International Science Index

International Journal of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Optimising Post-Process Heat Treatments of Selective Laser Melting-Produced Ti-6Al-4V Parts To Achieve Superior Mechanical Properties
The Additive Manufacturing (AM) process of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has seen an exponential growth in sales and development in the past fifteen years. Whereas the capability of SLM was initially limited to rapid prototyping, progress in research and development (R&D) has allowed SLM to be capable of fully functional parts. This technology is still at a primitive stage and technical knowledge of the vast number of variables influencing final part quality is limited. Ongoing research and development of the sensitive printing process and post processes is of utmost importance in order to qualify SLM parts to meet international standards. Quality concerns in Ti-6Al-4V manufactured through SLM has been identified, which include: high residual stresses, part porosity, low ductility and anisotropic mechanical properties. Whereas significant quality improvements have been made through optimising printing parameters, research indicates as-produced part ductility to be a major limiting factor when compared to its wrought counterpart. This study aims at achieving an in-depth understanding of the underlining links between SLM produced Ti-6Al-4V microstructure and its mechanical properties. Knowledge of microstructural transformation kinetics of Ti-6Al-4V allows for the optimisation of post process heat treatments thereby achieving the required process route to manufacture high quality SLM produced Ti-6Al-4V parts. Experimental methods used to evaluate the kinematics of microstructural transformation of SLM Ti-6Al-4V are: optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Results show that a low temperature heat treatment is capable of transforming the as-produced, martensitic microstructure into a duel-phase microstructure exhibiting both a high strength and improved ductility. Furthermore, isotropy of mechanical properties can be achieved through certain annealing routes. Mechanical properties identical to that of wrought Ti-6Al-4V can therefore be achieved through an optimised process route.
Revised Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Framework for M-Commerce Adoption
Following the E-Commerce era, M-Commerce is the next big phase in the technology involvement and advancement. This research paper intends to explore how Indian consumers are influenced to adopt the M-commerce. In this paper the revised Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been proposed on the basis of the most dominant factors that affects the adoption of M-Commerce in Indian scenario. Furthermore an analytical questionnaire approach was carried out to collect data from Indian consumers. This collected data was further used for the validation of the proposed model. Findings indicate that customization, convenience, instant connectivity, compatibility, security, download speed in M-Commerce affects the adoption behavior. Furthermore, the findings suggest that perceived usefulness and attitude towards M-Commerce are positively affected by number of M-Commerce drivers (i.e. download speed, compatibility, convenience, security, customization, connectivity and input mechanism).
Process Improvement and Redesign of the Immuno Histology (IHC) Lab at MSKCC: A Lean and Ergonomic Study
MSKCC offers patients cutting edge cancer care with the highest quality standards. However, many patients and industry members do not realize that the operations of the Immunology Histology Lab (IHC) are the backbone for carrying out this mission. The IHC lab manufactures blocks and slides containing critical tissue samples that will be read by a Pathologist to diagnose and dictate a patient’s treatment course. The lab processes 200 requests daily, leading to the generation of approximately 2,000 slides and 1,100 blocks each day. Lab material is transported through labeling, cutting, staining and sorting manufacturing stations, while being managed by multiple techs throughout the space. The quality of the stain as well as wait times associated with processing requests, is directly associated with patients receiving rapid treatments and having a wider range of care options. This project aims to improve slide request turnaround time for rush and non-rush cases, while increasing the quality of each request filled (no missing slides or poorly stained items). Rush cases are to be filled in less than 24 hours, while standard cases are allotted a 48 hour time period. Reducing turnaround times enable patients to communicate sooner with their clinical team regarding their diagnosis, ultimately leading faster treatments and potentially better outcomes. Additional project goals included streamlining tech and material workflow, while reducing waste and increasing efficiency. This project followed a DMAIC structure with emphasis on lean and ergonomic principles that could be integrated into an evolving lab culture. Load times and batching processes were analyzed using process mapping, FMEA analysis, waste analysis, engineering observation, 5S and spaghetti diagramming. Reduction of lab technician movement as well as their body position at each workstation was of top concern to pathology leadership. With new equipment being brought into the lab to carry out workflow improvements, screen and tool placement was discussed with the techs in focus groups, to reduce variation and increase comfort throughout the workspace. 5S analysis was completed in two phases in the IHC lab, helping to drive solutions that reduced rework and tech motion. The IHC lab plans to continue utilizing these techniques to further reduce the time gap between tissue analysis and cancer care.
TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes
Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.
Reverse Logistics End of Life Products Acquisition and Sorting
The emerging of reverse logistics and product recovery management is an important concept in reconciling economic and environmental objectives through recapturing values of the end of life product returns. End of life products contains valuable modules, parts, residues and materials that can create value if recovered efficiently. The main objective of this study is to explore and develop a model to recover as much of the economic value as reasonably possible to find the optimality of return acquisition and sorting to meet demand and maximize profits over time. In this study, the benefits that can be obtained for remanufacturer is to develop demand forecasting of used products in the future with uncertainty of returns and quality of products. Formulated based on a generic disassembly tree, the proposed model focused on three reverse logistics activity, namely refurbish, remanufacture and disposal incorporating all plausible means quality levels of the returns. While stricter sorting policy, constitute to the decrease amount of products to be refurbished or remanufactured and increases the level of discarded products. Numerical experiments carried out to investigate the characteristics and behaviour of the proposed model with mathematical programming model using Lingo 16.0 for medium-term planning of return acquisition, disassembly (refurbish or remanufacture) and disposal activities. Moreover, the model seeks an analysis a number of decisions relating to trade off management system to maximize revenue from the collection of use products reverse logistics services through refurbish and remanufacture recovery options. The results showed that full utilization in the sorting process leads the system to obtain less quantity from acquisition with minimal overall cost. Further, sensitivity analysis provides a range of possible scenarios to consider in optimizing the overall cost of refurbished and remanufactured products.
A Mathematical Model for a Tire Reverse Logistics Network under Uncertainty
There are both forward and reverse supply chains in closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) networks. Design and optimization of CLSC networks are two important issues. In this research, a tire remanufacturing CLSC network is designed and optimized. The objective of the optimization model is to maximize the total profit. The optimization model includes multiple products, suppliers, plants, retailers, demand markets, and drop-off depots. Uncertainty in parameters has been considered by decision tree. The application of the model is discussed in a realistic network in Toronto, Canada.
Measurement of the Intellectual Capital in Algerian Company
Every modern company should measure the value of its intellectual capital and to report to complement traditional annual balance sheets. The purpose of this work is to measure the intellectual capital in an Algerian company (or production system) using the Weightless Wealth Tool Kit 'WWTK'. The results of the measurement of intellectual capital are supplemented by traditional financial ratios. The measurement was applied to the National Company of wells Services (ENSP) in Hassi Messaoud city, in south of Algeria. We calculated the intellectual capital (intangible resources) of the ENSP to help the organization to better capitalize on its potential of workers and their know-how. The intangible value of the ENSP is evaluated at 16,936,173,345 DA in 2015.
Modeling a Hospital as a Queueing Network: Analysis for Improving Performance
In this paper, the flow of different classes of patients into a hospital is modelled and analyzed using the queueing network analyzer (QNA) algorithm and discrete event simulation. Input data for QNA are the rate and variability parameters of the arrival and service times in addition to the number of servers in each facility. Patient flows mostly match real flow for a hospital in Egypt. Based on the analysis of the waiting times, two approaches are suggested for improving performance: separating patients into service groups, and adopting different service policies for sequencing patients through hospital units. The separation of a specific group of patients, with higher performance target, to be served separately from the rest of patients requiring lower performance target, requires the same capacity while improves performance for the selected group of patients with higher target. Besides, it is shown that adopting the shortest processing time and shortest remaining processing time service policies among other tested policies would results in, respectively, 11.47% and 13.75% reduction in average waiting time relative to first come first served policy.
Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance
In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.
Eco-Friendly Natural Dyes from Butea monosperma and Their Application on Cotton Fabric
Butea monosperma occurs widely throughout central Indian states. Eco-friendly natural dyes were isolated in aqueous medium from leaves, bark and flowers of this plant. These dyes were used for dyeing on cotton fabric using various chemical (potassium aluminium sulphate, potassium dichromate, ferrous sulphate, stannous chloride & tannic acid) and natural mordants (rinds of Terminallia bellerica & Terminalia chebula fruits and shells of Prunus dulcis & Juglans regia nuts). Dyeing was carried out using the pre-mordanting technique. Large range of beautiful shades in terms of hue and darkness were recorded because of varying mordant concentrations and combinations. More importantly dyed fabrics registered varying the degree of colour fastness properties to washing (1-3, colour change and 4-5, colour staining), light (2-4), rubbing (4-5, dry and 3-5, wet) and perspiration (1-4, colour change and 4-5, colour staining). Thus, along with flowers which are traditionally known for natural dyes, the leaves and bark may also find their place in textile industries.
Studying the Implementation of 5S System in Egyptian Garment Enterprises
This paper explores the implementation of 5S elements in the Egyptian garment enterprises. The paper depended on a survey questionnaire (established from Summit Business Solutions, New York) and observations to collect data from the respondents. The observations are based on the on-site visits and interviews with the managers, supervisors and labors. The enterprises divided into three groups according to the nature activity. The first group of enterprises encompassed 49.52% of the total samples, the second and third group of enterprises represented 50.48% The results of this research indicated to the influence of the nature activity in implementing 5S systems and conclude that sustain is a difficult element which require encourage workers for developing and practicing a highly discipline. In addition the results demonstrate that although the enterprises may achieve a higher executing of 5S elements but it may realize a low coherence in implementation.
Factors of Self-Sustainability in Social Entrepreneurship: The Case Study of Friskis and Svettis Stockholm
This paper focuses on the self-sustainability aspect of social entrepreneurship (SE). We define SE as a form of entrepreneurship that is social/ecological mission oriented. It means SE organizations start and run businesses and use them to accomplish their social/ecological missions i.e. to solve social/ecological problems or fulfill social/ecological needs. Self-sustainability is defined as the capability of an SE organization to operate by relying on the money earned through trading its products in the free market. For various reasons, the achievement of self-sustainability represents a fundamental (business) challenge for many SE organizations. Those that are not able to operate with money made through commercial activities, in order to remain active, rely on alternative, non-commercial streams of income such as grants, donations, and public subsidies. Starting from this widespread (business) challenge, we are interested in exploring elements that (could) influence the self-sustainability in SE organizations. Therefore, for the purpose of providing new insights on factors of SE self-sustainability and preferably encouraging practical improvements in the field, we empirically investigate some of self-sustainability factors of a self-sustainable SE organization; we aim to explore what has influenced the achievement of its self-sustainability. A qualitative research, using the case study approach, was conducted. Friskis&Svettis Stockholm (F&S) was selected for the case because it is a self-sustainable organization (with a notable financial/business performance) that can be labeled as a part of SE. The data collection primarily consisted of conducting in-depth interviews. Additionally, the content of some of the organization’s official materials was analyzed (e.g. business reports, marketing materials). The interviewees were selected purposively and included six highly ranked F&S members who represented five different levels in the hierarchy of the organization. The interviews contained five themes: a) social values of the organization, b) organization of work, c) non-commercial income sources, d) marketing/collaborations, and e) familiarity with the industry characteristics and trends. The gathered data was thematically analyzed through the coding process for which Atlas.ti software for qualitative data analysis was used. For the purpose of creating thematic categories (codes), the open coding was used. The most important research findings are summarized as follows. The main finding concerns five groups of the organization’s self-sustainability factors that emerged after the coding process: a) business model, b) commercial awareness, c) adaptiveness to the hybrid setting, d) approaches towards external environments, and e) culture of the organization. The additional finding is related to the topic of the management contribution in SE self-sustainability achievement. Namely, previous research findings on SE self-sustainability factors emphasized a competent management team contribution as the key factor. Despite the fact the contribution of the F&S management team is visible through all the identified groups of self-sustainability factors, taking into account the business model the organization is currently based on, it cannot be labeled as the most important factor of the organization’s self-sustainability.
Providing a Practical Model to Reduce Maintenance Costs: A Case Study
In the past, we could increase profit by increasing product prices. But in the new decade, competitive market doesn't let us to increase profit with increase prices. Therefore, the only way to increase profit will be reduce costs. A significant percentage of production costs are the maintenance costs, and analysis of maintenance costs could to achieve greater productivity and competitiveness. With this is mind, the maintenance of machines and installations is considered as an essential part of organizational functions and applying effective strategies causes significant added value in manufacturing activities. Organizations are trying to achieve performance levels on a global scale with emphasis on creating competitive advantage by different methods consist of RCM (Reliability-Center-Maintenance), TPM (Total Productivity Maintenance) and etc. In this study, decreasing maintenance costs of Concentration Plant of Golgohar Iron Ore Mining & Industrial Company (GEG) was examined by using of reliability and maintainability analyses. The results of this research showed that instead of buying new machines and increasing costs in order to promote capacity, the improving of reliability and maintainability would solve capacity problems in the best way and decrease costs. It should be mention that in the abovementioned study, the data set of Concentration Plant of GEG as a case study, was applied and analyzed.
Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus (Ni–P) Deposition, Ph and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Approach
This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, Nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent, and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, the percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approaches (DOE) has been analyzed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen
Creative Culture to Innovative Culture: Transformal Operation
Creativity and innovation have become an important phenomenon today, whose potential is being realized through the success of Apple, Google/Android, Nike, Virgin, Dyson and other multinationals that are a household name today. Creativity and Innovation are, many times, used interchangeably, causing confusion as to what each represents and are capable of. Attempts to understand creativity and innovation clearly point to the difference, and at the same time, inter-dependency of one on the other. The assumption that having more creative personnel in a team will translate into innovation sooner or later seems generally counterproductive. What helps define the role of creativity and innovation in an organization and how can one build an innovative team? This paper points to the importance of understanding creative culture and innovation culture in order to bring about the desired innovation outcome and proposes a means to transform one to another as ideas move from mere ideas to useful innovation.
Intelligent Packaging: Materials, Sensors, and Supply Chain Integration
Intelligent packaging is an emerging technology that uses communication function of the package to enable decision making to enhance food quality and safety. We have developed a conceptual framework of the intelligent packaging–supply chain integration, which can be used as an analytical tool to optimize the safety of the foodstuff delivered over the supply chain. Integration of the modern sensing/ communication technology into supply chain will be discussed as well as the use of the various types of the modern packaging technologies to improve safety and quality of the perishable foods. We will also discuss on how the application of the intelligent packaging in conjunction with the information technology results in the new types of the decision support systems for the food safety, new concepts in the shelf-life management and optimal product delivery.
Improvement of Routing Protocols for Large Distance in Sensor Networks Based on Cooperative Mimo Transmissions
Reducing energy consumption and improving communication performance to prolong network’s lifetime are the challenge of all researchers. For large transmissions, communication can be improved by using cooperative relays multi-input multi-output (MIMO). They save more and more energy than single-input single-output (SISO). In this paper, we propose a new hierarchical routing protocol dedicated for large sensor network that aims at minimizing the energy in the formation of clusters and also reducing energy wastage during transmission in order to increase the network lifetime. The fundamental task of our protocol is to overcome hug energy losses by cluster head (CH), construct clustering without electing CH, to convey data via gateway nodes (GN) and to apply Dijkstra algorithm in MIMO transmission to determine the shortest path to transmit data to the sink.
Use of Logistics for Demand Control in a Commercial Establishment in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Brazil is going through a real revolution in the logistics area. It is increasingly common to find articles and news in this context, as companies begin to become aware that a good management of the areas that make up the logistics can bring excellent results in reducing costs and increasing productivity. With this, companies are investing more emphasis on reduced spending on storage and transport of their products to ensure competitiveness. The scope of this work is the analysis of the logistics of a restaurant and materials will be presented the best way to serve the customer, avoiding the interruption of production due to lack of materials; for it will be analyzed the supply chain in terms of acquisition costs, maintenance and service demand.
On the Effects of Magnitude of Flank Wear as Tool Life Criterion on Sustainability Measures of a Continuous Machining Process
The paper presents an experimental study to investigate the effects of selecting different magnitudes of cutting insert’s flank wear as tool life criterion on the sustainability measures of cylindrical grooving process. These sustainability measures include specific cutting energy, process cost, work surface quality, and productivity. A series of near-orthogonal cutting experiments were performed on a high-strength low alloy steel, which also targeted the quantification of the effects of work material’s temper state and two cutting parameters. It was concluded from the analyses of the experimental results that tool life criterion possesses a strong significance on all the sustainability measures.
Mathematical Modeling and Algorithms for the Capacitated Facility Location and Allocation Problem with Emission Restriction
In supply chain management, network design for scalable manufacturing facilities is an emerging field of research. Facility location allocation assigns facilities to customers to optimize the overall cost of the supply chain. To further optimize the costs, capacities of these facilities can be changed in accordance with customer demands. A mathematical model is formulated to fully express the problem at hand and to solve small-to-mid range instances. A dedicated constraint has been developed to restrict emissions in line with the Kyoto protocol. This problem is NP-Hard; hence, a simulated annealing metaheuristic has been developed to solve larger instances. A case study on the USA-Canada cross border crossing is used.
An Integrated DANP-PROMETHEE II Approach for Air Traffic Controllers’ Workload Stress Problem
The demanding, professional roles that air traffic controllers (ATC) play in air transport operation provided the main motivation of this paper. As the controllers’ workload stress becomes more complex due to various stressors, the challenge to overcome these in the pursuit of improving the efficiency of controllers and safety level of aircrafts has been relevant. Therefore, in order to determine the main stressors and surface the best alternative, two widely-known multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, DANP and PROMETHEE II, are applied. The proposed method is demonstrated in a case study at Mactan Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP). The results showed that the main stressors are high air traffic volume, extraneous traffic, unforeseen events, limitations and reliability of equipment, noise/distracter, micro climate, bad posture, relations with supervisors and colleagues, private life conditions/relationships, and emotional conditions. In the outranking of alternatives, compartmentalization is believed to be the most preferred alternative to overcome controllers’ workload stress. This implies that compartmentalization can best be applied to reduce controller workload stress.
The Functional-Engineered Product-Service System Model: An Extensive Review towards a Unified Approach
The study addresses the design process of integrated product-service offerings as a measure of answering environmental sustainability concerns by replacing stand-alone physical artefacts with comprehensive solutions relying on functional results rather than conventional product sales. However, views regarding this transformation are dissimilar and differentiated: The study discusses the importance and requirements of product-service systems before analysing the theoretical studies accomplished in the extent of their design and development processes. Based on this, a framework, built on a design science approach, is proposed, where the distinct approaches from the literature are merged towards a unified structure serving as a generic methodology to designing product-service systems. Each stage of this model is then developed to present a holistic design proposal called the Functional Engineered Product-Service System (FEPSS) model. Product-service systems are portrayed as customisable solutions tailored to specific settings and defined circumstances. Moreover, the approaches adopted to guide the design process are diversified. A thorough analysis of the design strategies and development processes however, allowed the extraction of a design backbone, valid to varied situations and contexts whether they are product-oriented, use-oriented or result-oriented. The goal is to guide manufacturers towards an eased adoption of these integrated offerings, given their inherited environmental benefits, by proposing a robust all-purpose design process.
Control-Oriented Enhanced Zero-Dimensional Two-Zone Combustion Modelling of Internal Combustion Engines
This paper investigates an efficient combustion modeling for cycle simulation of internal combustion engine (ICE) studies. The term 'efficient model' means the models must generate desired simulation results while having fast simulation time. In other words, the efficient model is defined based on the application of the model. The objective of this study is to develop math-based models for control applications or shortly control-oriented models. This study compares different modeling approaches used to model ICEs such as mean-value models, zero-dimensional, quasi-dimensional, and multi-dimensional models for control applications. Mean-value models have been widely used for model-based control applications, but recently by developing advanced simulation tools (e.g. Maple/MapleSim) the higher order models (more complex) could be considered as control-oriented models. This paper presents the enhanced zero-dimensional cycle-by-cycle modeling and simulation of a spark ignition engine with a two-zone combustion model. The simulation results are cross-validated against simulation results from GT-Power package and show a good agreement in terms of trends and values.
Using Adaptive Pole Placement Control Strategy for Active Steering Safety System
This paper studies the design of an adaptive control strategy to tune an active steering system for better drivability and maneuverability. In the first step, adaptive control strategy is applied to estimate the uncertain parameters on-line (e.g. cornering stiffness), then the estimated parameters are fed into the pole placement controller to generate corrective feedback gain to improve the steering system dynamic’s characteristics. The simulations are evaluated for three types of road conditions (dry, wet, and icy), and the performance of the adaptive pole placement control (APPC) are compared with pole placement control (PPC) and a passive system. The results show that the APPC strategy significantly improves the yaw rate and side slip angle of a bicycle plant model.
Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range
This paper aims at finding mechanical and control solutionsto reduce energy consumption and thus increase the range of electric vehicles and also increase the battery life span due to lesser need of going through the gruelingcycle of recharging. To carry out this goal, we must follow the following steps: • Identifying energy consuming components in electric car • Evaluation of the effects of the components above on the range • Designing the control logic for each of the components to reduce energy consumption for cars • Modeling the results and obtaining the increased range
Closed-Loop Supply Chain: A Study of Bullwhip Effect Using Simulation
Due to strict legislations, increasing social awareness and high potential of value recovery from the used products, organizations in recent years have started considering the impact of reverse logistics along with their traditional forward supply chain. Forward supply chain includes supply of raw material, production, distribution, and sells to the consumers. Reverse logistics process involves collection, inspection, repairing, refurbishing, remanufacturing and recycling of used or returned products. Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) management focuses on integrating forward and reverse flow of material as well as information to maximize value creation over the entire life-cycle of a product. Bullwhip effect in supply chain management refers to the phenomenon where a small variation in customers’ demand results in larger variation of orders at the upstream levels of supply chain. Since the quality and quantity of products returned to the collection centers (as a part of reverse logistics process) are uncertain, bullwhip effect is inevitable in CLSC. Therefore, in the present study, first, through an extensive literature survey, we identify all the important factors related to forward as well as reverse supply chain which causes bullwhip effect in CLSC. These factors are: use of demand forecasting, lead times, information sharing, inventory and work in process adjustment rate, supply shortages, batch ordering, price variations, erratic human behavior, parameter correcting, delivery time delays, and operation capacity constraint. Second, we bring in all the factors under one system dynamics framework to study their interrelationship and effect on the performance of overall CLSC. Third, through simulation experiments and sensitivity analysis, we identify important factors which have a significance influence on system’s performance, specifically on the reduction of bullwhip effect in a CLSC.
Ergonomics for Design in Egypt Challenges and Chances
Research problem: Design can be considered as paying attention to the architecture of products and designs in order to look more beautiful. Egypt suffers from a severe shortage of data and charts concerning the physical dimensions, measurements, qualities and consumer behavior of the Egyptian consumer occur. The lack of available information describing different human societies which is mainly used in the design process. The lack of appropriate methods has forced the Egyptian designer to use any other foreign standard when designing a product for the Egyptian consumer which has led to many problems. So we can summarize the problem of the research in the urgently needed database concerning the physical specifications, measurements of the Egyptian consumers, as well as the need to develop the given courses taught to the students in many different colleges and institutes specially in the field of Ergonomics using the latest technologies, more realistic, accurate data describing the various kinds of Egyptian consumers and applying the latest teaching methods and techniques. Hypothesis: If there is a possibility to use modern sciences as Ethnography and Interaction design to achieve an ultimately updated Ergonomic database concerning the physical dimensions, specifications and recommendations of the Egyptian consumers that can be considered as a leap leading the Egyptian industrial and economical activities and policies to a raise as happened in China by the beginning of the third millennium. Conclusion: -Good interaction relationship between users and products shows the success of that product to what extent. -In order to achieve a higher benefit for both user and product we should encourage and activate an integration linkage between modern fields of science specially Ergonomics, Interaction Design and Ethnography to provide an ultimately updated database concerning the nature, specifications and environment of the Egyptian consumer, which gives the designer a great ability to create and invent more and more products that meet the consumer needs. -The importance and urgent need to emulate China's economic policy based on the study of needs and market requirements long before any market activities. -Applying the concept of integration between modern concepts and disciplines such as Ethnography and Interaction Design to activate the role of Industrial design in Egypt as an effective support to the economic policies based on renovation and development. Recommendations: Contracting some kind of joint cooperation between military colleges, sports education institutes from one side, and colleges and institutes concerning Design activities from the other side to provide an ultimately updated (annually updated) database concerning some specifications about students of both sexes applying in those institutes (height, weight, etc) which can provide the Industrial designer with the needed information when creating a new product or updating an existing one concerning that category.
A Morphological Thinking Approach for Conceptualising Product-Service Systems Solutions
The study addresses the conceptual design of Product-Service Systems (PSSs) as a means of innovating solutions with the aim of reducing the environmental load of conventional product based solutions. Functional approaches targeting PSS solutions are developed in instinctive methods within the constraints of the setting in which they are conceived. Adopting morphological matrices in designing PSS concepts allows a thorough understanding of the settings, stakeholders, and functional requirements. Additionally, such a methodology is robust and adaptable to product-oriented, use-oriented and result-oriented systems. The research is based on a functional decomposition of the task in a similar way as in product design; while extended to include service components, providers, and receivers, while assessing the adaptability and homogeneity of the selected components and actors. A use-oriented concept is presented via a practical case study at an agricultural boom-sprayer manufacturer to demonstrate the effectiveness of the morphological approach to justify its viability. Additionally, a life cycle analysis is carried out in order to evaluate the environmental advantages inherited in a PSS solution versus a conventional solution. In light of the applications presented, the morphological approach appears to be a valid and generic tactic to conceiving integrated solutions whilst capturing the interrelations between the actors and elements of an integrated product-service system.
Evolution of Design through Documentation of Architecture Design Processes
Every design has a process, and every architect deals in the ways best known to them. The design translation from the concept to completion change in accordance with their design philosophies, their tools, availability of resources, and at times the clients and the context of the design as well. The approach to understanding the design process requires formalisation of the design intents. The design process is characterised by change, with the time and the technology. The design flow is just indicative and never exhaustive. The knowledge and experience of stakeholders remain limited to the part they played in the project, and their ability to remember, and is through the Photographs. These artefacts, when circulated can hardly tell what the project is. They can never tell the narrative behind. In due course, the design processes are lost. The Design junctions are lost in the journey. Photographs acted as major source materials, along with its importance in architectural revivalism in the 19th century. From the history, we understand that it has been photographs, that act as the dominant source of evidence. The idea of recording is also followed with the idea of getting inspired from the records and documents. The design concept, the architectural firms’ philosophies, the materials used, the special needs, the numerous ‘Trial-and-error’ methods, design methodology, experience of failures and success levels, and the knowledge acquired, etc., and the various other aspects and methods go through in every project, and they deserve/ought to be recorded. The knowledge can be preserved and passed through generations, by documenting the design processes involved. This paper explores the idea of a process documentation as a tool of self-reflection, creation of architectural firm’ repository, and these implications proceed with the design evolution of the team.
VISSE Shell Model Analysis (VISMA): A Method for System Analysis in Early Lifecycle Phases
The choice of applicable analysis methods in safety or systems engineering depends on the depth of knowledge about a system, and on the respective lifecycle phase. However, the analysis method chain still shows gaps as it should support system analysis during the lifecycle of a system from a rough concept in pre-project phase until end-of-life. This paper’s goal is to discuss an analysis method, the VISSE Shell Model Analysis (VISMA) method, which aims at closing the gap in the early system lifecycle phases, like the conceptual or pre-project phase, or the project start phase. It was originally developed to aid in the definition of the system boundary of electronic system parts, like e.g. a control unit for a pump motor. Furthermore, it can be also applied to non-electronic system parts. The VISMA method is a graphical sketch-like method that stratifies a system and its parts in inner and outer shells, like the layers of an onion. It analyses a system in a two-step approach, from the innermost to the outermost components followed by the reverse direction. To ensure a complete view of a system and its environment, the VISMA should be performed by (multifunctional) development teams. To introduce the method, a set of rules and guidelines has been defined in order to enable a proper shell build-up. In the first step, the innermost system, named system under consideration (SUC), is selected, which is the focus of the subsequent analysis. Then its directly adjacent components, responsible for providing input to and receiving output from the SUC, are identified and form the first shell around it. Next the in- and output parties to these first-shell components form the second shell. Continuing this way, shell by shell is added with its respective parts until the border of the complete system (external border) is reached. Last, two external shells are added to complete the system view, the environment and the use case shell. This system view is stored, also for future use. In the second step, the shells are examined in the reverse direction (outside to inside) in order to remove superfluous components or subsystems. Input chains to the SUC, as well as output chains from the SUC are described graphically via arrows, to highlight functional chains through the system. As a result, this method offers a clear and graphical description and overview of a system, its main parts and environment, while focussing on a specific SUC. It helps to identify the interfaces and interfacing components of the SUC, as well as important external interfaces of the overall system. It supports the identification of the first internal and external hazard causes and causal chains. Additionally, the method promotes a holistic picture and cross-functional understanding of a system, its contributing parts, internal relationships and possible dangers within a multidisciplinary development team.