International Science Index

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

2095
57189
Eradication of Mental Illness through Buddhism
Abstract:
In this modern age, most people in developed and developing countries are affected by mental illness. There are many mental illnesses, and their differing symptoms impact peoples’ lives in different ways. These illnesses affect the way people think and feel, as well as how they behave with others. Mental illness results from compound interactions between the mind, body, and environment. Most health experts and researchers believe that mental illness typically results from an interaction between physical, environmental, and social factors. New technologies and sciences make the world a better place. These technologies are becoming smarter and are being developed every day to help make daily life easier However, people suffer from mental illness in every part of the world. The philosophy propounded by the Buddha, Buddhism, teaches that all life is connected, from the microcosm to macrocosm. In the 2,500 years that elapsed since the death of the Buddha, his disciples have spread his teachings and developed sophisticated psycho-therapeutic methodologies. We can find many examples in Buddhist texts and in the modern age where Buddhist philosophy modern science could not solve. The Noble Eightfold Path, which is one of the main philosophies of Buddhism, eradicates hatred and ill will and cultivates good deeds, kindness, and compassion. Buddhism, as a practice of dialectic conversation and mindfulness training, is full of rich therapeutic tools that the mental health community has adopted to help people. Similarly, Buddhist meditation is very necessary; it purifies thoughts and avoids unnecessary thinking This research aims to study different causes of mental illness; analyzes the different approaches to eradicate mental illness problems and provides conclusions and recommendations present solutions through Buddhism in this modern age.
2094
60441
Health Seeking Priorities and Their Reasons among the High-Hill People: an Ethnographic Study of Hyolmos
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Everyone wants to be away from illness but it is unavoidable and people choose the most effective alternative to get well soon. The objective of this paper is to investigate the priorities of health consumers to seek health recovery and its major reasons. Ethnographic study was carried out in January to March 2015 on an ethnic group, Hyolmos residing in Helambu, in high-hill of Sindhupalchok, Nepal by using a number of data gathering techniques such as key informants interview, focus group discussion, and participatory observation for qualitative information and household census for gathering socio-economic data. Health post, hospital, self-medication and traditional healers such as bhombos (faith healers) are under health seeking priorities. The major reasons of choosing any of them are the locales' education and awareness, socio-economic status, person's previous experiences, referral causes, urgency to treat, and availability/accessibility of health service providers. The cultural understanding and perception of illness is also a main reason of their choice.
2093
58737
Islamic Banking Adoption Model from Technology Prospective
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Islamic banking is an alternative solution to those people who are worried about Riba (interest) in all forms of transaction while using banking services and products. Today, banks around the world have Islamic banking services and products the in one form or another. The use of Islamic banking is not only restricted to Muslims world but have reached to non-Muslim countries like UK, USA, Australia and Canada as well. Compared to conventional banking, the adoption rate of Islamic banking is low because of unawareness of customers, financial cost, and performance issues. The interest in Islamic banking by financial institutions as well as low adoption rate motivated us to look this matter into detail in order to identify Critical Success Factors, which are positively motivating customers to use Islamic banking services/ products and Critical Risk Factors, which have significantly negative effect on the adoption of Islamic banking. The CSFs and CRFs will be initially identified from the literature using methodology called Systematic Literature Review, followed by the empirical analysis of these factors using survey research method. Later, we will develop Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM) to help banks to assess their Islamic banking strategic positioning and to improve their operational efficiency. The first potential contribution of this research study will be the development of IBAM protocol that will provide us guidelines for conducting our actual SLR. The second major contribution of this research will be the development of Islamic Banking Adoption Model (IBAM), and the third contribution of this research study will be the evaluation of the developed IBMA.
2092
60663
The Sound of Getting Closer: A Phenomenological Research of the Senses of Proximity and Touch
Abstract:
Closer is a wireless system developed from the “Design Research Lab” of the UdK Berlin that is able to detect the proximity and touch between two (or more) persons. We have been using this system for one performance and one installation: in both cases the proximity and touch events of the two participants have been sonified using the software Supercollider. In this paper we are going to focus on the actual experience of the participants involved, especially related to the awareness of their body, their level of proprioception and how they felt in their body and in connection with the other person. In order to give value to the lived experience of the participant, a phenomenological method described and developed by professor Claire Petitmengin has been used. This strategy allowed the interviewees to to become aware of their subjective experience, and describe it with great precision. This is essential in order to understand the actual state of consciousness of the users. Our aim is to research the senses of proprioception, touch and proximity: as they all involve a pre-reflective state of consciousness, they are central for the understanding of human perception. The interviews revealed how this experience can improve and increase proprioception and awareness of your own body.
2091
58724
Justitium: Endangered Species and Humanitarian Interventions in the Anthropocene Era
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This paper argues that humans have a collective moral responsibility to help wild animals during the Anthropocene era. Seen from the perspective of deontic logic, this moral responsibility did not exist in the Holocene era (ca. 11,700 BC-1945 AD) on account of humanity’s limited impact on the natural environment. By contrast in the Anthropocene, human activities are causing significant disturbances to planetary ecosystems and by inference to wildlife communities. Under these circumstances controversial and deeply regrettable interventional methods such as Managed Relocations (MR) and synthetic biology should be expanded and become policy measures despite their known and unknown risks. The main rationale for the above stems from the fact that traditional management strategies are simply insufficient in the Anthropocene. If the same anthropogenic activities continue unabated they risk triggering a sixth mass species extinction.
2090
57035
The Pioneering Model in Teaching Arabic as a Mother Tongue through Modern Innovative Strategies
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This study deals with two pioneering approaches in teaching Arabic as a mother tongue: first, computerization of literary and functional texts in the mother tongue; second, the pioneering model in teaching writing skills by computerization. The significance of the study lies in its treatment of a serious problem that is faced in the era of technology, which is the widening gap between the pupils and their mother tongue. The innovation in the study is that it introduces modern methods and tools and a pioneering instructional model that turns the process of mother tongue teaching into an effective, meaningful, interesting and motivating experience. In view of the Arabic language diglossia, standard Arabic and spoken Arabic, which constitutes a serious problem to the pupil in understanding unused words, and in order to bridge the gap between the pupils and their mother tongue, we resorted to computerized techniques; we took texts from the pre-Islamic period (Jahiliyya), starting with the Mu'allaqa of Imru' al-Qais and other selected functional texts and computerized them for teaching in an interesting way that saves time and effort, develops high thinking strategies, expands the literary good taste among the pupils, and gives the text added values that neither the book, the blackboard, the teacher nor the worksheets provide. On the other hand, we have developed a pioneering computerized model that aims to develop the pupil's ability to think, to provide his imagination with the elements of growth, invention and connection, and motivate him to be creative, and raise level of his scores and scholastic achievements. The model consists of four basic stages in teaching according to the following order: 1. The Preparatory stage, 2. The reading comprehension stage, 3. The writing stage, 4. The evaluation stage. Our lecture will introduce a detailed description of the model with illustrations and samples from the units that we built through highlighting some aspects of the uniqueness and innovation that are specific to this model and the different integrated tools and techniques that we developed. One of the most significant conclusions of this research is that teaching languages through the employment of new computerized strategies is very likely to get the Arabic speaking pupils out of the circle of passive reception into active and serious action and interaction. The study also emphasizes the argument that the computerized model of teaching can change the role of the pupil's mind from being a store of knowledge for a short time into a partner in producing knowledge and storing it in a coherent way that prevents its forgetfulness and keeping it in memory for a long period of time. Consequently, the learners also turn into partners in evaluation by expressing their views, giving their notes and observations, and application of the method of peer-teaching and learning.
2089
60522
Comparing Research Practice with Philosophical Theory: An Examination of Philosophical Assumptions in Happiness Studies
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Like all academic fields, happiness studies is riddled with philosophical assumptions affecting beliefs about what can and can’t be done in research, on all levels from the methods of data collection to the interpretation of results. If these assumptions were found to incorrect the implications for research practice could be considerable. While there is extensive reflection on methodologies within happiness studies on a practical level, more abstract questions are almost entirely ignored. While questions on philosophical assumptions fall under the jurisdiction of the long established philosophy of social science, I will show that the gulf between the philosopher’s theories on the aims and beliefs of quantitative social scientists and actual research practice is so vast as to resemble a caricature. The five major theories about social science within the philosophical debate differentiate themselves through their opposing positions on a small number of key issues. In this paper I will consider four of these issues, which can be summarised as the following questions: Is it possible to be objective? Is there a universal human nature? Does the social world have causal laws? What is social science supposed to accomplish? By examining publications on happiness, I attempted to use my perspective as a philosopher to infer answers to these question which would be consistent with the methodological choices they make. These I then contrasted with the answers given by the major theories in philosophy of social science. My main finding is that the philosophy of social science assumes that quantitative fields like happiness studies follow the aims of naturalism (as they depict it), that is of finding universal ahistorical laws. What researchers do in practice is quite different: happiness researchers avoid describing their results in terms of causation, let alone laws. Happiness for the most part is assumed to be a universal concept and while there is increasing interest in investigating cultural differences, the majority of research treats the relationships between different factors and happiness as being universal (a single global correlation is given). As for being objective, the extensive discussion of biases indicates that researchers acknowledge that objectivity is problematic. They see it as a goal to be strived for. However other considerations are ignored. While most of these happen not to affect happiness as much as other areas of social science, the use of variables that require models to quantify them (e.g. acceptance of homosexuality) are particularly problematic as these are rarely sufficiently referenced, so the subjective priorities of the model maker remain undisclosed. While the ambition to be of use to policy makers is answered by great political goodwill, due to the nature of actual policy making processes empirical findings are in practice largely ignored. My hope is that the paper might prompt researchers to reflect further on why they make the methodological choices that they do and perhaps even to motivate some to start a mutually benefited dialogue with the philosophers of social science.
2088
60720
Moving towards a General Definition of Public Happiness: A Grounded Theory Approach to the Recent Academic Research on Well-Being
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Abstract— Many authors from the field of Happiness Economics have tried to create an index to measure what is sometimes called happiness, well-being, quality of life or common good. As an alternative to the GDP measure of the progress of a country, some governments, public institutions and organizations around the world have created indicators, research and reports regarding the citizen’s happiness. An example of these are the Gross National Happiness of Bhutan, the UK’s measuring National Well-being Program, the OECD’s Better Life Index, some Eurobarometer studies, the Eurofound’s Quality of Life Survey, the World Happiness Report and many others included in this research. Although there is a growing interest in this area, happiness as a public concern is still an ambiguous concept hard to define. This investigation aims to determine the idea of happiness that originates from the indexes that study it. Through the Scoping Review method, this study identifies the recent academic research in this field (a total of 267 documents between 2006 and 2016) from some of the most popular social sciences databases around the world –Web of Science, Scopus, JSTOR, Sage, EBSCO, IBSS and Google Scholar- and in Spain –ISOC and Dialnet-. These 267 documents referenced about 53 different indexes and researches. The Grounded Theory method has been applied to this sample in order to identify the main categories that the indexes use to define happiness. As a result, the general consensus about what happiness means has been extracted. The results show that happiness is a multi-dimensional concept, in which we can find several categories that appear in all the indexes analyzed. The differences between the indexes of the sample remain in the hierarchy they give to every category. For instance, for one index Equality is a category to take into account when studying happiness, but for another one, Equality is a subcategory inside a big category called Justice. The contribution of this investigation is not only that it offers a generic definition of public happiness, but it also makes operative this philosophical concept, facilitating the future research in this field.
2087
56161
Attitudes of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities towards Occupational Preferences
Abstract:
Integration of young adults with disabilities (YAWD) into workplaces provides an opportunity for social and occupational mobility, enabling them to financial independence. To enhance integration, it is important to understand their occupational preferences as well as the factors that influencing it such as demographic variables, self-assessed health, beliefs about work, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Planned behavior theory was chosen as a basis for this study. A cross-sectional study, based on preliminary sample of 37 YAWD who have been recognized by the National Insurance Institute and are engaged in a year of national service. The finding shows that most of the participants were single (97%) women (60%); average age was 22(+ 2) years, approximately half were secular. Most of the participants had disabilities resulting from CP (96%). Self-assessed health was correlated positively and significantly with behavioral intentions to work in the free market (r = .33, p = .05), and significant negative correlation with behavioral intentions to work in supported settings (r =.-40, p = .01), and sheltered settings (r =-.36, p = .03): individuals who perceived themselves as having more severe disabilities showed a greater tendency to choose a workplace with more rehabilitative inputs. Furthermore, women showed a greater tendency than men to perceive their disability as impairing their future intention to work: t (36) = 2.23, p < .05. Beliefs about work were positively associated with normative beliefs (r = .308, p = .06). The findings indicate that, especially with women, perceptions of health are related to occupational preferences. Moreover, the findings indicate that the relationship between subjective norms about work and normative beliefs about integrating in a workplace that prevail in the individual's environment affects occupational preferences. The contribution of the study lies in the development of new responses and interventions to encourage adults with disabilities to work.
2086
55668
Three Visions of a Conflict: The Case of La Araucania, Chile
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The article focuses on the analysis of three images of the last five years that represent different visions of social groups in the context of the so call “Conflicto Mapuche” in la Araucanía, Chile. Using a multimodal social semiotic approach, we analyze the meaning making of these images and the social groups strategies to achieve visibility and recognition in political contexts. We explore the making and appropriation of symbols and concepts and analyze the different strategies that groups use to built hegemonic views. Among these strategies, we compare the use of digital technologies in design these images and the influence of Chilean Estate's vision on the Mapuche political conflict. Finally, we propose visual strategies to improve basic conditions for dialogue and recognition among these groups.
2085
60037
Not Three Gods but One: Why Reductionism Does Not Serve Our Theological Discourse
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The triune nature of God is one of the most complex doctrines of Christianity, and its complexity is further compounded when one considers the incarnation. However, many of the difficulties and paradoxes associated with our idea of the divine arise from our adherence to reductionist ontology. In order to move our theological discourse forward, in respect to divine and human nature, a holistic interpretation of our profession of faith is necessary. The challenge of a holistic interpretation is that it questions our ability to make any statement about the genuine, ontological individuation of persons (both divine and human), and in doing so raises the issue of whether we are, ontologically, bound to descend in to a form of pan(en)theism. In order to address the ‘inevitable’ slide in to pan(en)theism. The impact of two forms of holistic interpretation, Boolean and Non-Boolean, on our concept of personhood will be examined. Whilst a Boolean interpretation allows for a greater understanding of the relational nature of the Trinity, it is the Non-Boolean interpretation which has greater ontological significance. A Non-Boolean ontology, grounded in our scientific understanding of the nature of the world, shows our quest for individuation rests not in ontological fact but in epistemic need, and that it is our limited epistemology that drives our need to divide that which is ontologically indivisible. This discussion takes place within a ‘methodological’, rather than ‘doctrinal’ approach to science and religion - examining assumptions and methods that have shaped our language and beliefs about key doctrines, rather than seeking to reconcile particular Christian doctrines with particular scientific theories. Concluding that Non-Boolean holism is the more significant for our doctrine is, in itself, not enough. A world without division appears much removed from the distinct place of man and divine as espoused in our creedal affirmation, to this end, several possible interpretations for understanding Non-Boolean human – divine relations are tentatively put forward for consideration.
2084
56759
The Impact of the Plagal Cadence on Nineteenth-Century Music
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Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, hymns in the Anglo-American tradition often ended with the congregation singing ‘amen,’ most commonly set to a plagal cadence. While the popularity of this tradition is well-known still today, this research presents the origins of this custom. In 1861, Hymns Ancient & Modern deepened this convention by concluding each of its hymns with a published plagal-amen cadence. Subsequently, hymnals from a variety of denominations throughout Europe and the United States heavily adopted this practice. By the middle of the twentieth century the number of participants singing this cadence had suspiciously declined; however, it was not until the 1990s that the plagal-amen cadence all but disappeared from hymnals. Today, it is rare for songs to conclude with the plagal-amen cadence, although instrumentalists have continued to regularly play a plagal cadence underneath the singers’ sustained finalis. After examining a variety of music theory treatises, eighteenth-century newspaper articles, manuscripts & hymnals from the last five centuries, and conducting interviews with a number of scholars around the world, this study presents the context of the plagal-amen cadence through its history. The association of ‘amen’ and the plagal cadence was already being discussed during the late eighteenth century, and the plagal-amen cadence only grew in attractiveness from that time forward, most notably in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Throughout this research, the music of Thomas Tallis, primarily through his Preces and Responses, is reasonably shown to be the basis for the high status of the plagal-amen cadence in nineteenth- and twentieth-century society. Tallis’s immediate influence was felt among his contemporary English composers as well as posterity, all of whom were well-aware of his compositional styles and techniques. More importantly, however, was the revival of his music in nineteenth-century England, which had a greater impact on the plagal-amen tradition. With his historical title as the father of English cathedral music, Tallis was favored by the supporters of the Oxford Movement. Thus, with society’s view of Tallis, the simple IV–I cadence he chose to pair with ‘amen’ attained a much greater worth in the history of Western music. A musical device such as the once-revered plagal-amen cadence deserves to be studied and understood in a more factual light than has thus far been available to contemporary scholars.
2083
59040
Getting Out of the Box: Tangible Music Production in the Age of Virtual Technological Abundance
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This paper seeks to explore the different ways in which music producers choose to embrace various levels of technology based on musical values, objectives, affordability, access and workflow benefits. Current digital audio production workflow is questioned. Engineers and music producers of today are increasingly divorced from the tangibility of music production. Making music no longer requires you to reach over and turn a knob. Ideas of authenticity in music production are being redefined. Calculations from the mathematical algorithm with the pretty pictures are increasingly being chosen over hardware containing transformers and tubes. Are mouse clicks and movements equivalent or inferior to the master brush strokes we are seeking to conjure? We are making audio production decisions visually by constantly looking at a screen rather than listening. Have we compromised our music objectives and values by removing the ‘hands-on’ nature of music making? DAW interfaces are making our musical decisions for us not necessarily in our best interests. Technological innovation has presented opportunities as well as challenges for education. What do music production students actually need to learn in a formalised education environment, and to what extent do they need to know it? In this brave new world of omnipresent music creation tools, do we still need tangibility in music production? Interviews with prominent Australian music producers that work in a variety of fields will be featured in this paper, and will provide insight in answering these questions and move towards developing an understanding how tangibility can be rediscovered in the next generation of music production.
2082
58795
Analysis of Relationship between Social Media Conversation and Mainstream Coverage to Mobilize Social Movement
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Social media has become an important source of information for public and media profession. Some social issues are raised by people on social media, and journalists pick up a story to report across the platform. This relationship between social media and mainstream media can sometimes drive public debate or stimulate social movement. The question remained to examine is in what situation social media conversation can raise awareness and stimulate change on public issues. This study addressed the question on communication pattern of social media conversation and social media buzz driving undercover issues to mainstream media and continuing to advocate social movement. In methodological terms, study findings are based on a content analysis of Facebook, Twitter, news websites and television media report that published 3 different case studies – saving Bruda whale, protest against government idea to downside office of knowledge management and development in Thailand, and dengue fever campaign. These case studies were chosen because they represented issues that most public does not pay much attention but during social media conversation, it stimulated public debate and called to action. This study found that 1) social media collective conversation can stimulate public debate and encourage movement in 3 levels – awareness, postpone the decision, and change making by policy makers. These levels depend on communication pattern by online users and media coverage. 2) The pattern of communication has to be designed to collaborate social media conversation, online influencer opinion, mainstream media coverage and call to action activities both online and offline to motivate social change. 3) Active citizen and participants from every side is positive approach and has the opportunity to drive change. On the contrary, negative debate without a solution will end up just awareness raising but cannot make any change. Thus, this result suggests that social media is a powerful platform for collective communication and setting public issues agenda for mainstream media. However, to succeed on social change level, social media should be used to mobilize an online movement to move offline too.
2081
59274
Significance of Monumental Heritage in India: A Case Study of Humayun Tomb
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Indian monuments have been spoken of as for variety, extent, completeness and beauty unsurpassed perhaps unequaled in world. India’s monumental heritage is a part and parcel of India today. The underlying issue with the monumental heritage in contemporary times is that these monuments suffered many times with various degrees of threats/ pressures which hampered their beauty. In the current situation, the urbanization policies for sustainable development and tourism management pay no attention to the basic point of conservation and protection of these cultural heritages rather they focus more on profit earned from these sites. Many times rich heritage is found balancing between conflicting pressures of conservation of heritage elements with sustainability and local economic development. There is a need of a new attitude to India’s independent and democratic ideology. The paper will enquire about the historical perspective by analyzing and understanding the importance of Mughal Architecture while focusing on Humayun Tomb while assessing the value and sentiment people attach to these monuments. It will also put the focus on the future of these monuments in the era of globalization and urbanization. The role of public and private authorities for conservation and sustainable development of these monuments. As well as assessing other facilities like toilets, parking, eatery joint, Museum with Display of structural representation and display of books, and a mobile shop. The research will be helpful in assessing the importance of heritage buildings whether they are a tool of enhancing ‘Tourism Industry’ for Central and State Government or really there is still some future of these monuments. Can we still consider these heritage sites as the integral part of our society in this urbanized world? The study will also analyze the attitude of the central and state government towards a building when it declared as a ‘World Heritage Site’. The study will also examine how the Youth and other aged generations append their sentimental values towards them, say (what is their purpose of coming to a heritage site, what makes them coming here, how they view this particular monument) Apart from this, probing the factors such as rapid growth of cities and its population, increasing value of urban land and effect of globalization on urban growth pattern that are capable of producing a variety of threats and pressures on any monument for instance Humayun Tomb.
2080
59437
Explaining the Impact of Poverty Risk on Frailty Trajectories in Old Age Using Growth Curve Models
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Research has often found poverty associated with adverse health outcomes, but it is unclear which (interplay of) mechanisms actually translate low economic resources into poor physical health. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of educational, material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in explaining the poverty-health association in old age. We analysed 28,360 observations from 11,390 community-dwelling respondents (65+) from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, 2004-2013, 10 countries). We used multilevel growth curve models to assess the impact of combined income- and asset poverty risk on old age frailty index levels and trajectories. In total, 61.8% of the variation of poverty risk on frailty levels could be explained by direct and indirect effects, thereby highlighting the role of material and particularly psychosocial factors, such as perceived control and social isolation. We suggest strengthening social policy and public health efforts in order to fight poverty and its deleterious effects from early age on and to broaden the scope of interventions with regard to psychosocial factors.
2079
56122
A Geogpraphic Overview about Offshore Energy Cleantech in Portugal
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Environmental technologies were developed for decades. Clean technologies emerged a few years ago. In these perspectives, the use of cleantech technologies has become very important due the fact of new era of environmental feats. As such, the market itself has become more competitive, more collaborative towards a better use of clean technologies. This paper shows the importance of clean technologies in offshore energy sector in Portuguese market, its localization and its impact on economy. Clean technologies are directly related with renewable cluster and concomitant with economic and social resource optimization criteria, geographic aspects, climate change and soil features. Cleantech is related with regional development, socio-technical transitions in organisations. There are an economical and social combinations which allow specialisation of regions in activities, higher employment, reduce of energy costs, local knowledge spillover and, business collaboration and competitiveness. The methodology used will be quantitative (IO matrix for Portugal 2013) and qualitative (questionnaires to stakeholders). The mix of both methodologies will confirm whether the use of technologies will allow a positive impact on economic and social variables used on this model. It is expected a positive impact on Portuguese economy both in investment and employment taking in account the localization of offshore renewable activities. This means that the importance of offshore renewable investment in Portugal has a few points which should be pointed out: the increase of specialised employment, localization of specific activities in territory, and increase of value added in certain regions. The conclusion will allow researchers and organisation to compare the Portuguese model to other European regions in order to a better use of natural and human resources.
2078
58447
Evolution of Economic Urban Spaces: Barcelona's Trafalgar Garment District, 1940-2017
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Cities are steadily transforming their productive systems based on value-adding strategies, with the aim of becoming more competitive in a globalized economy. This fact is reflected in inner urban spaces which are increasingly accommodating new economic activities related to knowledge, culture, creativity, and tourism, to the detriment of traditional activities. This is the case of the Trafalgar Garment District (TGD), located in Barcelona´s Eixample Dret neighborhood, an economic urban space historically devoted to the garment wholesale trade. This district is currently experiencing the transformation of its traditional economic specialization. In the last 50 years, external and internal factors have caused, firstly, the disintegration of the Catalonian garment regional cluster. This has resulted in the closure of the majority of metropolitan garment workshops. Secondly, this has also caused either the disappearance of wholesale firms or their relocation to more suitable spaces in the metropolitan area. Specifically, the TGD's economic restructuration is related to the attraction of firms related to the lodging industry and the new economy. In addition, some of the wholesale businesses are adopting new management strategies in order to remain in the TGD. These initiatives are thought to allow them, on one hand, to upgrade their products and, on the other, to reconfigure their internal organization in order to be more competitive.
2077
58820
Exploring the Link between Intangible Capital and Urban Economic Development: The Case of Three UK Core Cities
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In the context of intense global competitiveness and urban transformations, today’s cities are faced with enormous challenges. There is increasing pressure among cities and regions to respond promptly and efficiently to fierce market progressions, to offer a competitive advantage, higher flexibility, and to be pro-active in creating future markets. Consequently, competition among cities and regions within the dynamics of a worldwide spatial economic system is growing fiercer, amplifying the importance of intangible capital in shaping the competitive and dynamic economic performance of organisations and firms. Accordingly, this study addresses how intangible capital influences urban economic development within an urban environment. Despite substantial research on the economic, and strategic determinants of urban economic development this multidimensional phenomenon remains to be one of the greatest challenges for economic geographers. The research provides a unique contribution, exploring intangible capital through the lenses of entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital. Drawing on business surveys and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in the case of the three UK Core Cities Birmingham, Bristol and Cardiff. This paper critically considers how entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital is a crucial source of competitiveness and urban economic development. This paper deals with questions concerning the complexity of operationalizing ‘network capital’ in different urban settings and the challenges that reside in characterising its effects. The paper will highlight the role of institutions in facilitating urban economic development. Particular emphasis will be placed on exploring the roles formal and informal institutions have in delivering, supporting and nurturing entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital, to facilitate urban economic development. Discussions will then consider how institutions moderate and contribute to the economic development of urban areas, to provide implications in terms of future policy formulation in the context of large and medium sized cities.
2076
58721
Unravelling the Procedural Obligations of the Administration in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights
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The observance of procedural rights by administrative authorities is essential for the effective implementation of subjective rights and is part and parcel of the notion of good governance. Whilst a lot of legal scholarship addresses the scope and content of such rights under the European Union legal framework, a very limited attention is given to their application in the case law of European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) despite its growing engagement with the subject. This paper written as a part of a wider project on the development of pan-European principles of good administration by the Council of Europe aims to fill this lacuna. This will be done by delimiting the scope and extent of individual procedural safeguards through an analysis of the practice of the ECtHR. The right to be heard, the right to access the files and the right to a decision in reasonable time by administrative authorities will be selected as loci classici for the purpose of this article. The results presented in the paper should contribute to the awareness of growing body of ECtHR’s case-law revolving around administrative procedural law and the growing debate on the notion of good governance found therein within academic community.
2075
58866
The Using of Social Marketing Approach for Conducting Anti-Corruption Campaign: A Review of Literature
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The paper aims to identify and examine the effectiveness of social marketing as an approach for conducting anti-corruption campaign. Social marketing has been widely used to promote social change for the benefit of individual and society; such as for promoting healthy foods consumption, encouraging breastfeeding, reducing smoking, solving alcohol problem and drunk driving. Therefore, it is believed that this approach can be promising to be used in anti-corruption campaign. It is because social marketing can be useful of prompting people to act in accordance to the existing norms that denounce corruption, or help to establish new norms that more averse to corruption. It has established into evidence and insight based approaches to social campaign that focus on changing people’s behavior. Qualitative approach will be used in this study, with the using of literature review and secondary data analysis as the research methods. This paper is still on preliminary stage, which its results is expected to provide fundamental basis for designing model of intervention (anti-corruption campaign) using social marketing approaches.
2074
56789
Influencers of E-Learning Readiness among Palestinian Secondary School Teachers: An Explorative Study
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This paper reports on the results of an exploratory factor analysis procedure applied on the e-learning readiness data obtained from a survey of four hundred and seventy-nine (N = 479) teachers from secondary schools in Nablus, Palestine. The data were drawn from a 23-item Likert questionnaire measuring e-learning readiness based on Chapnick's conception of the construct. Principal axis factoring (PAF) with Promax rotation applied on the data extracted four distinct factors supporting four of Chapnick's e-learning readiness dimensions, namely technological readiness, psychological readiness, infrastructure readiness and equipment readiness. Together these four dimensions explained 56% of the variance. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the items and for the existence of these four factors that measure e-learning readiness.
2073
60178
The Inner and Outer School Contextual Factors Associated with Poor Performance of Grade 12 Students: A Case Study of an Underperforming Rural High School in Mpumalanga, South Africa
Abstract:
Often grade 12 certificate is perceived as a passport to tertiary education and the minimum requirement to enter the world of work. In spite of its importance, many students do not make this milestone in South Africa. It is important to find out why so many students still fail in spite of transformation in the education system in the post-Apartheid era. Given the complexity of education and its context, this study adopted a case study design to examine one historically underperforming high school in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga Province, in South Africa in 2013. The aim was to gain a holistic understanding of the inner and outer school contextual factors associated with the high rate of failing among grade 12 students. Governmental documents and reports were consulted to identify factors in the district and the village surrounding the school and a student survey was conducted to identify the school, family and student factors. Randomly sampled half of the population of grade 12 students (53) participated in the survey. The quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistical methods. The findings showed that a host of factors is at play. The school is located in an economically disadvantaged village with inadequate infrastructure and high level of the unemployment rate (70%); and operates under a poorly performing education district for years. Half of the families of the students are single parents, 43% are unemployed and the majority have low education. Amazingly most families (83%) do not have basic study materials such as dictionaries, books, tables, and chairs. A significant number of students (70%) are over-aged (+19 years old), close to half of them (49%) are grade repeaters and many have poor study habits and negative attitude towards their teachers. The school itself lacks essential resources i.e. computers, science labs, library, and enough furniture and textbooks. Moreover, teaching and learning are negatively affected by teachers’ occasional absenteeism, teachers’ inadequate lesson preparations, and poor communication skills. Overall, the continuous low performance of students in this school mirrors the vicious cycle of multiple negative conditions present within and outside of the school. Therefore, it is not just the teachers and the school that contribute to the failing of students but also factors which are beyond their jurisdiction and control. The complexity of factors associated with the underperformance of grade 12 students in this school calls for a multi-dimensional intervention from government and stakeholders. One important intervention should be the placement of over-aged students and grade-repeaters in suitable educational institutions for the benefit of other students.
2072
60439
Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences and Attitude towards Children’S Problem Solving Strategies in Early Mathematics Learning
Abstract:
Problem solving is an important way of learning way of learning because it propels children to use previous experiences to deal with new situations. The purpose of this study is to find out the attitude of pre-service teachers to problem solving as a strategy for promoting early mathematics learning in children. This qualitative study employed a descriptive design to investigate the experiences of twenty second-year undergraduate early childhood education Pre-service teachers in a teaching practice and their attitude towards five-year old children’s problem solving strategies in mathematics. Pre-service teachers were exposed to different strategies for teaching children how to solve problems in mathematics. They were taken through a micro teaching in class using different strategies to teach problem solving in different topics in the five year old mathematics curriculum. The students were then made to teach five-year-olds in neighbouring schools for three weeks, working in pairs, observing and recording children’s problem solving activities and strategies. After the three weeks exercise, their experiences and attitude towards children’s problem solving strategies were collected using open ended questions and analysed in themes. Findings were discussed.
2071
60516
The Effect of a Theoretical and Practical Training Program on Student Teachers’ Acquisition of Objectivity in Self-Assessments
Abstract:
Constructivism in teacher education is growing tremendously in both the developed and developing world. Proponents of constructivism emphasize active engagement of students in the teaching and learning process. In an effort to keep students engaged while they learn to learn, teachers use a variety of methods to incorporate constructivism in the teaching-learning situations. One area that has a potential for realizing constructivism in the classroom is self-assessment. Sadly, students are rarely involved in the assessment of their own work. Instead, the most knowing teacher dominates this process. Yet, student involvement in self-assessments has a potential to teach student teachers to become objective assessors of their students’ work by the time they become credentialed. This is important, as objectivity in assessments is a much needed skill in the classroom contexts within which teachers deal with students from diverse backgrounds and in which biased assessments should be avoided at all cost. The purpose of the study presented in this paper was to investigate whether student teachers acquired the skills of administering self-assessments objectively after they had been immersed in a formal training program and participated in four sets of self-assessments. The objectives were to determine the extent to which they had mastered the skills of objective self-assessments, their growth and development in this area, and the challenges they encountered in administering self-assessments objectively. The research question was: To what extent did student teachers acquire objectivity in self-assessments after their theoretical and practical engagement in this activity? Data were collected from student teachers through participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The design was a qualitative case study. The sample consisted of 39 final-year student teachers enrolled in a Bachelor of Education teacher education program at a university in South Africa. Results revealed that the formal training program and participation in self-assessments had a minimal effect on students’ acquisition of objectivity in self-assessments, due to the factors associated with self-aggrandizement and hegemony, the latter resulting from gender, religious and racial differences. These results have serious implications for the need to incorporate self-assessments in the teacher-education curriculum, as well as for extended formal training programs for student teachers on assessment in general.
2070
57020
Shakespeare's Hamlet in Ballet: Transformation of an Archival Recording of a Neoclassical Ballet Performance into a Contemporary Transmodern Dance Video Applying Postmodern Concepts and Techniques
Authors:
Abstract:
This four-year artistic research project hosted by the University of New England, Australia has set the goal to experiment with non-conventional ways of presenting a language-based narrative in dance using insights of recent theoretical writing on performance, addressing the research question: How to transform an archival recording of a neoclassical ballet performance into a new artistic dance video by implementing postmodern philosophical concepts? The Creative Practice component takes the form of a dance video Hamlet Revisited which is a reworking of the archival recording of the neoclassical ballet Hamlet, augmented by new material, produced using resources, technicians and dancers of the Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb. The methodology for the creation of Hamlet Revisited consisted of extensive field and desk research after which three dancers were shown the recording of original Hamlet and then created their artistic response to it based on their reception and appreciation of it. The dancers responded differently, based upon their diverse dancing backgrounds and life experiences. They began in the role of the audience observing video of the original ballet and transformed into the role of the choreographer-performer. Their newly recorded material was edited and juxtaposed with the archival recording of Hamlet and other relevant footage, allowing for postmodern features such as aleatoric content, synchronicity, eclecticism and serendipity, that way establishing communication on a receptive reader-response basis, thus blending the roles of the choreographer, performer and spectator, creating an original work of art whose significance lies in the relationship and communication between styles, old and new choreographic approaches, artists and audiences and the transformation of their traditional roles and relationships. In editing and collating, the following techniques were used with the intention to avoid the singular narrative: fragmentation, repetition, reverse-motion, multiplication of images, split screen, overlaying X-rays, image scratching, slow-motion, freeze-frame and simultaneity. Key postmodern concepts considered were: deconstruction, diffuse authorship, supplementation, simulacrum, self-reflexivity, questioning the role of the author, intertextuality and incredulity toward grand narratives - departing from the original story, thus personalising its ontological themes. From a broad brush of diverse concepts and techniques applied in an almost prescriptive manner, the project focuses on intertextuality that proves to be valid on at least two levels. The first is the possibility of a more objective analysis in combination with a semiotic structuralist approach moving from strict relationships between signs to a multiplication of signifiers, considering the dance text as an open construction, containing the elusive and enigmatic quality of art that leaves the interpretive position open. The second one is the creation of the new work where the author functions as the editor, aware and conscious of the interplay of disparate texts and their sources which co-act in the mind during the creative process. It is argued here that the eclectic combination of the old and new material through constant oscillations of different discourses upon the same topic resulted in a transmodern integrationist recent work of art that might be applied as a model for reconsidering existing choreographic creations.
2069
59810
Bridging the Gaping Levels of Information Entree for Visually Impaired Students in the Sri Lankan University Libraries
Abstract:
Education is a key determinant of future success, and every person deserves non-discriminant access to information for educational inevitabilities in any case. Analysing and understanding complex information is a crucial learning tool, especially for students. In order to compete equally with sighted students, visually impaired students require the unhinged access to access to all the available information resources. When the education of visually impaired students comes to a focal point, it can be stated that visually impaired students encounter several obstacles and barriers before they enter the university and during their time there as students. These obstacles and barriers are spread across technical, organizational and social arenas. This study reveals the possible approaches to absorb and benefit from the information provided by the Sri Lankan University Libraries for visually impaired students. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample visually impaired students attached to the Sri Lankan National universities. There are 07 National universities which accommodate the visually impaired students and with the identified data, they were selected for this study and 80 visually impaired students were selected as the sample group. Descriptive type survey method was used to collect data. Structured questionnaires, interviews and direct observation were used as research instruments. As far as the Sri Lankan context spread is concerned, visually impaired students are able to finish their courses through their own determination to overcome the barriers they encounter on their way to graduation, through moral and practical support from their own friends and very often through a high level of creativity. According to the findings there are no specially trained university librarians to serve visually impaired users and less number of assistive technology equipment are available at present. This paper enables all university libraries in Sri Lanka to be informed about the social isolation of visually compromised students at the Sri Lankan universities and focuses on the rectification issues by considering their distinct case for interaction.
2068
60013
The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.
2067
60208
Correlation Analysis between Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS), Meares-Irlen Syndrome (MIS) and Dyslexia
Abstract:
Students with sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), Meares-Irlen Syndrome (MIS) and dyslexia can become overwhelmed and struggle to thrive in traditional tertiary learning environments. An estimated 50% of tertiary students who disclose learning related issues are dyslexic. This study explores the relationship between SPS, MIS and dyslexia. Baseline measures will be analysed to establish any correlation between these three minority methods of information processing. SPS is an innate sensitivity trait found in 15-20% of the population and has been identified in over 100 species of animals. Humans with SPS are referred to as Highly Sensitive People (HSP) and the measure of HSP is a 27 point self-test known as the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS). A 2016 study conducted by the author established base-line data for HSP students in a tertiary institution in New Zealand. The results of the study showed that all participating HSP students believed the knowledge of SPS to be life-changing and useful in managing life and study, in addition, they believed that all tutors and in-coming students should be given information on SPS. MIS is a visual processing and perception disorder that is found in approximately 10% of the population and has a variety of symptoms including visual fatigue, headaches and nausea. One way to ease some of these symptoms is through the use of colored lenses or overlays. Dyslexia is a complex phonological based information processing variation present in approximately 10% of the population. An estimated 50% of dyslexics are thought to have MIS. The study exploring possible correlations between these minority forms of information processing is due to begin in February 2017. An invitation will be extended to all first year students enrolled in degree programmes across all faculties and schools within the institution. An estimated 900 students will be eligible to participate in the study. Participants will be asked to complete a battery of on-line questionnaires including the Highly Sensitive Person Scale, the International Dyslexia Association adult self-assessment and the adapted Irlen indicator. All three scales have been used extensively in literature and have been validated among many populations. All participants whose score on any (or some) of the three questionnaires suggest a minority method of information processing will receive an invitation to meet with a learning advisor, and given access to counselling services if they choose. Meeting with a learning advisor is not mandatory, and some participants may choose not to receive help. Data will be collected using the Question Pro platform and base-line data will be analysed using correlation and regression analysis to identify relationships and predictors between SPS, MIS and dyslexia. This study forms part of a larger three year longitudinal study and participants will be required to complete questionnaires at annual intervals in subsequent years of the study until completion of (or withdrawal from) their degree. At these data collection points, participants will be questioned on any additional support received relating to their minority method(s) of information processing. Data from this study will be available by April 2017.
2066
60701
Effects of Social Stories toward Social Interaction of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asd)
Abstract:
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a psychiatric disorder associated with children development, language, social and behavioral problems. As a result, they had been developmental disabilities, cannot play with their friends and also lack of build relationships with others. All problems are social interaction which a part of children with autism's problems. Social Stories, which Carol Gray has created for children with autism’s method to understanding of society. It’s a technique of short stories focused on understanding and guiding the implementation of social-related in each children issue. Thus, it is interesting to study the effects of using social stories on the social interaction of students with ASD. In order to making they can understand the different situations in society and can be improving their social interaction appropriately. The target group was a student with autism who was studying in inclusive classroom, level six at Demonstration School, Khon Kaen University. The research instruments consist of; plan of social stories and picture’s books of social stories. The instruments of collected data; assessment of social interaction and monitoring social stories of students with ASD. The result; after using social stories gave students with ASD can be increased social interaction significantly.