. Being thought for its initial application in educational environments, the analysis and results of this research are dependent and have been prepared in regard of a meticulous planning of: the conception of a 3D digital platform; the interactive game objects; the AI or computer avatars; the human representation as hybrid avatars; and lastly, the potential of immersion, ergonomics and control diversity that can provide the virtual reality system and the game engine that were chosen. The project is divided in two main axes: The first part is the structural one, as it is mandatory for the construction of an original prototype. The 3D model is inspired by the physical space that belongs to an academic institution. The incorporation of smart objects, avatars, game mechanics, game objects, and a dialogue system will be part of the prototype. These elements have all the objective of gamifying the educational environment. To generate a continuous participation and a large amount of interactions, the digital world will be navigable both, in a conventional device and in a virtual reality system. This decision is made, practically, to facilitate the communication between students and teachers; and strategically, because it will help to a faster population of the digital environment. The second part is concentrated to content production and further data analysis. The challenge is to offer a scenario’s diversity that compels users to interact and to question their digital embodiment. The multipath narrative content that is being applied is focused on the subjects covered in this paper. Furthermore, the experience with virtual reality devices proposes users to experiment in a mixture of a seemingly infinite digital world and a small physical area of movement. This combination will lead the narrative content and it will be crucial in order to restrict user’s interactions. The main point is to stimulate and to grow in the user the need of his hybrid avatar’s help. By building an inner communication between user’s physicality and user’s digital extension, the interactions will serve as a self-guide through the gameworld. This is the first attempt to make explicit the avatarization phenomena and to further analyze the communicational archetype of co-hybridization. The challenge of the upcoming years will be to take advantage from these forms of generalized avatarization, in order to create awareness and establish innovative forms of hybridization.
Working Posture Improvement in Maintenance Department of Maintenance and Service Company
The maintenance and after service company has duty on maintenance and fix mixing beverage equipment and machines. Eight Workers in maintenance department have to fix many mixing beverage machines that placed on the floor. From the survey of working postures in maintenance department, the result showed that workers have to work in a way to bend over their back to repair or change some parts of the machine all their working time. Additionally, workers always pick up the equipment from the toolbox that placed on the floor. These working postures can risk health’s problems of workers such as back muscle injuries. The healthy survey of workers showed that workers have lower back pain problems are 4.30 on average. Furthermore, the result from the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) showed that the average score up to 12.16 which was in a high-risk criterion should be improved immediately. This study aims to improve the working posture of workers in maintenance department by using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) and designing new ergonomic tools. Therefore, this study has designed a toolbox shelf in order to reduce the bend over posture while working in standing posture and designed a chair with tray that can put many tools on it. Workers can fix the machine while sitting. After using the new toolbox shelf and chair, the healthy survey showed that the lower back pain score reduced to 2.46 in average and the REBA assessment score reduced to 2.83 in average which is located in a little risk.
Determination of the Abstraction Level in Production Network Models
In recent years the importance of production network modeling has increased significantly, as complexity and dynamics companies face have risen. Quantitative models can be used to gain understanding and support strategic decision making in production network management. The identification of the right abstraction level for those models largely relied on model builder expertise. This work presents an effort at structuring and streamlining the determination of the abstraction level. A basic concept is presented, that enables systematic definition of the abstraction level for a given model framework. A process implementing the concept is proposed, that helps to identify the right abstraction level based on case-specific requirements and restrictions and tailor the model to solve the examined problem. The process has been tested in a case study at a globally operating tooling machine company.
Enhancing Single Channel Minimum Quantity Lubrication through Bypass Controlled Design for Deep Hole Drilling with Small Diameter Tool
Due to significant energy savings, enablement of higher machining speed as well as environmentally friendly features, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) has been used for many machining processes efficiently. However, in the deep hole drilling field (small tool diameter D < 5 mm) and long tool (length L > 25xD) it is always a bottle neck for a single channel MQL system. The single channel MQL, based on the Venturi principle, faces a lack of enough oil quantity caused by dropped pressure difference during the deep hole drilling process. In this paper, a system concept based on a bypass design has explored its possibility to dynamically reach the required pressure difference between the air inlet and the inside of aerosol generator, so that the deep hole drilling demanded volume of oil can be generated and delivered to tool tips. The system concept has been investigated in static and dynamic laboratory testing. In the static test, the oil volume with and without bypass control were measured. This shows an oil quantity increasing potential up to 1000%. A spray pattern test has demonstrated the differences of aerosol particle size, aerosol distribution and reaction time between single channel and bypass controlled single channel MQL systems. A dynamic trial machining test of deep hole drilling (drill tool D=4.5mm, L= 40xD) has been carried out with the proposed system on a difficult machining material AlSi7Mg. The tool wear along a 100 meter drilling was tracked and analyzed. The result shows that the single channel MQL with a bypass control can overcome the limitation and enhance deep hole drilling with a small tool. The optimized combination of inlet air pressure and bypass control results in a high quality oil delivery to tool tips with a uniform and continuous aerosol flow.
Development of Concurrent Engineering through the Application of Software Simulations of Metal Production Processing and Analysis of the Effects of Application
Concurrent engineering technologies are a modern concept in manufacturing engineering. One of the key goals in designing modern technological processes is further reduction of production costs, both in the prototype and the preparatory part, as well as during the serial production. Thanks to many segments of concurrent engineering, these goals can be accomplished much more easily. In this paper, we give an overview of the advantages of using modern software simulations in relation to the classical aspects of designing technological processes of metal deformation. Significant savings are achieved thanks to the electronic simulation and software detection of all possible irregularities in the functional-working regime of the technological process. In order for the expected results to be optimal, it is necessary that the input parameters are very objective and that they reliably represent the values ​of these parameters in real conditions. Since it is a metal deformation treatment here, the particularly important parameters are the coefficient of internal friction between the working material and the tools, as well as the parameters related to the flow curve of the processing material. The paper will give a presentation for the experimental determination of some of these parameters.
Jagiellonian University Medical College
This paper considers a retailer dominated reverse logistics network design problem for construction machinery remanufacturing under uncertainty. In this special network, the retailer takes charge of the remanufacturing activities and collects the cores from its network, and third-party collectors, the quantity and quality of the cores are both uncertain. A modal interval based method is proposed to characterize the uncertain parameters, and it is combined with the genetic algorithm to solve the target interval linear programming problem. Moreover, the robustness of the network configuration under uncertainty is verified by conducting a sensitivity analysis. The results confirm that the proposed method can successfully determine the location of different facilities and the allocation of the products and components, and the network configuration under the uncertain scenario has the better robustness than that under the certain scenario.
Work in the Industry of the Future-Investigations of Human-Machine Interactions
Since a bit over a year ago, Festo AG and Co. KG, Festo Didactic SE, robomotion GmbH, the researchers of the Cybernetics-Lab IMA/ZLW and IfU, as well as the Human-Computer Interaction Center at the RWTH Aachen University, have been working together in the focal point of assembly competences to realize different scenarios in the field of human-machine interaction (HMI). In the framework of project ARIZ, questions concerning the future of production within the fourth industrial revolution are dealt with. There are many perspectives of human-robot collaboration that consist Industry 4.0 on an individual, organization and enterprise level, and these will be addressed in ARIZ. The aim of the ARIZ projects is to link AI-Approaches to assembly problems and to implement them as prototypes in demonstrators. To do so, island and flow based production scenarios will be simulated and realized as prototypes. These prototypes will serve as applications of flexible robotics as well as AI-based planning and control of production process. Using the demonstrators, human interaction strategies will be examined with an information system on one hand, and a robotic system on the other. During the tests, prototypes of workspaces that illustrate prospective production work forms will be represented. The human being will remain a central element in future productions and will increasingly be in charge of managerial tasks. Questions thus arise within the overall perspective, primarily concerning the role of humans within these technological revolutions, as well as their ability to act and design respectively to the acceptance of such systems. Roles, such as the 'Trainer' of intelligent systems may become a possibility in such assembly scenarios.
Lean Manufacturing Implementation in Fused Plastic Bags Industry
Lean manufacturing is concerned with the implementation of several tools and methodologies that aim for the continuous elimination of wastes throughout manufacturing process flow in the production system. This research addresses the implementation of lean principles and tools in a small-medium industry focusing on 'fused' plastic bags production company in Amman, Jordan. In this production operation, the major type of waste to eliminate include material, waiting-transportation, and setup wastes. The primary goal is to identify and implement selected lean strategies to eliminate waste in the manufacturing process flow. A systematic approach was used for the implementation of lean principles and techniques, through the application of Value Stream Mapping analysis. The current state value stream map was constructed to improve the plastic bags manufacturing process through identifying opportunities to eliminate waste and its sources. Also, the future-state value stream map was developed describing improvements in the overall manufacturing process resulting from eliminating wastes. The implementation of VSM, 5S, Kanban, Kaizen, and Reduced lot size methods have provided significant benefits and results. Productivity has increased to 95.4%, delivery schedule attained at 99-100%, reduction in total inventory to 1.4 days and the setup time for the melting process was reduced to about 30 minutes.
Multi-Criteria Decision Making Network Optimization for Green Supply Chains
Modern supply chains are typically linear, transforming virgin raw materials into products for end consumers, who then discard them after use to landfills or incinerators. Nowadays, there are major efforts underway to create a circular economy to reduce non-renewable resource use and waste. One important aspect of these efforts is the development of Green Supply Chain (GSC) systems which enables a reverse flow of used products from consumers back to manufacturers, where they can be refurbished or remanufactured, to both economic and environmental benefit. This paper develops novel multi-objective optimization models to inform GSC system design at multiple levels: (1) strategic planning of facility location and transportation logistics; (2) tactical planning of optimal pricing; and (3) policy planning to account for potential valuation of GSC emissions. First, physical linear programming was applied to evaluate GSC facility placement by determining the quantities of end-of-life products for transport from candidate collection centers to remanufacturing facilities while satisfying cost and capacity criteria. Second, disassembly and remanufacturing processes have received little attention in industrial engineering and process cost modeling literature. The increasing scale of remanufacturing operations, worth nearly $50 billion annually in the United States alone, have made GSC pricing an important subject of research. A non-linear physical programming model for optimization of pricing policy for remanufactured products that maximizes total profit and minimizes product recovery costs were examined and solved. Finally, a deterministic equilibrium model was used to determine the effects of internalizing a cost of GSC greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into optimization models. Changes in optimal facility use, transportation logistics, and pricing/profit margins were all investigated against a variable cost of carbon, using case study system created based on actual data from sites in the Boston area. As carbon costs increase, the optimal GSC system undergoes several distinct shifts in topology as it seeks new cost-minimal configurations. A comprehensive study of quantitative evaluation and performance of the model has been done using orthogonal arrays. Results were compared to top-down estimates from economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) models, to contrast remanufacturing GHG emission quantities with those from original equipment manufacturing operations. Introducing a carbon cost of $40/t CO2e increases modeled remanufacturing costs by 2.7% but also increases original equipment costs by 2.3%. The assembled work advances the theoretical modeling of optimal GSC systems and presents a rare case study of remanufactured appliances.
A Multi-criteria Decision Making Approach for Disassembly-to-Order Systems Under Uncertainty
In order to minimize the negative impact on the environment, it is essential to manage the waste that generated from the premature disposal of end-of-life (EOL) products properly. Consequently, government and international organizations introduced new policies and regulations to minimize the amount of waste being sent to landfills. Moreover, the consumers’ awareness regards environment has forced original equipment manufacturers to consider being more environmentally conscious. Therefore, manufacturers have thought of different ways to deal with waste generated from EOL products viz., remanufacturing, reusing, recycling, or disposing of EOL products. The rate of depletion of virgin natural resources and their dependency on the natural resources can be reduced by manufacturers when EOL products are treated as remanufactured, reused, or recycled, as well as this will cut on the amount of harmful waste sent to landfills. However, disposal of EOL products contributes to the problem and therefore is used as a last option. Number of EOL need to be estimated in order to fulfill the components demand. Then, disassembly process needs to be performed to extract individual components and subassemblies. Smart products, built with sensors embedded and network connectivity to enable the collection and exchange of data, utilize sensors that are implanted into products during production. These sensors are used for remanufacturers to predict an optimal warranty policy and time period that should be offered to customers who purchase remanufactured components and products. Sensor-provided data can help to evaluate the overall condition of a product, as well as the remaining lives of product components, prior to perform a disassembly process. In this paper, a multi-period disassembly-to-order (DTO) model is developed that takes into consideration the different system uncertainties. The DTO model is solved using Nonlinear Programming (NLP) in multiple periods. A DTO system is considered where a variety of EOL products are purchased for disassembly. The model’s main objective is to determine the best combination of EOL products to be purchased from every supplier in each period which maximized the total profit of the system while satisfying the demand. This paper also addressed the impact of sensor embedded products on the cost of warranties. Lastly, this paper presented and analyzed a case study involving various simulation conditions to illustrate the applicability of the model.
An Examination of the Role of Perceived Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among Selected Bank Employees
The study set out to investigate the role of perceived leadership style on achievement motivation of selected bank employees. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 585 bank workers took part in the study; 283 (48.4%) were males while 302% (51.6%) were females. Mean age of 31.8 yrs (SD = 7.8 yrs) was reported for the participants for the study. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic. The t- test for independent measures was used to test all the hypotheses, using the statistical package for social sciences version 21.0. The results in the study revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style of leadership reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style of leadership [t(583) = 16.43, p
Human Creativity through Dooyeweerd's Philosophy: The Case of Creative Diagramming
Human creativity knows no bounds. More than a millennia ago humans have expressed their knowledge on cave walls and on clay artefacts. Using visuals such as diagrams and paintings have always provided us with a natural and intuitive medium for expressing such creativity. Making sense of human generated visualisation has been influenced by western scientific philosophies which are often reductionist in their nature. Theoretical frameworks such as those delivered by Peirce dominated our views of how to make sense of visualisation where a visual is seen as an emergent property of our thoughts. Others have reduced the richness of human-generated visuals to mere shapes drawn on a piece of paper or on a screen. This paper introduces an alternate framework where the centrality of human functioning is given explicit and richer consideration through the multi aspectual philosophical works of Herman Dooyeweerd. Dooyeweerd's framework of understanding reality was based on fifteen aspects of reality, each having a distinct core meaning. The totality of the aspects formed a ‘rainbow’ like spectrum of meaning. The thesis of this approach is that meaningful human functioning in most cases involves the diversity of all aspects working in synergy and harmony. Illustration of the foundations and applicability of this approach is underpinned in the case of humans use of diagramming for creative purposes, particularly within an educational context. Diagrams play an important role in education. Students and lecturers use diagrams as a powerful tool to aid their thinking. However, research into the role of diagrams used in education continues to reveal difficulties students encounter during both processes of interpretation and construction of diagrams. Their main problems shape up students difficulties with diagrams. The ever-increasing diversity of diagrams' types coupled with the fact that most real-world diagrams often contain a mix of these different types of diagrams such as boxes and lines, bar charts, surfaces, routes, shapes dotted around the drawing area, and so on with each type having its own distinct set of static and dynamic semantics. We argue that the persistence of these problems is grounded in our existing ways of understanding diagrams that are often reductionist in their underpinnings driven by a single perspective or formalism. In this paper, we demonstrate the limitations of these approaches in dealing with the three problems. Consequently, we propose, discuss, and demonstrate the potential of a nonreductionist framework for understanding diagrams based on Symbolic and Spatial Mappings (SySpM) underpinned by Dooyeweerd philosophy. The potential of the framework to account for the meaning of diagrams is demonstrated by applying it to a real-world case study physics diagram.
A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction
In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.
Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes
Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified.
Optimizing Usability Testing with Collaborative Method in an E-Commerce Ecosystem
Usability testing is one of the vital steps in UCD process during designing a product. In an E-commerce ecosystem, usability testing becomes primal as new product, features, and services are launched very frequently. And there are losses attached to the company if an unusable and inefficient product is put out to market and is rejected by customers. This paper tries to answer why usability testing is important in the product life-cycle of E-commerce ecosystem. Secondary user research was conducted to find out work patterns, development methods, type of stakeholders, technology constraints, etc. of a typical E-commerce company. User interviews in qualitative fashion were conducted with product managers and designers to find out the structure, project planning, product management method and role of the design team in a mid-level company. The paper tries to address the usual apprehensions of the company to inculcate usability testing within the team. And stresses upon the factors like monetary resources, lack of usability expert, narrow timelines, lack of understanding of higher management as some primary reasons. Outsourcing usability testing to vendors is also very prevalent with mid-level e-commerce companies, but it has its own severe repercussions like very little team involvement, huge cost, misinterpretation of the findings, elongated timelines, lack of empathy towards the customer, etc. The shortfalls of unavailability of usability testing process in place within the team and conducting usability testing through vendors are bad user experiences for customers while interacting with the product, badly designed products which are neither useful and not utilitarian. As result companies see dipping conversions rates in apps and websites, huge bounce rate and increased uninstall rates. So, there was a need for a more lean usability testing system in place which could solve all these issues for the company. This paper highlights on optimizing usability testing process with a collaborative method. The degree of optimization and structure of collaborative method is the highlight of this paper. Collaborative method of usability testing is one in which centralised design team of the company takes the responsibility of the conducting and analysing the usability testing. The usability testing is usually formative kind where designers take findings in to account and uses in the ideation process. The success of collaborative method of usability testing is due to its ability to sync with the product management method employed by the company or team. The collaborative methods focus on engaging various teams (design, marketing, product, admin, IT, etc.) each with its own defined roles and responsibility in conducting a smooth usability testing with users In-house. The paper finally highlights the positive results of collaborative usability testing method after conducting more than 100 In-lab interviews with users across the different line of businesses. Some of which are the improvement of interaction between stakeholders and design team, empathy towards users, improved design iteration, better sanity check of design solutions, optimization of time and money, effective and efficient design solution. The future scope of this method could be making is leaner and agile.
Classification of Factors Influencing Buyer-Supplier Relationship: A Case Study from the Cement Industry
This paper examines the quantitative and qualitative factors influencing the buyer-supplier relationship. Understanding and acting on the right factors influencing supplier relationship management is crucial when a company outsource an important part of its business as it can be for engineering to order (ETO) company executing only the designing part in-house. Acting on these factors increase the quality of the relationship obtaining for both parties what they want and expect from an improved relationship. Best practices in supplier relationship management are considered and a case study of a large global company, called Cement A/S, operating in the cement business is carried out. One study is conducted including a large international company and hundreds of its suppliers. Data from the company is collected using semi-structured interviews and data from the suppliers is collected using a survey. Based on these inputs and an extensive literature review a classification of factors influencing the relationship buyer-supplier is presented and discussed. The results show that different managers among the company are assessing supplier from various perspectives, a standard approach to measure the performance of suppliers does not exist. The factors used nowadays in the company to measure performances of the suppliers are mostly related to time and cost. Quality is a key factor, but it has not been addressed properly since no data are available in the system. From a practical perspective, managers can learn from this paper which factors to consider when applying best practices of Supplier Relationship Management. Furthermore, from a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes with new knowledge in the area as limited research in collaboration with the company has been conducted. For this reason, a company, its suppliers and few studies for this type of industry have been conducted. For further research, it is suggested to define the correlation of factors to the profitability of the company and calculate its impact. When conducting this analysis it is important to focus on the efficient and effective use of factors that can be measurable and accepted from the supplier.
Aligning Cultural Practices through Information Exchange: A Taxonomy in Global Manufacturing Industry
With the rise of global supply chain network, the choice of supply chain orientation is critical. The alignment between cultural similarity and supply chain information exchange could help identify appropriate supply chain orientations, which would differentiate the stronger competitors and performers from the weaker ones. Through developing a taxonomy, this study examined whether the choices of action programs and manufacturing performance differ depending on the levels of attainment cultural similarity and information exchange. This study employed statistical tests on a large-scale dataset consisting of 680 manufacturing plants from various cultures and industries. Firms need to align cultural practices with the level of information exchange in order to achieve good overall business performance. There appeared to be consistent three major orientations: the Proactive, the Initiative and the Reactive. Firms are experiencing higher payoffs from various improvements are the ones successful alignment in both information exchange and cultural similarity The findings provide step-by-step decision making for supply chain information exchange and offer guidance especially for global supply chain managers. In including both cultural similarity and information exchange, this paper adds greater comprehensiveness and richness to the supply chain literature.
Impact of Technology on Product Quality, Speed up Delivery and Cost
This paper explores the hypothesis that technology can be used to improve product quality, speed up delivery and reduced cost. For companies improving the quality of their products, reducing the cost and improving the speed of delivery makes them favorable to the client who feels like all their needs have been met. The research occurs between the months of January 2018 to April 2018 which is about four months. The research experiment design uses the pretest-posttest experimental design set up between two companies both using the traditional method of manufacturing with no technology. In one company technology is introduced while in the other company the process remains the same traditional method of production. Both companies analyze the results at the end of a four-month period before a conclusion is drawn from both the pretest and the final test. The experiment results show that technology improves quality of the product, improves the speed of delivery while at the same time reduce cost benefiting both the producer and the client. Technology should, therefore, be implemented in companies to give them an edge over the competition. With technology in companies, the United States can reclaim production from overseas companies that have taken over by providing cheap labor. Better satisfied customers mean more production which in turn means more jobs for the people in the United States.
Advanced Approaches to Achieve the Human-Centered Design: Technology-Humanities Convergence
Human-centered design which is a process that starts with the people you’re designing for and ends with new solutions that are tailor-made to suit their needs has become a dominant theme in many industrial fields. The company's ability to respond quickly and accurately to the voices of customers who want to live by pursuing the special value of their lives will be the key to success. In this paper, the way to execute the human-centered design and to eventually realize the improvement of the quality of humans’ life, a concept of ‘technology-humanities convergence’ is proposed. The human-centered convergence can be defined as the method for developing new things (technology, product, service, etc.) that can satisfy human needs by applying humanities to technology convergence. The technology-humanities convergence highlights the enhancement of the quality of human’s life and can become a solution to facilitate sustainable technological innovation. Technology-humanities convergence has already occurred in various industries, of which a considerable number of successful cases can be noted. However, few efforts have been made to investigate technology humanities convergence as an independent academic field. This paper aimed to identify the development status of technology-humanities convergence. To do this, first, a definition of technology-humanities convergence was proposed, and patterns of technology-humanities convergence were classified based on the previous research. And then, using the patent data related to human needs from the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the status of technology-humanities convergence was analyzed in terms of ‘convergence trends’, areas, and so on. Last, the guidelines for decision making of researchers and practitioners taking charge of new technology developments and strategic policies to support the technology convergence will be suggested.
Effect of Curing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Polylactic Acid Based Green Composite
Global warming, growing awareness of the environment, waste management issues, dwindling fossil resources, and rising oil prices resulted to increase the research in the materials that are friendly to our health and environment. Due to these reasons, green products are increasingly being promoted for sustainable development. In this work, fully biodegradable green composites have been developed using jute fibers as reinforcement and polylactic acid as matrix material by film stacking technique. The effect of curing temperature during the development of composites ranging from 160°C, 170°C, 180°C and 190°C was investigated for various mechanical properties. Results obtained from various tests indicate that impact strength decreases with an increase in curing temperature but tensile and flexural strength increases till 180°C, thereafter both the properties decreases. This study gives an optimum curing temperature for the development of jute/PLA composites.
Providing a Practical Model to Reduce Maintenance Costs: A Case Study in GeG Company
In the past, we could increase profit by increasing product prices. But in the new decade, a competitive market does not let us to increase profit with increase prices. Therefore, the only way to increase profit will be reduce costs. A significant percentage of production costs are the maintenance costs, and analysis of these costs could achieve more profit. Most maintenance strategies such as RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance), PM (Preventive Maintenance) and etc., are trying to reduce maintenance costs. In this paper, decreasing the maintenance costs of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Iron Ore Mining & Industrial Company (GeG) was examined by using of MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) and MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) analyses. These analyses showed that instead of buying new machines and increasing costs in order to promote capacity, the improving of MTBF and MTTR indexes would solve capacity problems in the best way and decrease costs.
Prototype of Low-Cost Safety-Suit for Manual Scavengers in India
Sewage divers are the workers involved in cleaning and maintaining of the sewerage lines by entering through manholes. The working conditions of sewage divers in India are more challenging than in other countries. Though India has legal acts framed to ensure protection of the divers called 'The Prohibition of Employment of Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013' by Ministry of Law and Justice but these are usually not implemented. Further, the divers are not even provided with safety gear like mask, eyewear, helmet, safety suit, safety belt, gloves, and shoes because of lack of initiative among the agencies/individuals employing them and low awareness of importance of the protective gear amongst workers themselves. Several reports and studies show that because of the non-availability of safety gear, many sewage workers get infected and many of them retire even before attaining superannuation and about 70% of the manual scavengers die while on job. Though there are neoprene safety suits, costing only a few thousand, available in the market which can suffice but is beyond the buying capacity of the sewage diver and agencies/individuals employing them are reluctant to procure it as they find it expensive. In absence of safety suits, the divers get exposed to the parasites, viruses, and disease-causing germs present in the sewage. The research was undertaken with the objective of developing an affordable safety-suit which would save diver from coming into direct contact with the sewage thus preventing infections and diseases. The low cost of the suit may also motivate their employers to procure them for sewage divers.
Employability Potential of Differently Abled in the Indian Apparel Industry
The pilot run of 50 days was undertaken to test employability potential of people with visual and hearing & speech impairment. Various roles in an apparel manufacturing set up like spreading of fabric for cutting, folding, sealing and labeling cartons, pasting size barcode stickers on packed garments, removing tickets from the garments in the finishing stage were studied. Their performance was quantified basis timesheets for all the days and improvement per day was quantified. Their final day output was compared to that of the able-bodied worker. For example in the carton making activity on day one visually impaired worker was making one box every three minutes which improved to four boxes per minute on day 28 displaying 91.6% improvement compared or an improvement of 3.6% per day which was comparable to the able-bodied seasoned workers, who were making 5 boxes per minute. The performance of persons with hearing and speech impairment in the finishing department was 10% higher than that of able-bodied seasoned workers in the same process. Overall in all the activities the differently abled showed day to day improvement of 65% while able bodied displayed improvement of 52%. On the first day performance of able-bodied worker was 75% better than that of differently abled while on the 50th day it was only 20% better. Therefore the performance of persons with disabilities was found comparable to the able bodied person. The results, though on a small scale, showed a big promise of employment of persons with disability in the apparel industry. Armed with the promising result a full-scale study has been undertaken to identify the roles suitable for certain kind of disability in apparel production, work-aids required to assist the differently abled to improve performance and measures to be undertaken to make production floor 'friendlier' for them. The results have been discussed in this paper which opens doors for integrating differently abled into the world projected and assumed for only able-bodied.
Questionnaire Study on Remanufacturing of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Lithium-ion batteries are the key factor for the successful implementation of sustainable electric vehicle mobility. Component requirements are increasing, e.g. expressed by longer ranges, higher power densities or shorter charging times. Weight and space restrictions have a negative effect on the capacity of the battery. In addition, the battery is the most expensive component in the value chain of an electric vehicle with costly and rare raw materials. For this reason, the goal is to optimize the reuse of materials and components with recycling, second life applications or remanufacturing. There are already theses and directions of development for remanufacturing for lithium ion batteries within open questions have been formulated. This work aims to develop a method that concretizes these questions and possibly reveal others. Hypotheses are derived from the existing theories and models. These hypotheses are validated with an expert workshop. Within the research design, the classical classification criteria are determined by empirical research processes, i.a. the scientific-theoretical approach of the study. The operationalization is followed by the determination of the features and their characteristics. When determining the scale levels of the variables, the statistical evaluation options are also determined. As part of the subsequent data collection, measurements are taken on subjects in order to record the extent of the previously defined indicators. The study was transferred to an online tool and handout questionnaire. A broad network of industry and research experts in the field of battery and/or remanufacturing was invited for the study and helped to understand research and practical challenges for a lithium-ion remanufacturing. After data preparation of the returns, the data is analyzed. In the last step, the initial hypotheses are validated. An overall statement about the theory model and the object under investigation is made. In addition, the limits of the significance of the study are highlighted. Finally, conclusions are drawn for future research and practice of remanufacturing of lithium-ion batteries.
Flexible Product Architecture and Production Process of Lithium-Ion Battery Modules
The vehicle drive train electrification constitutes a fundamental change of the automotive sector and poses severe challenges for established companies. Particularly the introduction of the entirely novel lithium-ion battery raises a multitude of uncertainties regarding the optimization of existing product architectures and production processes. Today, a variety of electric vehicles are manufactured in small quantities. Varying vehicle-sided requirements and constraints including power- or energy demand as well as installation space specifications and both geometric and chemical battery cell preconditions lead to a wide variety of battery modules. Said actualities require organizations to economically produce battery modules at low quantities and high variance. Disadvantageously, neither recent product architectures, nor existing production processes meet these requirements. This essay will describe the state of the art of both the product architecture and the production process of battery modules comprising prismatic battery cells. Subsequently, the aftermaths of initial product alterations on the product-production-system are elucidated. Based on this analysis implications for a more sustainable value chain by remanufacturing are presented.
Role of Senior Management in Implementing Lean Manufacturing Practices: A Study of Manufacturing Companies of Pakistan
Due to advancement in technologies and cutting cost competition, especially in manufacturing business, organizations are now becoming more focused toward achieving exceptional quality standards with low manufacturing cost. In this concern, many process improvement strategies are becoming popular in the way of increasing productivity and output. Lean manufacturing principles are among one of them, increasingly used for improving productivity by reducing wastages. Many success factors are involved in lean implementation. But, the role of senior management is most important in developing the lean culture in an organization. Purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of executive level management related to the successful implementation of lean practices and its comparison with the existing practices in the organization. In order to collect data, survey questionnaire comprised of eight statements rendering the critical success factors were sent to the top management of fifty (50) automotive manufacturing companies of Karachi. After analyzing their feedbacks, the trend of lean manufacturing principles and the commitment of senior management toward its implementation was identified in the manufacturing industries of Karachi, Pakistan.
Example Based Sampling of Design Space System for Facilitating Diverse Product Design
A sampling approach is proposed to derive various sample designs from an existing product design by allowing human-computer interactions. A common approach for a designer is to generate or collect sketches to create a design space and retrieve directly or crossing over the samples exploring the design space based on pre-defined requirements. In that stage, the proposed method can be used to get a large number of samples from a design image to work with. First, the user clicks on the image to define each design feature as Bezier curve segments. Primitive geometric shapes such as triangles and circles are automatically constructed for each segment and their properties are used as constraints. Moreover, the design similarity between the example design and a derived sample is computed measuring all deformations between the corresponding triangles, which are represented by the Bookstein landmarks. The similarity is then used for keeping each sample highly related to the example design to avoid from unexpected solutions. In addition, modified Hausdorff distances are computed between the samples and used as an additional constraint to prevent generations of too similar samples. Finally, new samples are generated using a customized sampling algorithm that works in accord with the defined similarity and shape based constraints. During the sampling process, the users are also able to control weights of the modifications for each control points and/or can edit the generated sample by dragging the points. It is believed that such system will be useful for designers to obtain creative design variations effectively by minimum effort.
Parameterized System Models in Sysml for Use in Design and Optimization Processes of Products
The complexity of today's products, especially the sector of cyber-physical systems such as updateable vehicles is steadily increasing. This forces a further development of the tools and methods for coping with complexity in development processes. A methodical approach with established tool support is known as model-based systems engineering (MBSE). The keystone of MBSE is the formalized application of modeling strategies to support validation activities during product development. MBSE is intended to advance the level of depth in system development and to simplify the automation and optimization of development workflows. The integration of analytics into the system model as a central information base is proposed to improve the understanding of the overall system. The consistent integration of analytics and system-defining parameters into system models poses a challenge for the MBSE and the tools. If the MBSE approach is rigorously applied to subassemblies and components, a very large number of system-defining features and parameters must be mapped and mastered. The sheer number of required features and possible feature values often creates a complex combinatorial problem. This problem can only be solved by integrating formalized and modeled constraints between individual features and parameters in the model. The identification and definition of optimization goals are necessary for the implementation of control strategies for feature determination. To make matters worse, today's control strategies require the intense integration of computer-aided engineering tools into the processes. However, due to the heterogeneous market of tools, their integrability is highly dependent on the respective infrastructure in the companies. Therefore, the overall integrability of the MBSE approach at the operational design level is generally not state of the art in todays development processes. The complexity of the parameter level and the integration problem of multi-domain models are major challenges for the implementation of an integrated MBSE design process. This article presents an approach to the creation and structuring of system models in SysML. The aim of those models is making the complexity of design and optimization processes more manageable at the parameter level. In enterprise development processes such a system model takes the role of an interface between the general view of system engineers and the discrete values of the specific multi-domain parameter sets. The structure of such a system model should be compatible with established system development practices. By integrating domain-specific models into the system model, the level of the system engineers can be linked to the domain specific design level. This makes the complexity of the feature and parameter domain including their interactions ascertainable and thus potentially controllable. Control strategies can be implemented by passing optimization goals based on customer requirements from the system development level through the system model to the domain-specific models. This enables the systematic searching for optimized solutions. The presented approach is demonstrated by a real world example of a drivetrain of a wind power plant.
Design of an Agricultural Bowser with Improved Capacity
There are many types of agricultural water bowsers on the market which vary in geometry and size. However, in all such bowsers, there are ‘unused spaces’ between the bottom of the tank and the axle. The objective of this research was to design an agricultural water bowser with improved capacity by exploiting these ‘unused spaces’. This would allow sufficient amount of water to be supplied to wide areas in a short time. Each concept of agricultural water bowser was generated as an integrated chassis water tank to be hitched to a tractor and the best concept was chosen using the Pugh's method. The selected design consisted of an angle bent U-shaped bottom sheet welded to a top circular sheet. The Agreement Dangerous Road (ADR) European standard and the Road traffic regulations 2010 of Mauritius were used for sizing of the bowser and the selected material was S275 steel. The resultant forces on the walls of the bowser were calculated using analytical methods. A 3D model of the bowser was developed in Solidworks and the static structural analysis tool was used to examine the stress on the body for various types of loading, road and driving maneuvers. The final design of the agricultural water bowser can hold a maximum capacity of 5.34 m3 of water with the upper curved part of the bowser having a radius of 651 mm. It should be noted that a bowser body having a completely circular cross-section of the same radius can hold a maximum capacity of 4.44 m3 of water only. The shape and size of the bottom part of the proposed bowser increase the capacity of the tank by 20.3%. This shows that the concept of exploiting the ‘unused spaces’ between the lower part of the shell and the axle is advisable.